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The Learner's 




B . A. Lapidus and S. V. Shevtsova 

with Foreword 

and article on orthography by 

Morris Halle 


Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Copyright © 1963 


The Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

All Rights Reserved 

Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 63-21744 
Printed in The United States of America 


The Russian Alphabet iv 

Foreword, by Morris Halle v 

Dictionaries Used in Compiling this Book vii 

How to Use the Dictionary viii 

List of Signs xx 

Abbreviations Used in the Dictionary xxi 

Vocabulary 1 

Grammar Tables and Lists of Suffixes 549 

Grammar Tables 551 

List of Suffixes : 

A. Inflectional Endings 601 

B. Word-Forming Suffixes 613 
A Guide to Russian Pronunciation, by V. A. Vassilyev 629 
Essay on the Relationship between Russian Sounds and 

Letters, by Morris Halle 681 

The Russian Alphabet 




Sound Values 

12 3 4 5 6 7 

8 9 



[a, A, 9, — i^ — I 

- i'] 



[b. b^ p, p^] 



[V, v^ f, p] 



[g. g^ k, k^] 



[d, d^ t, t''] 



[e, ve, 9, ya, i^.yi®, i, 

yi, n 



[zh,zh^:,sh, — ] 



[z, z^, s, s^] 



[i, i] 






[k, k^ g, g^] 



[I 1^1 



[m, m''] 



[n, n^] 



[o, A, a] 



[p. P^ b. b^l 



[r, r^] 



[s, s\ z, z^] 



t. t^ d. d^] 






f, f^ V. v^l 



[kh, kh^ gh, — 1 



[\s, - , d7. -] 



[ch^ch^ j^ j^] 



[sh, — , zh, -- 1 



[sh^:,sh^:, zh^:,zh^:l 















[u, yu] 



[a, ya, a, ya, i^ yi®, i 

. yil 


There has long been a need for a dictionary designed especially 
for the English-speaking student who seeks to gain active 
mastery of Russian. Such a student needs much more than the 
one or two synonyms, sporadically supplemented by idiomatic 
expressions, that are found in most foreign language dictionaries. 
He needs detailed indications about how each Russian word is 
inflected and about its accentuation in the various inflected forms. 
He also needs to be told as much as possible about the usage of 
the different words, for words in one language are only too often 
used quite differently than their nearest synonynis in a second 
language. Information of this type has hitherto been available 
only in multivolume dictionaries, which are expensive, hard to 
handle, and, moreover, not being compiled with an English- 
speaking user in mind, frequently fail to discuss difficulties that 
would be encountered by such a user. 

This dictionary was planned especially to meet the needs out- 
lined, and the compilers have successfully achieved their objec- 
tive. Their selection of entries for inclusion in the dictionary is 
consistently sound. They have managed to cover quite fully 
the everyday vocabulary of the educated speaker of current 
standard Russian. Their choice of examples to illustrate the 
use of different words is excellent. They have paid special 
attention to phrase units, idioms, and compound words whose 
meaning, though self-evident to the native speaker of Russian, 
presents difficulties to the English-speaking student. Finally, 
they have provided extensive information about the inflection 
of the words and about their accentual peculiarities. The value 
of the dictionary is further enhanced by the supplement, which 
contains elaborate grammatical tables, lists of inflectional and 
derivational suffixes, a detailed "Guide to Russian Pronuncia- 
tion," and an essay on the relationship between Russian sounds 


and letters. In short, the English-speaking student of Russian 
has here a most useful and badly needed tool. May I express 
the hope that it will lessen the drudgery and increase the pleasure 
of those who have set out on the by no means smooth road of 
mastering the tongue of Pushkin, Tolstoi, and Dostoevski. 

Morris Halle 

Cambridge 1963 

Dictionaries Used in Compiling This Book 

Cjioeapb pyccKoro HSbiio b qexbipex TOMax. AKaAeMHJi 
HayKCCCP, HHCTHTyT pyccKoro HSbiKa. MocKBa. 1957 — 1961. 

C. H. OxceroB. CJiosapb pyccKoro nabiKa, hsa. 4-e. 
MocKBa. 1960. 

PyccKoe jiHTepaTypHoe npoHSHomeHne h yAapenne. Gjio- 
Bapb-cnpaBoqHHK no;; peziaKHHefi P. H. ABaHecosa h 
C. H, OjKeroBa. MocKBa. 1959. 

PyccKO-aHrjiHHCKHH cjioBapb no;; oSiuhm pyicoBOACTBOM 
npoc|). A. H. CMHpHHUKoro, U3ji. 3-e. MocKBa. 1958. 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, 
Fourth Ed, Revised by E. Mcintosh, Oxford, 1954. 

Webster's New V/orld Dictionary of the American 
Language. Cleveland and New York, 1957. 

The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English 
by A. S. Hornby, E. V. G a t e n b y, H. Wakefield, 
London, 1958.? 

Thorndike-Barnhart Comprehensive Desk Dic- 
tionary, London, 1952. 

Chambers's Compact English Dictionary, Edited by 
A. M. Macdonald, London and Edinburgh, 1954. 

A. R eu m. A Dictionary of English Style. Zweite Auf- 
lage. Leverkusen, 1955. 

Kenkyusha's New Simplified English Dictionary 
(English Through English), Tokyo. 

P. M. Roget. Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, 
London, 1954. 

The Nuttall Dictionary of English Synonyms and Anto- 
nyms, Edited by G. E. Christ, London and New 
York, 1960. 



All the Russian words in this dictionary are entered in 
strictly alphabetical order. Each head-word is given in 
full with the stress mark ' placed over the stressed vowel. 
It is followed by the transcription. (For details on tran- 
scription see A Guide to Russian Pronunciation, p. 629). 
The grammatical notes are given after the transcription. 

The ptft-of -speech designations •are adv, int, cj, etc. 
Nouns are designated by m, f, n, or pi (pi is reserved for 
cases when the noun has no singular), and verbs, by 
imperf or perf. Following the part-of-speech designations 
are the requisite grammatical word forms. (For details of 
grammatical word forms see chapters on the noun, adjec- 
tive, numeral, pronoun, and verb, pp. XIII— XIX). 

Stress. All polysyllabic head-words and derivatives 
standing separately or occurring in phrases and sentences 
bear the stress mark ' over the stressed vowel. An excep- 
tion is made for the sound represented by the letter 
*'e", which is only used in stressed syllables and therefore 
bears no stress. 

Monosyllabic words are accented only in contextual use 
when the stress is shifted from the sense word to the form- 

Mopje [mor^a] n -h, pi -», -eft sea; Ha Mope at 

Homonyms (words that have the same pronunciation 
and spelling, but different meanings) are listed as sepa- 
rate entries. Each entry is followed by a standard Roman 
numeral to remind the consultant to look up the other 
entry (or entries) with the same spelling, should he fail 
to find the information he is seeking under the first one. 
noji I [pol] m -a (-y), pi -u, -6b floor {of a room). 
noji II [pol] m -a, pi -u, -6b biol sex;... 

Homoforms (words that have the same pronuncia- 

-- IX ~ 

tion in one or more grammatical forms) are treated in 
the same way as homonyms. 

AHCM I [d^n^om] adv by day,... 

HHCM II [d^n^om] see AeHb. 

Labels. Usage and subject labels will follow the 
grammatical notes of the word if they refer to the word 
as a whole. 

6a61a [baba] / -bi, ~ col 1. woman; 2.... 

Should any of these restrictive labels refer to but one 
of the meanings, they will be placed after the bold-type 
Arabic numeral introducing the particular meaning. 

rHnc [g^ips, -bz] m -a 1. min gypsum; 2. plaster 
(of Paris); 3. med plaster cast. 

If this meaning can be rendered in several ways in 
English and the English equivalents are separated by sem- 
icolons, the label following the bold-type Arabic nu- 
meral will refer to the whole set of equivalents. 

KOMaHflHp [k9mAn^d^ir] m -a, -ob 1. commander; 
2. mil commander, commanding officer; captain; leader. 

Notes on Type and Arrangement. The head- 
word is given in boldface type. The vertical line | in it 
separates the unchanging part of the head-word in the entry; 
what is left in most cases does not coincide with the suf- 
fix or the ending in the strict sense of the word. 

Mcxejilb [m^i^t^eP] / -h -eft snow-storm. 
[Read: Mexejib... MeiejiH, MCTeJiefl...] 

The absence of the vertical line will indicate that in 
the entry the head -word does not change. 

To save space a swung dash ^ is used for the unchang- 
ing part of the head -word or for the whole head -word if 
the latter has no vertical line. 

MarasiiH [magAz^in] m -a, -cb 1. shop, store; ynn- 
BepcajibHbiH ~ department shop / store; .. . 

sanafl [zapat, -d] m -a west; na ~e in the west;... 

In entries having more than one word in boldface 
type a swung dash refers only to the first of these. 

roBOp|HTb [g9vAr^it^] imperf -i6, -Huib, p -hji, imp 
-H, no|roBopHTb [pagavAr'^it^] perf, CKasjarb [skAzat^] 
pert ckaHcy, cKajKeujb, p -aji, imp CKajKji 1. \no perf) 

X - 

speak, talk {say words); ^htb no-pyccKH speak Russian; 

~i'iT MocKBa this is Moscow calling;... 

[Read: roBopHTb no-pyccKH...; roBopHT MocKsa...] 

Hafl [nat...l, Haflo [nada...] prep with instr... over; 
above; -~ ropoAOM over the town;... Ha^o mhoh above 
me; . . . 

The meanings of each head-word .are indicated by bold- 
type Arabic numerals with a full stop. 

Each part-of-speech designation within one entry is intro- 
duced in a new paragraph by a bold-type Roman numeral. 

HHane [inach^i] & HHawe [inach^i] I adv differently, 
in another way; 
II cj or (else), otherwise;... 

KcxaxH [kstat^'i] I adv\. to the point, opportunely;... 
2. at the same time, while one is about it; 
n parenth by the way, by the by. 

If a phrase or combination has more than one meaning, 
these meanings are introduced by standard Arabic numer- 
als with a bracket. 

pocT [rost, -zd] m -a (-y) 1. growth... 
<^ BO Becb ^ 1) upright [of standing); 2) full-length 
(portrait); 3) fig in all its magnitude {of a problem 
facing smb, etc). 

Idiomatic phrases, proverbs, etc, are given in bold- 
face type after the m.ain entry which is closed by a 
"rhombus" <>. Examples illustrating idiomatic phrases are 
given, wherever practicable, in standard type. 

jiaep [lavr] m -a, -oBbot laurel, bay(-tree); 
-0* nojKHHaTb —M reap' laurels; noHHTb Ha '-ax rest 
on one's laurels. 

jiHUib [l^'ish, -zh] I part...; 
«0> ~ 6bi if only; -- 6u yexaib ceroAHH if only I 
could leave today. 

To save space, square brackets ( ] are used, which make 
it possible to introduce into a given expression a new non- 
synonymous element without repeating the whole expression: 

6hc [b^is, -z]... HcnojiHHTb [nexb, Hrpaib u m. n.] 
Ha — perform [sing, play, etc] an encore. 
[Read: HcnojiHHTb na 6hc perform an encore; neib Ha 
6hc sing an encore; Hrpaxb aa 6hc play an encorej 

- XI - 

In instances when square brackets appear only in 
the English equivalent, it means that the Russian 
phrase has several meanings which can be rendered in 
English by substituting one of the words in the particular 

ecjiH [yes^'l^'i] cj if... ~ noexaxb k HeMy cePmac, to 
MOH^Ho sacraTb ero if you [we, I] go to his place now 
you [we, I] will find him at home. 

Square brackets are also used to point out the grammat- 
ical origin of a word. 

3aKJiK)HeHH I biH [zakl^uch^onuiyl m [pa] -oro, -bix pris- 
oner, convict. 
The noun "saKJiioqeHHbift" is a substantivized participle. 
Parentheses indicate optional elements of a word or 
word-combination given in Roman type. 

x(aBopoH|oK [zhavaranak, -g] m -Ka, -kob (sky)lark. 
jiexa [l^'i^ia] pi Jiex, -m 1.: ... eiviy UHTb jiex he is five 
(years old);... 

Italics in parentheses following an English word serve 
to specify or restrict its meaning. (For methods of restrict- 
ing meaning see p. XII). 

The italicized explanation refers to the word or words 
immediately after the nearest preceding semicolon. 

All form and stress variations are given in parentheses. 

jiec [l^es, -z] m -a (-y), pi -a, -6b 1. woodland, 
wood(s), forest;... 
jiHnH|yTb [l^ipnut^I imperf -ex, p j\wn (-yji) stick... 
HCKpeHH|HH [iskr^m^n^'iy] a shf HCKpeneH, -a -e(-o), 
-H (-bi) sincere, frank;... 
Words used preferably or exclusively in set phrases or 
combinations are punctuated by a colon which is followed 
by the set phrase now in current usage. The English equiv- 
alent is given after the set phrase. 

rpe4HeB|biH [gr^ech^n^ivtyl a: —an Kpyna buckwheat; 
'-aH Kama buckwheat porridge. 

rpoM [grom] m -a, pi -bi, -6b 1. thunder; 2.: — an- 
jio;;HCMeHXOB a storm of applause;... 

Restrictions of Meaning. Methods: 
1) Obvious synonyms. For instance, the Russian word"Jio>Kb'* 
is translated as "lie, falsehood". The word "falsehood" 


shows that the word "lie" means here not "direction, po- 
sition" or "the state of affairs", but "a false statement". 

2) Subject labels, e. g. econ, mil, etc. Thus "ji6>Ka" is ren- 
dered as "box", the label theat showing that "box" means 
"a small boxlike space with chairs at a theatre", and not 
"a container made of wood, etc, to put things in". 

3) Designation of the grammatical construction in which the 
word (or one of its meanings) is used: 

MHoro [mnoga] I adv... 2. with comp much;... 

4) Explanations given parenthetically in italic type imme- 
d'ately after the English word. These parentheses may con- 
tain a preposition specifying the meaning of the English 
equivalent, word combinations, short descriptions, etc. 

jiOKJaxb [l^i^zhat^] imperf... 1. lie (m a horizontal 
position)-, be {in some place, said of things)',... 

jtajieKiMH [dAlMk^iy] a... 2. \ong{way, journey, etc);... 

Kapn [karp -b] m -a, -ob carp {an edible freshwater 

jiaAOHJb [Udon^] / -h, eft palm {of the hand). 

njiox|6H [pUkhoy] I a... bad {1) opposite of good; 
2) smell, etc;... 

saBHBlaTbcji [zav^ivattsa] imperf... 1. curl / frizzle 
one's hair; have on2's hair curled / frizzled; 2. curl, 
wave {of hair). 

The explanation indicates that "curl" means "to be in curls", 
and not "play at curling", on the one hand, or "to make 
into curls", on the other; the transitive verb would have 
been marked "curl, wave {hair)". 

3arjiflAbiB|aTb [zAgl^adtvat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib,... 
1. peep in, peep {into);... 

The italicized preposition "into" shows that "peep" does 
not mean here "come into view". 

If the preposition following a verb is given in Roman 
type and without parentheses this serves to indicate that 
the corresponding Russian verb requires a direct object. 

nojiio6|MTb [paPub^'it^] perf... grow fond of, come to 
love; fall in love with. 

The dictionary pays special attention to Soviet and 
Russian realia and to difficult cases, such as prepositions, 
conjunctions, prefixes, etc, which can be rendered only 
through description, etc. As a rule, the latter are treated 

- xin - 

in a specific way since most of them cannot be understood 
readily by merely giving their translation. Therefore, the 
meanings of Russian relation words and affixes are ex- 
plained through definitions and examples. 

AC [do;...] prep with gen denoting 1. distance, extent, 
.limit of time, etc: ot MocKBbi j\o JIeHHHrpa;ia mecTbcoT 
HHTbAecHT KHJiOMCTpOB it is 650 km from Moscow to 
Leningrad;... 2. precedence in time: ao peBOJiibuHH before 
the revolution; aa noA^aca j\o KOHuepxa half an hour 
before the concert. 


The nouns are given in the nominative singular. The 
designations m, /, n indicate the gender. Two gender des« 
ignations show that the word may refer to persons of ei- 
ther sex. 

rjiaB|a I [glAva] m & [ -bi, pi rjiaebi, ~ head {the 

Next come the form's of the genitive singular and genitive 
plural for regular nouns. For the rest of the forms see 
Grammar Tables. 

The endings are preceded by a hyphen which stands for 
the unchanging part of the head-word*. 

jieKUHJn [Pektjiya] / -h, -h lecture. 
[Read: jickuhsi... gen sing jickuhh, gen pi JieKUHft] 

If there is no vertical line in the head-word, the hyphen 
preceding the ending stands for the whole word. 
aBT66yc [Aftobus, -z] m -a, -oe bus;... 
'[Read: aexoSyc... asTodyca, asToSycoB] 

Other case forms are indicated only when there is an 

BOA|a [vAda] / -hi, accBojxy, pi bojxu, —', BOAaM wa- 

[Read: eoAa... gen sing BOAbi, ace sing BOAy, nom pi 
BOAbi, gen pi BOA, dat pi BOAaM] 

eaji I [val] m -a, pi -bi, -6b earthen bank. 
If the head-word is a monosyllable and the inflection 

* The same is true of adjectives, verbs, pronouns, and numerals. 

~ XIV - 

has no stress mark, the stress in the oblique case form 
falls on the first syllable. 

aKT [akt, agd] m -a, -ob I. act... 
[Read: aKT... aKTa, aKTOB...] 

A stress mark on the ending in disyllables and poly- 
syllables indicates that the stress has shifted from the stem 
to the ending. 

flHKaplb [d^ikar^l m -a, -efl 1. savage;... 
[Read: AHKapb... AHKapn, flHKapeft...] 

In a noun not used in the plural, only the genitive sin- 
gular is given. 

6ara)K [bAgash, -zh] m -a luggage;... 

Nouns occurring in the plural form only are given with 
the genitive plural and are designated pi. 
Bec|w [v^i^si] pi -OB scales, balance. 

Nouns mostly used in the plural are treated in the same 
manner as plural nouns. The singular form of such nouns 
with the grammatical notes is given in parentheses. 

6othh|kh [bAt^ink^i] pi -ok {sing 6othh|ok m -Ka) 

If a noun has different plural forms for different mean- 
ings the corresponding plural forms are placed after the 
Arabic numerals introducing the respective meanings. 

jiHCT [l^ist, -zd] m -a, pi -u (-bh), -6b (-bCB) 1. (pi -bh) 
leaf (of a plant, tree, etc); 2. (pi -bi) leaf (in a book); 
sheet (of paper, metal, etc); 3. [pi -hi): onpocHbifl -^ 

If one of the meanings of a noun is used mostly or ex- 
clusively in the plural, the nominative plural form is 
indicated in the dictionary. 

B03M6}KHocT|b [vAzm6zhn9s^t^, -z^'d^] / -H, pi -H, -efi 
1. possibility; 2. opportunity, chance;... 3. pi poten- 
tialities; means... 

Indeclinable nouns have the designation indecl after the 

najibTO [pAl^to] n indecl (over)coat. 
Adjectives, numerals, and pronouns which may be used 

- XV - 

as nouns are designated as a noun. The appropriate gender 
labels and case forms are also given. 

BoeHHJbiH [vAyennty] I a military,... 
II as a noun BoeHH|biH m -oro, -wx serviceman, 

BTOpoH [ftAroy] I num ord & a 1. second; 2. the 
latter {of two); 

II as fl noun BTop |6e n -oro, -ux second course 
(of a meal). 

Hauj [nash, -zh] I pron pers... our; ours; 
II as a noun h a m h pi -x our people {relatives). 


Adjectives are given in the nominat ve singular mascu- 
line. The designation used for adjectives is a. 

For adjectives with a stem ending in "r, k, x, u, q, ui, 
m, Hi" the feminine, neuter, and plural endings are indi- 
cated since they "are formed differently from adjectives 
ending in -hh (see Grammar Tables). 

jiKnK'iHH [l^ipk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He, sh f jimhok, -a, 
-o, -H sticky, adhesive;... 

[Read: jihokmh... / jinnKan, n jiHHKoe, pi jinnKHe, sh i 
m JiHnoK, / JiHHKa, n jihoko, pi JiHnKHJ 

Short adjective forms designated sh f are given imme- 
diately after the complete forms or after the designation a 
in the following order: masculine, feminine, neuter, plural. 

The absence of masculine or neuter forms in the short 
adjective forms is indicated as follows: no m, no n. 

6o;ibH|6H [bAl^noy] I ashf66jieii, -a, {no n), -u sick... 

The dictionary gives only the irregular ^orms of the 
comparative and superlative decrees, such as forms not 
ending in -ee or -efiiuHii or not having the word "caMbift" 
and those derived from different roots; these irregular and 
suppletive forms are given as separate entries in their 
alphabetical order with reference to the positive form of 
the corresponding adjective (the same is true of adverbs). 

rjiy6«e [glubzht^] comp of rjiySoKHH & corresp 

jiymuJHH [lutshiy] J -an, -ee. -He comp & super l of 

XVI - 


The numerals are designated as follows: num card, nam 
ord, num collect. 

Cardinal numerals are given in the nominative case with 
the genitive (which coincides with the dative and preposi- 
tional) and the instrumental case form; other forms are 
indicated if they prove irregular. 

ceMlb [s^em^] num card -h, -bib seven;... 

Since ordinal numerals coincide with adjectives having 
in the masculine the same endings, the feminine, neuter, 
or plural forms are not indicated. 
All case forms are given for collective numerals. 

flB6|e [dvoya] num collect -hx, -hm, -hx (-e), -hmh, 
(o) -HX two. 


The pronoun is designated pron. The indication of the 
class (pers, poss, dem, reft, etc), the case forms, and gen- 
der endings are likewise given. 

The description of the possessive pronoun includes the 
feminine, neuter, and plural forms. 

eauj [vash, -zh] I pron poss corresp to bh m -ero, 
-eMy, -' (-ero), -eMy, (o) -eM, eama /, eauie n, eaiUH 
pi your; yours;... 

The feminine and neuter form as well as the plural with the 

endings of the oblique cases are given as separate entries in 

their alphabetical order with reference to the masculine form. 

Bam I a [vasha] pron f -eft, -eft, -y, -eft (-eio), (o) -eft 

see Bam. 

Personal pronoun forms in the oblique cases are to be 
found in the general alphabetical list of entries with refer- 
ence to the appropriate personal pronoun in the nominative. 
BaM [vam] dat of bu. 


The verbs are given in the infinitive. The designation 
imperf or perf indicates the aspect. The forms of the 1st 
and 2nd person singular present tense (for imperfective 

- XVII - 

verbs) or future tense (for perfective verbs) follow the 

rjiOT|aTb [gUtat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib 1. swallow; 
gulp down, bolt;... 

pHHlyxbCJi [r^inuttsa] perf -ycb, -eiubCH... rush (head- 
long), dash. 

If the verb is not used in the 1st and 2nd person sin- 
gular, only the 3rd person form is indicated. 

jiajiJTb [layat^] imperf jiaeT... bark, bay. 

In regular verbs without any stress shift only the 1st 
and 2nd person forms are given. (The rest of the forms will 
be found in Tables 6 & 7, pp. XXX— XXXII). 

These are followed by the past tense forms (preceded by 
the designation p) and imperative mood forms (preceded 
by the designation imp) in all cases when the latter are 
at variance with the general rules. 

BecejilHTbCfl [v^is^i^l^ittja] imperf -ibcb, -HuibCH, p 
-HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb have fun... 

Both the aspect forms — the perfective and the imper- 
fective — are entered in the dictionary. They are^ listed as 
separate entries in their alphabetical order. The English 
equivalents for both aspect forms are given in the infini- 
tive entry of the imperfective aspect. The latter also contains 
the corresponding perfective aspect form (or forms) with 
its (or their) pronunciation, grammatical description, etc. 

noxHmlaTb [pakh'^ish^'.at^] imperf -aio, -aemb, noxH- 
T|HTb [pAkh^it^it^] perf noxiimy, -Hiub, p -hji, imp h 
steal {documents, etc)',... 

An infinitive representing both aspects is designated perf 
& imperf. 

aHHyjiHp|oBaTb [Anul^iravat^] perf & imperf' -yro, 
-yeiiib, p -oBaji, imp -yfi annul... 

Impersonal uses of finite forms and impersonal verbs 
are marked impers. 

Kaslaxbcsi [kAzatt^a] I imperf... 2. impers: KajKexcH, 
MTO... it seems that...; eMy KajKexcH, qio... if seems 
to him that...;... 

Verbs of the perfective aspect formed only with the help 
of a prefix added to the imperfective infinitive (such verbs 


tiave. a dotted line between the prefix and the rest of the 
word) usually have in the future tense the same forms as for 
the present tense of the imperfective. Therefore, their forms 
are not indicated separately, unless there is a stress shift. 
«epTB|oBaTb [zhertyvat**] imperf -yio, -yemb, p 

-OBaji, imp -yfi, noi^epxeoBaTb [pAzhertyvat**) perf 

1. sacrifice, offer (up)... 

{Read: nowepTBOBaxb... no^epreyK), noHiepTByeuib, p 

nojKepTBoeaJi, imp noJKepTeyH] 

MWTb [mit^] imperf mokd, Moeuib. p mhji, Mb'ijia, imp 

MOH, BbIMbl|Tb [Vimit**] perf BblMOK), BblMOeUIb, p -Jl , 

-jia, imp BbiMOH,... 

If one of the meanings of a verb is used in one of the 
aspects, perfective or imperfective, the English equivalent 
is preceded by the no perf or no imperf designation. 

MeH|flTb [m^i^n^'at''] imperf -hhd, -aeuib, nolMeHHTb 
[pam^i^n^'at^] perf 1. change {1) clothes; 2) money);... 
3. (no perf) change, alter {one's opinion, etc). 

If an imperfective verb has different perfective forms 
for different meanings, the corresponding perfective forms 
are given in parentheses after the Arabic numeral intro- 
ducing the respective meaning. 

jien|HTb [l^i^p^'it^J imperf -jiib, jienHiiib, p -hji, imp -h, 
BbijienlHTb [vil^'i^pMt''] perf -jik), -Huib, p -hji, imp 
-H, cijienHTb [s^l^i^p^'it*'] perf 1. (Bb'ijienHTb) model, 
sculpture (in clay, wax, etc); 2. (cjiennrb) make, build 
(birds' nests, honeycombs). 

When the meanings of both aspects do not fully coincide 
the entry contains appropriate reference to the coinciding 

noxeMHexb sej xeMHexb 1, 2. 

The designations perf also and imperf also indicate that 
the English equivalent following this designation may be 
referred only to the perfective or imperfective aspect of 
the verb. 

6ec|HxbCfl [b**i^s*'itt^s9] imperf 6eiuycb, decnuihcsi, p 
-HJicfl, -HJiacb, imp HCb, -HTCCb rsifccHTbcn [vzh'^i- 
s'^ittsa] perf 1.... 2 //j rage, be in rage, per£ also 
get / fly into a rage, get wild. 

- XIX - 

The most difficult irregular verb forms are given in 
their alphabetical order with reference to their basic verb 

EHiuy [v^ishu] see BHcexb. 

Exception is made only for such cases as: 
jibK) [l^'yu], Jibeuib [I'^yosh, -zh] see jiHib. 

Russian verb form.s indicating an indefinitely directed 
motion, i.e. a motion in various directions, and those 
that indicate the same motion in a definite direction are 
treated in the dictionary separately and have cross refer- 

6em\siTh [b^i^zhat^j imperf 6ery, -Hiiib, 6eryT, p -aji, 
imp 6erH a concrete movement in a definite direction — 1 
\cf 6eraTb 1] 1. run {on the feet);... 3. col run / boil 

6er|aTb [b^egat^] imperf aio, -aemb [cf 6e>KaTb 1] 1. 
run {on the feet); -—aTb naneperoHKH race with one 
another: run a race {with smb);. 2.: y Hero rjiasa ~aiOT 
he has shifty eyes. 

The figure 1 in the square brackets indicates which of the 
meanings the above opposition refers to. The figure 1 
after, the definition a concrete moiement in a definite direc- 
tion shows that this is true only of the first meaning of 
the verb 6e}KaTb, 


The adverbs are designated adv. The predicative mean- 
ings of the adverb are introduced separately and marked 
predic or predic impers. 

npaEHJibHO [prav'^il'^na] I adv correctly; rightly; 
II impers predic that's right, right you are, exactly 
it is correct. 


I (vertical line) separates the unchanging part of the 

-^ (swung dash) stands for the unchanging part of the 

head-word in the entry or for the whole head-word if the 

latter has no vertical line. 
<> rhombus) introduces expressions phraseology, etc, 

connected with the idiomatic uses of the head-word, 
/ (slant) offers a choice of synonyms. 
I (dotted line) separates the prefix in certain verbs of 

the perfective aspect. 
B= (sign of equality) between two Russian words indicates 

that they are synonyms, 
s (sign of approximate equality) shows that the English 

variant is but an approximate equivalent of the given 

Russian word or phrase. 
( ) (parentheses) may contain additional information, etc, 

or indicate optional elements (when printed in Roman 

type; also see p. XI). 
[ 1 (square brackets) may a) enclose the transcription of 

head-words, b) indicate alternatives (see pp. X— XI) and 

c) be used to point out the grammatical origin of a 



Used in the Dictionary 

a adjective 

abbrev abbreviation 

ace accusative case 

adv adverb 
I agric agriculture 
» anat anatomy 

arcliit architecture 

astron astronomy 

attr attributive 

augm augmentative 

av aviation 

biol biology 

hot botany 

card cardinal 

cf compare 

chem chemistry 

cj conjunction 

col colloquial 

collect collective 

comp comparative degree 

corresp corresponding 

dat dative case 

def defining 

detn demonstrative 

dim diminutive 

dlpl diplomacy 

econ economics 

elect r electrical engineering 

etc et cetera 

/ feminine 

.fig figurative 

fin finance 

flex flexion 

lut future tense 

gen genitive case 

geog geography 

geol geology 

hist historical 

imp imperative 

imperf verb imperfective 

impers impersonal 

in dec I indeclinable 

indef indefinite 

inf infinitive 

instr instrumental case 

int interjection 

intens intensifying 

inter interrogative 

ling linguistics 

m masculine 

math mathematics 

med medicine 

mil military 

min mineralogy 

mus music 

n neuter 

naut nautical 

neg negative 

nom nominative case 

num numeral 

ord ordinal 

p past tense 

pa participle 

parenth used parenthetically 

part particle 

perf verb perfective 

pers personal 

philos philosophy 

phys physics 

pi plural 

pol political 

poss possessive 

pr prepositional case 

predic used predicatively 

pref prefix 

prep preposition 

pres present tense 

pron pronoun 

prov proverb 

recip reciprocal 

refl reflexive 

rel relative 

relig religion 

restr restrictive 

rly railway 

sh f short form 

sing singular 

stub somebody 

smlh something 

superl superlative degree 

syl syllable, syllabic 

technol technology 

theat theatrical 

VS American usage 

V verb 

zool zoology 

a [a] cj denoting 1. con- 
trast or the fact of being con- 
fronted but; and; while, where- 
as; He ceroAHH, a saBTpa 
not today, but tomorrow; 
eMy ABaAuaib Jiex, a MHe 
TpHAuaxb he is twenty and 
I am thirty; 3to ee Kapan- 
flaui, a He tboh this is her 
pencil, (and) not yours; oh 
noiiieji B KHHO, a h ociaJicH 
AOMa he went to the pictures, 
while I stayed at home; ona 
saHHxa, a noMoraei naivi she 
is busy, yet she helps us; 2. 
addition and; sto moh chh, 
a 3T0 MOH Jlo^h here is my 
son, and here is my daughter; 
<> a MMeHHO namely; a to... 

1) = a He to; see below; 

2) for (because); saKpofi okho, 
a 10 AyeT shut the window, 
there is a draft here; a He 
TO... or (else)...; Ha;;eHbna;ib- 
t6, a He TO npocxyAHUibCH 
put on your coat, or you'll 
catch a cold. 

aSawyp [AbAzhur] m -a, -ob 

a63a^ [Abzats, -dz] m -a, 
-eB 1. indentation, indention 
(in writing or printing); 2. 
paragraph (a distinct part of 
a text). 

aSoHCMeHT [Aban^'i^m^ent, 
-d] m -a, -OB season ticket. 

aSopT [Abort, -d] m -a, -ob 
abortion, miscarriage. 

aSpHKoc [Abr^ikos, -z] m 
-a, -OB apricot; apricot-tree. 

a6cojiibTHibiH [AbsAl^utniy] 
a sh f aScoJiEOTCH, -a, -o, -h 

a6cTpaKTH|biH [Abstraktniy] 
a sh f aCcTpaKTCH, -a, -o, -bi 

aScypfl [Absurt, -d] m -a 
absurdity; nonsense. 

aeanrap;! [AVAngart, -d] m 
-a, -OB 1. /ni/ advance-guard, 
2. fig vanguard. 

aBaHrapflHJbiH [AVAngard- 
niy] a vanguard (attr); ^aa 
poJib pol leading role. 

aeanc [Avans, -z] m -a, -ob 
advance (a loan); advance pay- 

aeaHcoM [Avansam] adv in 
advance; nojiyqHTb -- receive 
on account. 

aeaHTibpla [AVAn^t^'urs] / 
-bi, ~ adventure, venture; 
pHCKOBannaH --a risky en- 

aBapH|fl [Avar^iya] / -h, -h 
break-down {an accidental 
stoppage); accident; damage 
(harm); crash {of an airplane); 

norepnerb --kd meet with an 
accident; be damaged; crasti 
{of an airplane). 

aerycT [avgust, -zd] m -a 

aBHa... first element of 
compounds pertaining to avia- 
tion or aircraft: aBHaxpacca 
[av^'iatrassa] air-route; aeHa- 
66M6a [av^iabomba] aircraft 

aBHaSasla [av^iabaza] / -bi, 
~ air-base. 

asHaKOHCTpyKTOp [av^ia- 
kAnstruktar] m -a, -ob air- 
craft designer. 

aBHajiHHHiii [av^ial^in^iya] 
/ -H, -H airline, airway. 

aBHaHocjeu [Av^iAnos^itj, 
-d^] m -ua, -ueB aircraft car- 

aBHanoHTJa [av^iapoch^ta] 
/ -u air mail. 

aBHauHifl [AV^iatjiya] / -h 
aviation; aircraft, planes. 

aBocb [avos^, -z^] part col 
<> Ha -~- on the off-chance. 

aecTpajiHlei; [AfstrAl^iyatj, 
-dz] m -Hua, -HueB Austra- 

aecTpajiMHCKlHH [AfstrAlMy- 
sk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -He Aus- 

aBCxpHJeu [Afstr^iyats, -dz] 
m -Hua, -HueB Austrian. 

aBCTpMHCKlHH [AfstrMy- 
sk^iyj a -an, -oe, -He Aus- 

aBTO. . . first element of com- 
pounds denoting 1. self: 
aBTonoprpex [aftapArtr^et, -d] 
self-portrait; aBTo6Horpa(|)HH 
[aftab^'iAgraf^iya] autobi- 

ography; 2. automobile: aBxo- 
saBOA [aftazAvot, -d] motor 
works; aBiocipaAa [aftastra- 
da] motor highway; main 
road; 3. automatic: aBTO- 
pyqKa [aftaruch^ka] fountain- 

aBToSyc [Aftobus, -z] m-a, 
-OB bus; exaxb na — e go by 
bus; ride in a bus. 

aBTorpacj) [Aftograf, -v] m 
-a, -OB autograph. 

aBTOMax [AftAmat, -d] m 
-a, -OB 1. automatic machine/ 
device; slot-machine; public 
telephone; 2. fig automaton; 
3. mil submachine-gun. 

aBTOMo6Hjiib [AftamAb^'il^] 
m -H, -eft motor-car; .nerKO- 
BOH — b (passenger) car; rpy- 
3ob6h — b' lorry; US truck; 
exaib Ha — e motor; go by 
car; ride in a car. 

aBTOHOMHifl [AftAnom^'iya] 
/ -H autonomy. 

aBTOHOMHJufl [AftAnomniy] 
a sh f aBTOHOMCH -a, -o auton- 

aBTop [aftar] m -a, -ob 

aBTOpHTCT [Aftar^it^et, -d] 
m -a, -OB 1. authority, pres- 
tige; 2. authority [an expert). 

aBTopcK|HH [aftarsk^iy] a 
-an, -oe,-He author's, authors'; 
— oe npaBO copyright. 

arcHT [Ag^ent, -d] m -a, 
-OB agent. 

areHTCTBlo [Ag^enstva] n 
-a, ^ agency. 

arHxarop [Ag'itatar] m -a, 
-OB propagandist; canvasser, 

arHxauHifl [Ag^'itatjiya] / 
-H agitation {mass propagan* 


da)\ campaign {for, against' 

imperf -yio, -yeiiib, p -oBaji, 
imp -yft, ciarHTMpoBaxb [sa- 
g^it^iravat^] per/ 1. {no perf) 
campaign {for, against), agi- 
tate {for, against); carry on 
propaganda; carry on agita- 
tion [cf arHTauHH]; 2. per- 
suade {smb to do smth). 

arHinyHKT [Ag^itpunkt,-gd] 
m -a, -OB propaganda centre; 
canvassing centre. 

arpapHbiH [Agrarniyjaagra- 

arpeccH|fl [Agr^'es^iya] / -h, 
-H aggression. 

arpoHoM [AgrAnom] m -a, 
-OB agronomist. 

aA [at, adj m -a hell. 

aABOKar [AdvAkat, -d] m 
-a, -OB lawyer; advocate {also 
fig); barrister. 


m^in^istrAt^ivniy] a admin- 
istrative; B -—OM nopHAKe 
by administrative order. 

aAMHHHCTpaTOp [Adm^in^i- 
stratarj m -a, -ob administra- 
tor; manager. 

aAMHHHCTpau,H|$i [Adm'^in^i- 
stratgiya] / -h, -h administra- 
tion, management. 

ajiMHpaji [Adm^iral] m -a, 
-OB admiral. 

aApec [adr^is, -z] m -a, pi -a, 
-OB address {on a letter, etc); 
nocjiaTb HHCbMo no —y / Ha 
^ send a letter to {smb's) 
address; AOCTasHTb (nncbMo) 
no — y deliver (a letter) to 
the right address; 
<^ (saMeHaHHfl) no HbCMy-ji. 

— -y (remarks) about / concern- 
ing smb; He no ~y to the 
wrong quarter; o6paTHTbCfl 
He no —y come to the wrong 
shop (with a request). 

aApecHbiH [adr^isnty] a: ~ 
cTOJi address bureau {a spe- 
cial inquiry office through 
which one can find out the 
address of an inhabitant of 
the town). 

aA'biOTaHT [Ad^yutant, -d] 
m -a, -OB aide-de-camp. 

asapT [Azart, -d] m -a vehe- 
mence, heat; ardour; excite- 
ment; BOHTH B -— grow heated 
(of oeople). 

a36yK|a [azbuka] / -h, ^ 

1. ABC {also fig); alphabet; 

2. ABC-book; 

<> ~a Mopse Morse code. 

a3ep6aHA«aHJeu, [Az^irbAy- 
dzhan^itj, -dz] m -na, -ueB 

a3ep6aHAH(aHCK!iiH [Az^'ir- 
bAydzhansk^'iy] a -an, -oe, 
-He Azerbaijan. 

asHaxcKlHH [Az^iatsk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Asian. 

asoT [Azdt, -d] m -a nitro- 

aMCT [aist, -zd] m -a, -ob 

aft [ay] int expressing 1. 
sudden pain, fright, fear, etc 
oh!; ouch!; 2. displeasure, re- 
proach, regret, etc oh!; ugh!; 
oh, bother!; 

<> afi Aa napeHb! there's a 
good fellow! 

aKaACMHK [AkAd^'em^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB academician; mem- 
ber of an Academy. 

aKaACMHlii [AkAd^em^'iyaJ / 


_ 4 _ 

-H, -H academy (1) of sci- 
ences, etc; 2) a higher educa- 
tional institution). 

aKauH|$i [Akatsiya] / -h, 
-H acacia. 

aKBapejijb [AkvAr^el^] / 
-H, -eft water-colour. 

aKBapHyM [Akvar^ium] m 
-a, -OB aquarium. 

aKKOMnaHCMeHT [Akampa- 
n^i^m'^ent, -d] m -a accom- 
paniment; nojx -- to the 
accompaniment (of), 

aKKOpjieoH [Akard^i^on] m 
•a, -OB accordion. 

aKKopAHjbiH [Akordniy] a: 
—an njiaxa / onjiaxa piece 
wages; payment by the piece; 
— an pa66Ta piece-work. 

aKKpcAHTHs [Akr^id^it'^If, 
-v] m -a, -OB letter of credit. 

aKKypaxHlbiH [Akuratnry] a 
sh f aKKypaxeH, -a, -o, -u 
1. accurate; punctual; orderly 
{person); 2. neat, tidy; 3. care- 
ful {work). 

aKpo6aT [AkrAbat, -d] m 
-a, -OB acrobat. 

aKT [akt, agd] m -a, -ob 
1. act, action; 2. law deed; 
o6BHHHTejibHbiH ~ iudicl- 
ment; 3. statement, report 
{a document summing up an 
investigation, inspection, etc); 
4. theat act. 

aKxep [Akt^or] m -a, -ob 

aKTHBHlbiH [Akth'vniy] a 
sh f aKTHBCH, a, -o, -bi ac- 
tive {member, etc). 

aKTpHc|a [Aktr^isa] / -bi, 
^ ^ctress. 

aKTyajibH|biH [Aktual^nty] 
a sh f aKTyaJieH, -a, -o, -bi 

urgent, burning {problem, etc); 
timely {article, etc). 

dKyjija [Akula] / -bi, ^ 
shark; dogfish. 

aKyiuepJKa [Akusherka] / 
-KH, -OK midwife. 

aKi;eHT [Aktjent, -d] m -a, 
-OB accent {foreign, local, 

aKU,HOHep [AktjiAn^er] m 
-a, -OB shareholder. 

aKi^HCHepHbiH [AktjtAn^er- 
niy] a joint-stock. 

aKu,H|fl [aktsiya] -h, -h 
econ share. 

aji6aH|eu [Alban^itj, -dz] m 
-ua, -ueB Albanian. 

aji6aHCK|HH [Albansk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Albanian. 

ajire6p|a [alg^ibra] / -bi 

ajiiKMp|eu [Alzhtr^itj, -dz] 
m -ua, -ueB Algerian. 

ajDKMpcKiHH [Alzhlrsk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Algerian. 

ajiMMCHTlbi [Al^'im^entt] pi 
-OB alimony. 

a alcoholic, spirituous; —bie 
HauHTKH strong drinks; spir- 

ajijieJH [Al^'eya] / -h, -fl 
alley (a path in a garden or 
park); avenue {a walk bor- 
dered by trees). 

ajijio [aI^'o] int used in 
telephone conversations to at- 
tract attention or answer a 
call: ~, KOMMyxaxop? Hullo, 
operator?; —! Kxo roBopHx? 
Hullo! Who's speaking? 

ajiMas [Almas, -z] m -a, -ob 

1. (rough) diamond (a stone)\ 

2. glazier's diamond. 

- 5 - 


aji(|)aBHT [AlfAv^it, -d] m 
-a, -OB alphabet; no ~y in 
alphabetical order. 

ajibiH [alty] a red, scarlet. 

ajibCoM [Al^bom] m -a, -ob 
album; sketch-book. 

aji-bnMHMCT [App^in^ist, -zd] 
m -a, -OB mountain-climber. 

ajiiOMHHHlH [Al^um^in^iy] 
m -H aluminium. 

aMdap [Ambar] m -a, -oe 
barn; storehouse. 

aM6yjiaT6pH|5i [AmbulAto- 
r^iya] f -h, -h dispensary. 

aMepHKaH|ei; [Am^ir^ika- 
n^its, -dz] m -ua, -ues Amer.- 

aMepHKaHCKiHH [Am^ir^ikan- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Amer- 

aMHHCTHJH [Amn^is^t^iya] 
/ -H, -H arnnesty. 

aMopajibHbiH [AmAral^niy] 
a immoral. 

aM(j)HTeaTp [Amf^it^'i^atr] 
m -a, -OB amphitheatre; circle 
{a set of seats). 

anajiHs [Anal^is, -z] m -a, 
-OB analysis; — KpoBH blood 
test; -~ MOHH urinoscopy; 
urine test. 

nty] a sh f aHajioriiqeH, -a, 
-o, -bi analogous; similar. 

aHaxoMHlfl [AnAtom^iya] / 
-H anatomy (a science). 

aHrHH|a [Ang^ina] / -bi 

aHrjiHHCKiHH [Angl^iysk^iy] 
a -aH, -oe, -He English; Brit- 

aHrjiHHaH|MH [Angl^ich^a- 
n^'ln] m nna, pi e, ~ Eng- 

ancKjioT [An^i^gddt, -d] m 
-a, -OB anecdote; joke. 

aHKexIa [Ank^eta] / -bi, -^ 
form, questionnaire. 

aHHyjiMpOBaTb [Anul^ira- 
vat^j perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeuib, p -OBaji, imp -yii an- 
nul; cancel, repeal, abolish. 

aHOHHMHbiH [AnAn^imniy] 
a anonymous. 

aHcaMSjijb [AnsambP] m -h, 
-efl ensemble; ~b necHH h 
njiflCKH song-and-dance group. 

aHTapKTHHecK|HH [AntArk- 
t^Ich^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 

aHxeHHJa [Antena] / -bi, ^ 
aerial, antenna; KOMHaTHaji 
~a indoor antenna. 

aHTH. . . first element of com- 
pounds denoting opposition, 
rivalry, unlikeness, etc: anTH- 
pejiHrHosHbiH [an^t^ir^il^ig^i- 
oznty] anti-religious; anxH- 
caHHxapHbiH [an^t^isan^itar- 
nly] insanitary. 

aHXHBoeHHbiH [An^f'ivA- 
yenniy] a antiwar. 

aHXHKeapHbiH [An^t^ikvar- 
nty] a: ^ MarasHH antique 
shop, curiosity shop. 

aHXHnaxH{n [An^t^ipat^iya] 
/ -H, -H aversion, dislike; 
nnxaxb ~io feel an aversion 
(for, to). 

aHXHceMHx [An^t^is^i^mMt, 
d] m -a, -OB anti-Semite; 

aHXHCOBeXCKiHH [An^t^isA- 
v^etsk^iy] a -an, -oe. -He 

aHXH(|)aii]HcxdKlHH [An^t^i- 
fAshissk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 


aHTMHHbiH [AD^'t^ich^niy] 
a antique. 

aHTpaKT [Antrakt, -gd] m 
-a, -OB interval {at the the- 

anejiJi^u,H;5i [Ap^i^I^atjtya] 
/ -H, -H /aay appeal; noAaBaxb 
~K) Ha qTo-JT. appeal against 

anejibCHH [Ap^i^l^s^in] m 
-a, -OB orange. 

anjiDUHploBaxb [ApUd'^ira- 
v^i^\ imperf -yKD, -yeiiib, p 
-OBa;i, imp -yft applaud. 

anjioflHCMeHT|bi [Apbd^is- 
m^enti] pi -ob applause; noA 
— bi to / amid applause. 

anojiHTHHHlbiH [Apal^i- 

t^ich^niyl as/i / anojinTiiHeH, 
-a, -o, -bi indifferent to pol- 
itics {of people); neglecting 
the political side of a mat- 
ter {of a book, article, etc). 

annapax [^pArat, -d] m-a, 
-ob 1. apparatus {an appli- 
ance, piece of machinery); xe- 
jiejoHHbiH ~ telephone (set); 
4)oxorpac|)HMecKHH -- cam- 
era; 2. machinery {of the state, 
etc); 3. staff {employees). 

anncHflHUHx [Ap^m^d^'itsi't , 
-d] m -a appendicitis. 

annexHx [Ap^i^t^'it, -d] m 
-a appetite; 

<> npHflXHoro —a! bon appe- 

anpejilb [Apr^'el''] m -h 

anxcKla [Apt^eka] / -h, ~ 
chemist's (shop); US drug- 

anxeH'iKa [Apt^ech^ka] / 
-KH, -eK medicine chest; first- 
-aid kit. 

apa6 [Arap, -bj m -a, -oq 

apa6cK';HH [Arapsk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Arab; Arabian; 

ap6y3 [Arbus, -z] m -a, -ob 

apreHXMHJeu [Arg^i^n^t^i- 
n^'itj, -dz] m -ua, -ueB Argen- 

apreHXMHCKiHH [Arg^i^n^- 
t^insk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 

apenla [Ar^ena] f -u, ^ 1. 
arena; (circus) ring; 2. fig 
arena, scene. 

apeHAJa [Ar^enda] / -bi 1. 
lea^^e; B3HXb b ~y lease, take 
on lease; 2. rent {payment). 

apecx [Arrest, -zd] m -a, 
-OB 1. arrest {of a person); 
B3nxb no;; ~ take into cus- 
tody; 2. sequestration; najio- 
TKUTh ~ Ha HMymecxBO se- 
questrate/seize property. 

apecxoeaHHibsH [Ar^'i^sto- 
vanniy] m [pa] -oro, -ux 

apH4)MexHKia [Ar^ifm^'et^i- 
ka] / -H arithmetic. 

apHJH [ar^iya] f -h, -h 
aria, air. 

apHJa [arka] / -h, apoK arch. 

apKXHHecKJHM [Arkf'ich^i- 
sk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -ne arctic. 

apMHifl [arm^'iya] / -h, -fl 
army; (armed) forces. 

apMfiHHH [Arm'^i'^n^in] m -a, 
pi apMHHe, apMHH Arme- 

apMWHCK'iHM |Arm''ansk''iy] 
a -an, -oe, -ne Armenian. 

apoMaxHbiH [ATAmatnty] a 
aromatic, fragrant. 

^ 7 -^ 


apcewaji [Ars^i^nal] m -a, 
-OB I. arnioury;-2. //g stores 

apTeji|b [Art^el^] / -h, -en 
artel {an association for com- 
mon work); cejibCKOxosHHCT- 
BeHHaH ~b collective farm. 

apTepH|fl JArt^er^iya] / -h, 
-H artery {also fig). 

apTHjijiepH|fl [Art^'iPer^iys] 
/ -H artillery. 

apxHCT [Art^ist, -zd] m -a, 
-OB performer; ~ 6ajieTa bal- 
let-dancer; — ApsMbi actor; 
— onepbi opera singer. 

ap(j)la [arfa] / -bi, ~ 

apxeojioFHlfl [Arkh^iAlo- 
g^iya] / -h archeology. 

apxH... first element of com- 
pounds denoting principal, 
extreme, great: apxHOJiyx 
[Arkh^'iplul, -d] arch-rogue; 
apxHMHJiJiHOHep [arkh^im^'i- 
l^'iAn^er] multimillionnaire. 

apxHB [Arkh^if, -v] m -a, 
-OB archives; 
<> Cijaxb B — discard, shelve. 

apxHTCKTOp [Arkh^it^ektsr] 
m -a, -OB architect. 

apxHTCKxypla [Arkh^'it^i^k- 
tura] / -bi architecture {a 
science or style). 

apbeprap;i [Aryi^rgart, -d] 
m -a, -09 mil rearguard. 

acnHpaHT fAsp^irant, -d] 
m -a, -OB post-graduate (stu- 

acnHpaHxypla [Asp^irAn- 
tura] / -bi 1. post-graduate 
course; 2. post-graduate stu- 

accaM6jie|fl [ASAmbl^eya] / 
-H, -ii assembly. 

accHCxcHx [AS^is^t^ent, -dj 
m -a, -OB assistant. 

accopxMMeHx [Asart^im^ent, 
-d] m -a, -OB assortmentjVariety. 

acxpcHOMHifl [AstrAno- 

m^iyal / -h astronomy. 

ac(J)ajibx [Asfal^t, -d] m -a 

axaK|a [Ataka] / -h, ~ 
attack, assault. 

axejibe [AtePye] n indecl 
1. studio {the work-room of 
a painter, etc); 2. {also -' 
moa) dressmaking and tailor- 
ing establishment. 

axMoc4)epia [AtmAs^f^era] / 
-bi atmosphere. 

axoM [atam] m -a, -ob atom. 

axoMHbiH [atamniy] a atom- 
ic; atom {attr). 

ATC [A-te-es] abbrev (/) 
(= aBTOMaxH^ecRaH xejie4)6H- 
HaH cxaHUHH) automatic tele- 
phone exchange. 

axxauie [AtAshe] m indecl 

axxecxax [At^i^stat, -d| m 
-a, -OB certificate {an educa- 
tional document); ~ spejiocxH 
school -leaving certificate. 

ayAHx6pH|j! [Aud^itor^iya] 
/ -H, -H 1. lecture-hall; class- 
-room; 2. audience {people). 

ayKUHOH [Auktjlon] m -a, 
-OB auction; npo^axb c ~a 
sell at an auction. 

a(})raH|eu [Avgan^its, -dz] 
m -ua, -ucB Afghan. 

a(l)raHCK|HH fAvgansk^'iyl a 
-an, -oe, -He Afghan. 

a(J)Hiii|a [Af'ishQl / -h, ^ 
(play)bill, placard. 

a(l)pHKaH|eu [Afr'ikan^itj, 
-dz] m -ua, -ucB African. 


a4)pHKaHCK;HH "[Afr'^ikan- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He African. 

axa|Tb [akhat''] imperf -lo, 
-eiiib, axH yxb [akhnut'"] perf 
-y, -eiiJb, p -yji, imp -h co/ 
gasp {with surprise); sigh 
(ay/Y/i regret). 

aapo... first element of com- 

pounds pertaining to aviation: 
aspoHaBTHKa- [AerAnaft^ika] 
aeronautics; asponopi [AerA- 
port, -d] airport. 

aapojipoM [AerAdrom] m -a, 
-OB airfield. 

aapocTax [AerAstat, -d] m 
-a, -OB balloon. 

6 see 6bi. 

6a6ia [baba] / -bi, — col 
1. woman; 2. fig sissy; 
<> cHeJKHaji —a snow man. 

6a6|HH [bab'^iy] a -bH, -be, 
-bH col womanish, women's; 
<> —bejiero Indian summer. 

6d6oH|Ka [babach^ka] / -kh, 
-eK butterfly; HOMHan — Ka 

6a6ym|Ka [babushka] / -kh, 
-eK grandmother. 

6ara)K [bAgash, -zh] m -a 
luggage, baggage; cj^aeaTb se- 
iu,H B — have one's luggage 

^arpoBJbiH [bAgrovty] a 
sh f — , -a, -o, -bi crimson. 

6a3|a [baza] / -bi, ~ base, 
basis; aBHauHOHHan [soeHHo- 
-MOpcKan] ~a air [naval] 
base; TypHCTCKan -~a tourist 
camp; MaiepHajibHan ~a ma- 
terial resources; Ha ~e Ha- 
yqubix flaHHbix on the basis 
of scientific data. 

6a.3ap [bAzar] m -a, -oe 
1. market {1) buying and 
selling; 2) the place); 2, fig 
col row, uproar. 

6aHflap|Ka [bAydarka] /-kh, 
-OK kayak. 

6aHK]a [bayka] / -h flan- 

faK I [bak, -g] m -a, -oe 
tank, cistern. 

6aK II [bak, -g] m -a, -ob 
naut forecastle. 

6aKajieHHlbiH [bakAl^eyniy] 
a: ~ biH MarasHH grocery (shop); 
— bie TOEapbi groceries. 

Sanajie 51 [bakAi^eya] / -h 
1. groceries; 2. grocery (shop). 

CaKTepHOJiorH Ji [bakt^ir'^iA- 
log'^iya] / -ii bacteriology. 

SaKxepHJH [bAkt^er^iya] / 
-H, -H bacterium. 

6aji [bal] m -a, pi -bi, -6b 
ball (a formal social dance); ~- 
-MacKapa/l fancy-ball. 

6ajiajiaMK|a [baUlayka] / 
-H. 6aJiaJiaeK balalaika (a Rus- 
sian stringed instrument). 

SajiepHHla [baPi^r'^ina] / 
-bi, ■— ballerina, ballet-danc- 

6ajieT [bAl^'et, -d] m -a bal- 

6aji|Ka I [balka] / -kh, -ok 
beam^ girder. 

— 9 — 


SajiJKa II [balk9] / -kh, -ok 
CajiKOH [bAlkon] m -a, -ob 

1. balcony; 2. theat upper 

6^jiji [bal] m -a, -ob 1.: Be- 
Tep B mecTb -^ob wind force 6; 

2. mark, grade {at school); 

3. point {in game scores). 
GaJiJiOTHploBaTbCJi [balAt^i- 

ravattsa] imperf -yiocb, -yeiiib- 
CH, p -OBaJicH, -OBaJiacb, imp 
-yftcH, -yHTecb be a candidate 
(for election); run, stand {for 
an office). 

GajijOBaTb [balAvat^] /mper/ 
-yio, -yeiub, p -OBaJi, imp 
-yft, H3':6ajiOBaTb [izbalA- 
vat^] perf spoil, humour. 

6aji|oBaTbCH [balAvattsa] 
imperf -yrocb, -yembCH, p 
-OBaJicH, -OBaJiacb, imp -yncH, 
-yftxecb be mischievous, be 
naughty; He —yflcH don't be 

6aM€yK [bAmbuk, -gj m -a 

6aHaH [bAuan] m -a, -ob 

faHflepoJijb [ban^d^i^rol^] / 
-H, -eft postal packet; oxnpa- 
BHTb ~bK) send by book-post. 

6aHAMT [bAn^d^it, -d] m 
-a, -OB bandit, cutthroat. 

6aHK [bank, -g] m -a, -ob 
fin bank. 

eanlKa [banks] / -kh, -ok 
1. jar {of glass); tin {a con- 
tainer); ^Ka BapeHbH pot of 
jam; KOHcepBHan — Ka {empty) 
tin; US can; — Ka cap;i,HH tin 
/ can of sardines; 2. med cup- 
ping-glass; nOCTaBHTb ~KH 

apply cupping-glasses. 

GaHKCT [bAuk^et, -d] m -a, 
-OB banquet, dinner. 

6aHKHp [bAnk^ir] m -a, -ob 

6aHKp6TCTB|o [bAnkrotjt- 
V8] n -a, -~ bankruptcy {also 


6aHT [bant, -d] m -a, -ob 
bow {a kind of knot); saBH- 
3aTb — OM tie in a bow. 

GaHJH [ban^a] / -h, -b bath- 

6apa6aH [barAban] m -a, 
-OB drum {!) a percussion in- 
strument; 2) a metal spool or 

6apa6aH|HTb [barAban^it^] 
imperf -k), -Hiiib, p -hji, imp 
-b drum, beat a drum; beat 
a devil's tattoo; —htb na 
poHJie col thump on the piano. 

6apa6aHiij,HK [barAban^- 
sh^:ik, -g] m -a, -ob drum- 
mer, a drum player. 

6apaK [bArak, -g] m -a, -ob 
temporary wooden structure, 
barrack; barracks. 

6apaH [bAran] m -a, -oe 
ram {a male sheep). 

6apaHMHJa [bAran^ina] / -bi 

6apaH|Ka [bAranka] / -kh, 
-OK baranka {a ring-shaped 

6ap»}a [barzha] / -h, ~ &\si [bArzha] / -h, -en 
barge (a large, flat-bottomed 

SapHTOH [bar^iton] m -a, 
-OB baritone. 

^apoMexp [bArom^itr] m -a, 
-OB barometer. 

6appHKaA|a [bar^ikada] / 
-bi, ^ barricade. 



SapcyK [bArsiik, -g] m -a, 
-OB zool badger. 

6apxaT [barkhat, -d] m -a 

6apbep [bAryer] m -a, -ob 
barrier {also fig). 

6ac [bas, -z] m -a, pi -bi, 
-OB bass; roBopHTb ~om speak 
in a bass / deep voice. 

SacKCTeoji [bask^i^dbol] m 
-a basketball. 

SacHOCJioBH biH [basoAslov- 
nty] a sh f 6acHocJi6BeH, -a, 
-o, -bi col fabulous {immense); 
no —OH uene at a fabulous 

6ac|HJi [bas^n^a] / -hh, -eH 
1. fable; 2. fig cock-and- 
-buU story; 

<> COJlOBbJI ~HJ1MH He KOp- 

MJiT prov = fair words but- 
ter no parsnips. 

eacccHH [bAs^eyn] m -a, 
-ob: — A-^H uJiaBaHHH swim- 
ming-pool; ~ peKH river 
basin; KaMeHHoyrojibHbifl -^ 

6acT|oBaTb [bastAvat^] im- 
perf -yK>, -yeiiib, p -oBaJi, imp 
-yft strike, be on strike, be 

SarajibOH [batAl^yon] m -a, 
-OB mil battalion; cipeJiKO- 
BbiH — infantry battalion. 

Saxapelji [batAr^eya] / -h, 
-H battery {also mil); — h 
napOBoro OTonjieHHH radiator; 
SJieKTpHMecKan —h electric 
battery, dry pile; —h cyxHX 
ejieMCHTOB dry battery. 

eaioH [bAton] m -a, -ob 
loaf {of bread). 

6axpOM|a [bakhrAma] / -bi 
Cringe {trimming). 

6au]KMp [bAshk^ir] m -a 
-OB Bashkir. 

6auiKMpcK|HH [bAshk^ir 
sk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -He Bash- 

6aiiiMaK H [bashmAk^i] p, 
-OB {sing 6aiuMaK m -a) shoes 

■0 6biTb noA ~6m y Koro-Ji. 
col be under smb's thumb. 

6auj|HJi [bashn^a] / -hh 
-en tower. 

6aflH [bAyan] m -a, -oi 
Russian accordion. 

6flHTejibH|biH [bdit^iPniy 
a sh f CAHiejien, -a, -o, -t 

6er [b'^ek, -g] m -a run 
running; sport (foot-)race; - 
Ha CTO MCTpOB 100 m(eters 1 
(flat) race; cociHsanHH b — ! 
foot-race; 6apbepHbiH -~ hur 
die-race; -— no nepeceMen- 


try race; 3CTa4)eTHbiH ~ re 
lay-race; — Ha Mecxe mark 
ing time. 

6erla [b^i^ga] pi -6i 

eerjaxb [b^egat^] imper 
-aio, -aeuib [cf 6e/KaTb 1 
1. run {on the feet); --aTi 
HaneperoHKH race with ont 
another; run a race {wit! 
smb); 2.: y Hero rJiaaa --aio- 
he has shifty eyes. 

^ercMOT [b^ig^i^mot, -d] n 
-a, -ob hippopotamus. 

eerH [b^i^g^i] see 6e}KaTb 

eerjieu [b^'i^gl^ets, -dz] n 
-a, -6b fugitive, runaway. 

6erJibifi [b^egliy] a \. {alst 
used as a noun 6 e r Ji | bi h r/ 
oro, -bix) fugitive; -' npe. 



CTynHHK fugitive from justice; 
2. fluent {speech, etc); 3. su- 
perficial, cursory, brief; 6p6- 
CHTb -- BSFJiHA glance (at) in 
passing; shoot a look / glance 

CeroM [b'^i^gom] adv at a 
run; running; oh npH6e>Kaji 
— he came running. 

SercTBlo [b^ekstva] n -a 
flight, hasty retreat, escape. 

6ery [b^i^gu], Ceryx [b^i^- 
gut, -d] see 6e)KaTb. 

6eryH [b^i^giin] m -a, -6b 
sport runner. 

6ejK\A [b'i^da] / -bi, pi 6eAbi, 
— , 6eAaM misfortune, trou- 
ble; nonacTb b — -y find oneself 
in trouble; b t6m-to h -^a 
that's just the trouble; 
<> HC —a it doesn't matter; 
Ha ~y unfortunately. 

6eflH0CTlb [b^ednas't'', 

-z^d''] / -H poverty. 

CeAHOTJa [b^iduAta] / -bi 
the poor, the destitute; ^epe- 
seHCKaH ---a the village poor. 

6eAH|biH [b^edniy] a sh f 
6eAeH, -a, -o, -bi (-bi) poor 
(/) not rich; 2) unfortunate); 
--an oScraHOBKa cheap and 
scanty furnishings; —an ^au- 
TasHH poor imagination. 

eeflp|6 [b^iMro] n -a, pi 
6eApa, 6eAep, 6eflpaM thigh; 

GeACTBHiC [b^etst^v^iya] n 
-H, -H calamity, disaster; cth- 
XHHHoe — e natural calamity; 
CHFHaji ~H signal of distress. 

6em\aTb [b'i^zhat''] imperf 
6ery, -Hiub, 6eryT, p -aJi, imp 
6erH a concrete movement in a 
definite direction — 1 [cf Ce- 

ra ib 1] 1. run {on the feet); 
^aib CJIOMH roJiOBy run like 
mad; ^axb pbicbio trot; 2.: 
BpcMH — HT time flies; 3. col 
run / boil over; mojioko -^ht 
the milk is boiling over. 

eejKCHleu [b^'ezhan^itj, -4?] 
m -ua, -ucB refugee. 

663 [b^'es; in the first pre- 
tonic position — b^i^s, -z; in 
the second and other pretonic 
positions — b^ls, -z; in a stress- 
ed position — b^es, -z], 6e30 
[b^ez9; in the first pretonic 
position — b^izA; in the second 
and other pretonic positions — 
b^iza] prep with gen denoting 
1. the absence of, lack of, 
not having: -^ MaxepH with- 
out (his, her, etc) mother; 
^ Hero without him; in his 
absence; — jxeuer without 
(any) money; ^^ comhckhh 
without / beyond doubt, un- 
doubtedly; 6e3 xoJiKy to no 
purpose; 6e3o Bcero without 
anything; 2. the fact that 
a time or number is not 
reached: ~ ABa^uaxH xpH 
twenty minutes to three; '-' 
AByx MecHucB xpH roAa two 
months short of three years. 

663..., 6ec... pref of nouns 
& adjectives denoting the state 
of being deprived of, lack' of, 
etc: 6e3BpeAHbifl [b^'i^zvr^ed- 
nty] harmless; desajiKorojib- 
HUH [b^izalkAgol^niy] non- 
-alcoholic; 6e3BKycHua [b^i^s- 
fkus^itsa] lack of taste, bad 
taste; 6e3Jii6AHHH [b**i®zl^ud- 
niy] uninhabited; thinly po- 
pulated; solitary, lonely. 

6e36ojie3HeHH|i}iH [b^'lzbA- 



Pez^n^'inniy] a sh f 6e36ojie3- 
HCH, -a, -o, -bi painless. 

6e3BKycH|biH [b^i^sfkusnty] 
a sh f SesBKvceH, -a, -o, -bi 

eeSBOSBpaTH'blH [b^lZVAZ- 

vratnty] a sh f SesBOSBpaxeH, 
-a, -0, -bi 1. irrevocable, ir- 
retrievable; 2.: -~aH ccy^a 
free grant. 


m^ezna] adv gratis, free of 

niy] a sh f 6e3BbixoAeH -a, 
-o, -bi hopeless, desperate 
{position, etc). 

6e3rpaHHMH biM [b^izgrA- 
n^ich^niy] ash f 6e3rpaHHMeH, 
-a, -o, -bi infinite, boundless. 

6e3flapHJbiH [b^'i^zdarniy] a 
sh f 6e3AapeH, -a, -o, -bi un- 
talented; worthless [painter, 
book, etc). 

6e3fleHCTB|oBaTb [b^i^z^- 
d^eystyvat''] imperf -yio, 
-yeiiib, p -oBaJi, imp -yu be 
inactive, be inoperative, do 

6e3Ae;iyiii I Ka [b^iz^d^i^lush- 
ka] / -KH, -eK trinket; knick- 

6e3AejibKHK [b^i^z^d^el^- 
n^'ik, -g] m -a, -ob col idler, 

n'^ich'^at^] imperf -aio, -aeiub 
col idle, loaf. 

SesAHJa [b^'ezna] / -bi, ~ 
1. abyss; 2. col a great num- 
ber/amount {of); ~a paSoTbi 
lots of work (to do). 

6e3iKa.JiocTH|biH [b*'i^zh:a- 
lesnty] a sh f 6e3>Ka/iocTeH, 

-a, -o, -bi ruthless; pitiless, 

6e3)KH3HeHH|biH [b^'i^zhifz''- 
n^inniy] a sh f 6e3/Kr]3HeH, 
-a, -o, -bi lifeless, dead. 

6e33aC;6TH|biH [b^izzAbot- 
niy] a sh f CessaSoxeH, -a, 
-o, -bi light-hearted; care- 
-free, untroubled. 

6e33aBeTH!biH [b^izzAV^et- 
nty] a sh f 6e33aBeTeH, -a, 
-o, -bi selfless, whole-hearted 
{love, devotion, etc). 

6e3JiHHH|biH [b^i^z^Pich''- 
niy] a sh f SesjiHqen, -a, -o, 
-bi impersonal. 

• CesMOJiBHlbiH [b^i^zmolv- 
niy] a sh f gesMOJiBCH, -a, -o, 
-bi silent, mute; ~aH HOMb 
still night. 

6e3MsiTe«H|biH [b^izm^i^- 
t^ezhniy] a sh f 6e3MHTeHieH, 
-a, -o, -bi peaceful, tranquil; 
happy {childhood, dreams, etc). 

6e3HaAe>KHibiH [b^izuAd^ozh- 
niy] a s/z / 6e3HaAe»LeH, -a, 
-o, -bi hopeless, past hope. 

SeSHpaBCTBCHHlblH [b^i^z- 

nrafs^t^v'^mniy] a sh f 6e3- 
upaBCTBeH, -a, -o, -bi immoral 
{conduct, etc); dissolute {per- 

6630 see 6e3. 

6e3o6HAH|biH [b^iZAb'^idniy] 
a sh f 6e3o6HAeH, -a, -o, -bi 
harmless {joke, remark, etc). 

6e3o6pa3H|e [b^izAbraz^iya] 
n -H, -H 1. ugliness; deformi- 
ty; 2. outrage, disgraceful 
behaviour/ practices; 
«0 3T0 npocTO ~e! it's 
simply a disgrace!; mto aa 
~e! what a shame! 

ee3o6pa3HHHlaTb [b^'iZA- 

— 13 


braz^n^ich^'at''] imperf -aio, 
-aeiub col behave outrageous- 

6e3o6pa3H|biH [H^izAbraz- 
niy] a sh f 6e3o6pa3eH, -a, 
-o, -bi 1. ugly, hideous, de- 
formed; 2. disgraceful, out- 
rageous; ~^biH nocTynoK a 
disgraceful thing to do. 

6e3oroB6pOMHlbiH [b^izagA- 
v6r9ch^ntyl a sh f desoroBO- 
poMeH, -a, -o, -h\ unqualified, 
unconditional; --aH KanHxy- 
jiHUHH unconditional surren- 

eesrnacHOCTJb [b^lzApas- 
nas^t^, -z^'d^] / -h safety; se- 
curity {freedom from danger). 

6e3onacH|biH [b^izApasnty] 
a sh f 6e3onaceH. -a, -o, -bi 
safe {place, etc). 

6e30TBeTCTBeHHlbIH [b^IZAt- 

v^etjtv^inniy] a sh f 6e30T- 
BeicTBeH, -a,, -o, -h irresponsi- 
ble (s/a^emen/, behaviour, etc). 

SespaCoTHUja [b^izrAbot^i- 
tsa] / -bi unemployment. 

6e3pa66TH|biH [b^izrAbot- 
nly] a {also used as a noun 
6e3pa66THlbiH m -oro, 
-bix) unemployed. 

6e3pa3JiHHH|biH [b^izrAz''- 
Pich^niy] a sh f 6e3pa3JiH- 
^eH,-a, -o, -bi indifferent, list- 

6e3paccyAH| biH [b^izrAssud- 
niy] a sh f 6e3paccyAeH, -a, 
-0, -bi rash, reckless. 

6e3yKOpH3HeHHlbIH [b^izu- 

kAr^iz^n^inniy] a sh f 6e3- 
yKopH3HeH, -a, -o, -u irre- 
proachable, perfect; —oe no- 
Be^eHHe unimpeachable con- 

6e3yMH;biH [b^i^zumniy] a 
sh f 6e3yMeH, -a, -o, -u 

1. reckless {headstrong and 
irresponsible); -~^biH nocTynoK 
an act of folly; 2. col dread- 
ful, terrible; 3. col mad, crazy; 
■— biH BsrjiHA wild look; —biii 
npoeKT crazy / hare-brained 

6e3ynpeMH|biH [b^lzup- 

r^ech^nly] a sh f 6e3ynpeHeH, 
-a, -o, -bi irreproachable, 
faultless {work, reputation, 

6e3ycji6BHO [b^izuslovna] I 
adv undoubtedly, absolute- 


II parenthoi course; certain- 
ly; OH, ~, np:B of course he 
is right. 

6e3y--TacTH|biH [b^izuch^as- 
nly] a sh f 6e3yqacTeH, -a, 
-0, -bi apathetic, indifferent, 

6e3biAeHH|biH [b^izid^ey- 
niy] a sh f 6e3biAeeH, -a, -o, 
-bi devoid of principles and 

6eH [b'ey] see 6HTb. 

eeficji [b^eys^a], eefiTecb 
[b^eyt^'is^, -z'^j see 6HTbCH. 

gejiifjia [b^'i^l^'ila] pi 6e- 
jiHJi 1.: CBHHuoBbie — while 
lead; uHHKOBbie ^ zinc white; 

2. ceruse {a cosmetic). 
6eji|HTb [b^i^l^it^] imperf 

-K), CeJIHUIb (-HlUb), p -HJI, 

imp -H, no j 6ejiiiTb [pab^i^- 
Pit^l perf whitewash {walls, 

SejilKa [b^elka] / -kh, ^ok 

6ejiJieTpHCTHKla [b^il^i^tr'i- 
s^t^ika] / -H fiction, belles- 



6eji|6K [b'^i^lok, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB 1. white {of the eye, of 
an egg)', 2. biol, chem albu- 
men; protein. 

6ejioKyp|biH [b^ilAkuriy] a 
sh f ^, -a, -o, -u blond, 

Ccjiopyc [b^iUrus, -z] m -a, 
-OB Byelorussian. 

6ejiopyccK|HH [b^iUrusk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Byelorussian. 

6ejiyrla [b^i^lugg] / -h, ~ 
white sturgeon. 

6ejilbiH [b^elty] a sh f ^, 
-a, -o (-6), -bi (-bi). white 

<> ~biH rpH6 edible boletus 
(a mushroom); —-bih MeAeeAb 
Polar bear; —aa ropHMKa de- 
lirium tremens; cpcflb ~aflHJi 
in broad daylight; aro iuhto 
-^biMH HHTKaMH col that is 
easily seen through. 

6ejibrH|eu[b^i^l''g^iyats, -dz] 
m -Hua, -HueB Belgian. 

6ejibrHHCK|HH [b^'i^l^g^'iy- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, He Belgian. 

6ejib|e [b^i^l^yo] n -h linen 
{underclothes, sheets, etc); 
washing {linen sent to the 
wash); HH^nee —e underwear; 
nocTCJibHoe ~e bed-linen. 

6ejibM|6 [b^'i^l^mo] n -a, pi 
6eJibMa, ^ wall-eye; 
<^ KaK —6 Ha rjiasy like an 

6ejib3Ta}K [b''i^l''etash, -zh] 
m -a 1. first floor; 2. theat 
dress circle. 

6eH3HH [b*'i^n''z^in] m -a 
benzine, petrol; US gas. 

6eper [b^er^ik, -g] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB bank {of a river); 
shore, coast, beach; na ^y 

peKH on the riverside; cohth 
Ha — go ashore; noexaxb na 
~ MOpH go to the seaside. 

6eperoB|6H [b^ir^igAvoy] a 
waterside; riverside; coastal; 
--aH jihhhh coastline. 

6epeiKjiMB|biH [b^ir^'i^zhPi- 
viy] a sh / ~, -a, -o, -u 
thrifty, economical. 

6epe}KH|biH [b^er^izhniy] a 
sh f 6epeH<eH, -a, -o, -bi care- 
ful, cautious; ^oe oTHome- 
HHe careful handling {of 
things); showing utmost con- 
sideration {for people). 

6epe3|a [b^i^r^oza] / -bi, ^ 
birch; KapejibCKan ^-a silver 

6epeMeHHafl [b^'i^r^em^'m- 
naya] I a pregnant; 
II as a noun 6 e p e m e h- 
H I a H / -OH, -bix expectant 

6ep|eHb [b^i^r^'ech*'] imperf 
-ery, -en^emb, -eryr, p -er, 
-erjia, imp -ern 1. save {pre- 
vent against expense, loss, or 
waste); spare {avoid using or 
use frugally); — eMb a^opoBbe 
take care of one's health; 
~e^b CHJibi spare strength; 
^e^h aeHbPH economize; 2. 
spare {save from pain, harm, 
or misfortune); 

<> ~eHb KaK scHHuy oKa 
guard as the apple of one's 

6ep|eHbCJi [b''i^r''ech''s''a] 
imperf -erycb, -e>KembCH, 
-eryiCH, p -ercH, -erJiacb, imp 
-ePHCb, -erHTecb: --erH(Te)cb! 
look out!, beware!; ~erH- 
(Te)cb aBTOMo6HJiH! watch out 
for the carl, mind the carl 

15 -- 


6epH [b^i^r^I] see 6paTb. 

6epHCb [b^i^r^is'*, -z^], 6e- 
pHxecb [b^'i^r^it^is^, -z^] see 

6epji6rla [b^i^rloga] / -h, 
~ den, lair. 

6epy [b^i^ru], 6epeuib [b^'i^- 
rMsh, -zh] see 6paTb. 

6epycb [b^i^rus^, -z^], 6e- 
peiubcfl [b'^i^r^dshs^'a] see 
6paTbCH. ,- 

6ec... see 6e3... 

SeceAJa [b^i^s^eda] / -h. -- 

1. talk, conversation; AeJioeaa 
— a business talk; ApyJKecKan 
—a friendly talk / chat; saAy- 
uieBHaH ~a heart-to-heart 
talk; 2. debate, discussion; 
npoBecTH -—y hold a discus- 
sion; give a talk. 

6eceA|Ka [b^i'^s^etka] / -kh, 
-OK summer-house, arbour, 

6eceA|oBaTb [b^i^s^edavat^] 
Imperf -yio, -yeiiib, p -oeaji, 
imp -yft talk {with, to). 

eec|HTb [b^i^s^it^] imperf 
6emy, 6ecHiub, p -hji. imp -ri, 
B3i6ecMTb [vzb^i^s^it^] perf 
enrage, infuriate, madden. 

6ec|HTbC5i [b^i^s^lttsa] /m- 
pe/-/,6emycb, 6ecHiiibC5i, p -hji- 
ca, -HJiacb, /mp -HCb, -Hiecb, 
B3:6ecHTbcsi [vzb^i^s^ittja] 
perf 1. go mad, become rabid; 

2. fig rage, be in rage; perf 
also get /fly into a rage, get 

6ecK0HeMH|biH [b^iskAn^e- 
ch^niy] a sh f 6eCK0HeqeH, 
-a, -0, -bi endless, intermi- 
nable, eternal, perpetual; 
~oe npocTpaHCTBo infinite 

SecnapTHHHHH [b^ispArt**iy- 
niy] I a non-party; 
1 1 as a noun 6ecnapTHfi- 
H I u H m -oro, -bix non-party 

6ecne4H|biH [b^i^sp^ech^- 
niy] a sh f Cecne^eH, -a, -o, 
-bi light-hearted, carefree 
{person, life, etc). 

6ecnjiaTH|biM [b^i^splatnty] 
a sh f 6ecnJiaTeH, a, -o, -u 
free (of charge); --bm Chjict 
complimentary ticket; —Mfi 
BXOA free admission. 

6ecnji6flH|biH [b^i^splod- 
niy] a sh f SecnjioAen, -a, 
-o, -bi 1. barren, sterile {soil, 
etc)', 2. fig vain, futile {at- 
tempt, effort, etc). 

SecnoBopOTHlbiH [b**ispavA- 
rotniy] a sh f SecnoBOpoTCH, 
-a, -o, -bi final, irrevocable 
{decision, etc). 

6ecnoK6iHTb [b^ispAkoif*] 
imperf -lo, -Hiub, p -hji, imp 
-H 1. disturb, troulide, bother; 
He HaAo ~HTb ero no TaKHM 
nycTHKaw don't bother him 
with such trifles; 2. worry 
{cause anxiety); make anxious 
/ uneasy. 

6ecnoK6{HTbcsi [b^ispAko- 
ittsa] imperf -locb, -HuibCH, 
p -HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -Pica y 
-HTecb 1. worry, feel anx- 
ious / uneasy; oh ^htch o 3ao- 
poBbe MaTepH he is anxious 
for his mother's health; 2. 
bother {trouble oneself). 

GecnoKOHHlwH [b^'ispAkoy- 
nly] a sh f decnoKoen, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. uneasy, restless, per- 
turbed; 2. troublesome Xper- 
son, etc). 



decnojiesHlbiH [b^ispAl^ez- 
niy] a sh f 6ecnoJie3eH, -a, 
-o, -bi useless, of no avail; 
— aH Tpara BpeMCHH waste of 

6ecn6MOiij,HlbiH [b^i^spo- 
inash*':niy] a sh f 6ecn6MO- 
mcH, -a, -0, -u helpless; im- 
potent, feeble. 

SecnopflfljOK [b'lspAr^adak, 
-g] m -Ka, pi -kh, -kob 1. dis- 
order, confusion; 2. pi disor- 
ders, riots. 

SecnocaAOHHbiH (b^ispAsa- 
dach^nty] a: -- nepejiex non- 
-stop flight. 

6ecnoiu,aAHlbiM [b^ispA- 

sh^:adnty] a sh f 6ecnoma- 
ACH, -a, -o, -bi merciless, 

6ecnpaBHlbiH [b^'i^spravniy] 
a sh f decnpaBCH, -a, -o, -u 
rightless, without any rights. 

6ecnpepbiBH|biH [b^ispr'^i^- 
rtvniy] a sh f SecnpepbiBen, 
-a, -o, -bi continuous, inces- 

6ecnpH36pHluH [b^ispr^'izor- 
n*y] a sh f 6ecnpH36peH, -a, 
-o, -bi homeless {children, etc)\ 
neglected {household, etc). 

6ecnpHMepH|biH [b^ispr^i- 
m^erniy] a s/i /6ecnpHMepe4, 
-a, -o, -bi unexampled, un- 

6ecnyTH|biH [b^i^sputnty] 
a sh f SecnyieH, -a, -o, -bi 
dissolute, dissipated. 

6eccHJibH[biH [b^'i^s^'s^il^- 
nty] a sh f 6eccH.aeH, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. weak, feeble; 2. power- 
less, impotent. 

SeccMepTHlbiii [b'^i^ssm^ert- 
nty] a sh f 6eccMepTen, -a, 

-o, -bi immortal; undying 
{glory, etc). 

6eccMbicjieHH|biH [b^i^ssmt- 
s^Pinniy] a sh f 6eccMbicjieH, 
-a, -o, -bi senseless, meaning- 
less; ~biH BsrjiHA vacant 

SeccoBecTHibiH [b^'i^ssov'^is- 
niy] a sh f 6ecc6BecTeH, -a, 
-o, -bi unscrupulous, shame- 

6ecco3HaTejibH|biH [b^issAZ- 
naf'il^nty] a sh f 6ecco3Ha- 
TCJieH, -a, -o, -bi unconscious 
(/) deprived of conscious- 
ness; 2) unintentional); 6hnh 
B --0M cocTOflHHH be uncou- 
scious; ~biH jKecT ungoverned 

eeccoHHHula [b^i^sson^n^'i- 
ts9] / -bi sleeplessness, in- 

eeccnopHO [b^i^ssporna] I 
adv undisputably, undoubt- 

II parenth to be sure; beyond 

eeccpoHH'ibiH [b^'i^ssroch^- 
nty] a sh f 6eccp6qeH, -a, -o, 
-bi termless {treaty, etc); per- 
manent {passport, etc). 

6eccTbiAHlbiH [b'^i^sstidniy] 
a sh f 6eccTbiAeH, -a, -o, -bi 
shameless, brazen; — bifl no- 
CTynoK a shameless thing 
to do. 

6ecTaKTH0CTlb [b^i^stakt- 
nas^t^, -z'^d''] / -h, -eft tact- 
lessness; piece of tactless- 
ness; AonycTHTb ~b make a 
tactless blunder. 

6ecTaKTH|biH [b^'i^staktniy] 
a sh f 6ecTaKTeH, -a, o, -bi 

- 17 - 


6ecTOJiK6B|biH (b''istAlk6- 
viy] a s/i / --, -a, -o, -bi 
1. stupid; ~biH MeJiOBCK 
muddle-head; 2. incoherent 
{speech, report, etc). 

6ecxapaKTepH|biH [b^iskhA- 
rakt^'irnty] a sh f decxapaK- 
TepeH, -a, -o, -u weak-willed, 


khAZ^ays^t^v^inn9s''t^, -z^d^] 
/ -H careless and wasteful 
management; wastefulness. 

6eci^BeTH|biH [b^i^stsv^'et- 
nty] a sh f 6ecu,BeTeH, -a, 
-o, -bi colourless {also fig). 

6eci](ejibH|biH [b^i^stsePniy] 
a sh f 6ecuejieH, -a. -o, -u 
aimless; idle {useless); ^bift 
cnop pointless argument; ~bie 
paaroBopbi idle talk. 

6ecueHHlbiH [b^i^stsenniy] 
a sh f 6ecueHeH, -a, -o, -bi 
priceless {precious). 

decucHOK [b'^i^stjenak, -g] 
m col: 3a ^ cheap^ for next 
to nothing; KynHTb 3a — buy 
for a song. 

SecHejioeeHHlbiH [b^'ish^'ch^i- 
lAv^'ech^niy] a sh f 6ecqe- 
Jioeeqen, -a, -o -bi inhuman, 

6ecMMCJieHH]biH [b^'i^sh^'ch^i- 
s^l^mniy] a sh f 6ecmiCJieH, 
-a, -o, -bi countless, innumer- 
able; ~oeMH6:»cecTBO infinite 
number (of); ~oe kojih^cctbo 
pas times out of number; 
~bie Bonpocbi a great many 

6ec»iyBCTBeHH|biH [b^i^sh''- 
ch*'iis''t^v''mnty] a sh f 6ec- 
HyBCTBeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. insen- 
sible, unconscious: b ^om 

cocTOHHHH unconscious; 2. un- 
feeling, callous, heartless. 

GcTOH [b^i^ton] m -a con- 

GeiueHCTBJo [b'eshanstva] 
n -a \. med hydrophobia, ra- 
bies; 2. fury, rage; npHHXH 
B ~o fly into a rage; ao- 
BecTH no —a enrage, drive 
wild; B —e in a frenzy, in 
a rage. 

6euieH|wH [b^eshaniy] a 
1. med rabid, mad; --an co- 
6aKa rabid dog; 2. furious, 
violent; excessive; —bin tcmh 
furious pace; 

<> —we ACHbrH easy money; 
fabulous sums of money; 
--bie ueHbi exhorbitant / out- 
rageous prices. 

6eiu^ [b^'i^shu] see 6ecHTb. 

Seuiycb [b^i^shus'', -z^] see 


6H6jiHOTeK|a [b^'ibl^iAt^eka] 
/ -H, — library; ny^Jimnaa 
— a public library; ~a-ne- 
pe^BHJKKa mobile library. 

6H6jiHOTeKap|b [b^ibl^'iA- 
t*'ek9r^] m -h, -eft librarian. 

6ha6h [b^idon] m -a, -ob 
can {for liquids). 

6HeHH|e [b^iyen^iya] n -h, 
-H beating, pulsation; 
<> — e ]KH3HH the throbbing 
of life. 

6hji [b^il] see 6vnh. 

Shjict [b^il^et, -d] m -a, 
-ob 1. ticket {concert, rail- 
way, etc); npoesAHOH ^ ticket 
{for travelling); — ao KaJiy- 
FH ticket to Kaluga; — b 
OAHH KOHeu single ticket; — 
B TeaTp [b khho] theatre 
[cinema] ticket, ticket to the 


- IS-- 

theatre [cinema]; ^ Ha koh- 
uepT ticket for a concert; 
2. card (a document, certifi- 
cate); npo4)coK)3HHft — trade- 
-union card; MJiencKHH •— 
membership card; 
<0> npHrjiacHxejibHbiH ~ invi- 
tation card. 

6HJ1CSI [b^ils^'a], 6Mjiacb 
[hollas*', -z^] see 6HTbCH. 

eHHOKjijb [b^inokl^] m -h, 
-eS: noJiCBOH — b field-glass; 
TeaTpaJibiTbiH — b opera-glass. 

6hht [b^int, -d] m -a, -6b 
bandage; HajiojKHib — band- 
age, dress. 

SHHTloeaTb [b^intAvat^] 
imperf -yio, -yeiiib, p -oeaji, 
imp -yH, 3ai6HHTOBaTb [za- 
b^intAvat''] perf bandage, 

6Horpa(t)Hlsi [b^iAgraf^iys] 
/. -H, -H biography. 

CHOJior [b^'iobk, -g] m -a, 
-OB biologist. 

6HOJi6rH|$i [b^iAlog^iya] f 
-H biology. 

6HpiKla [b^irzha] / -h, ~ 
exchange {the place where 
business is transacted by bro- 
kers, e/c); 4)6HAOBa5i --a stock 
exchange; TOBapHan --a com- 
modity exchange; ~a Tpy^a 
labour exchange; Mepnan ^a 
illegal currency exchange. 

6HpMaHleu [b^irman^itj, 
-dz] m -ua, -ucB Burmese. 

6HpMaHCK|HH [b^irmans- 
k**iy] a -aH, -oe, -He Burmese. 

6hc [b'^is, -z] int encore!; 
HcnoJiH^Tb [nexb, nrpaxb u 
m. n.] Ha ~ perform [sing, 
play, etc] an encore. 

6uTB|a [b^'itva] / -u, ^ 

battle; --a noA Bopo^HHOM/ 
npH BopoAHHe battle of Bo- 
rodino; ^a Ha MapHC battle 
on the Marne; ^a 3a BepJirin 
battle for Berlin. 

6htk6m [b^itkom] adv: — 
Ha6HTbift cram-full, packed; 
3aJi 6biJi — Ha6HT the hall 
was packed to capacity. 

6HTb [b^it^] imperf 6bio, 
6bemb, p 6hji, imp 6eH, no- 
6H|Tb [pAb^it**] perf no6bK), 
no6beuib, p -ji, imp no6eH, 
npo6H|Tb [prAb^it''] perf npo- 
6beT, p -JI 1. (no6HTb) beat, 
thrash, drub; 2. {no perf) 
beat, strike; ^ no JiHuy strike 
in / across the face; ^ b 6a- 
pa6aH beat a drum; 3. {no 
perf) fig combat; — no hcao- 
ciaTKaM combat shortcom- 
ings;4. {no perf) slaughter(ca^ 
tie); 5. (no6HTb) break {plates, 
etc); 6. {no perf) gush out, 
spurt {of water, blood, etc); 
7. (npo6HTb) sound {alarm); 
strike, chime; nacbi 6bioT ceMt 
the clock is striking seven; 
— TpCBory 1) sound the alarm; 
2) fig raise an alarm; — ot- 
66h 1) mil give the last-post 
signal; 2) fig beat a retreat; 
<> — B jiaAouiH clap one's 
hands; -- no KapMany col hit 
hard; cost a pretty penny; 
^ 6aK;iyuiH col = twiddle 
one's thumbs. 

6HTbCJi [b^ittsa] imperf 
6bKx:b, 6beuibCH, p 6hjich, 6h- 
jiacb, imp 6eHCH, 6eHTecb 1. 
fight, struggle, battle; 2. 
knock, strike, batter {against 
smth, repeatedly); 3. //^strug- 
gle {with), contend {with); 

-- 19 -~ 


^ HaA peiueHHeM aa^a^H 
struggle with a problem; 4. 
beat, pulsate; cep^ue 6beTcyi 
the heart 'is beating; 
<> — 06 saKjiaA bet. 

6h4 [b^ich^, -j^'] m -a, -efi 
1. whip, lash; 2. //gr scourge. 

6jiar|o [blaga] n -a, pi -a, 
'-, -aM good (s/7i//z contribut- 
ing to welfare, happiness, etc); 
blessing; MaxepHaJibRbie ~a 
material wealth; ^ejiaw BaM 
Bcex/BCHKHX ~ I wish you 
the best of luck, I wi'sh you 
every happiness. 

6jiaroAaplHTb [blagadAr^it^] 
imperf -16, -Huib, p -hji, imp 
-H, no:6jiaroflapHTb [pabbga- 
dAr^it^^i perf thank; 
<> ~ib sac! thank you! 

6jiaroAapHOCTlb [blagAdar- 
nas^'t^, -z^d''] / -h, pi -h, -efi 
1. gratitude; qyBCTBO ~h 
(feeling of) gratitude; ne cto- 
HT -—H don't mention it; 2. pi 

6jiaroflapfl[bl9g8dAr^a] prep 
with dat denoting reason, 
cause, dependence on smb's 
help thanks to; owing to; h 
noJiyqHJi sry KHHry ~ BaM 
I got this book thanks to 
you; ~ xopomeft noro^e sk- 
CKypcHH npoiiijia y^awHO 
thanks to the fine weather 
the excursion was a success; 
-O' — TOMy, HTO... owing to 
the fact that..., thanks to 
the fact that... 

6jiaronojiyHH|e [bbgapAlu- 
ch^'iya] n -h prosperity, well- 

6jiaronojiyHHO [bbgapA- 
luch^na] adv well, happily, 

safely; Bce KonqHJiocb «-' 
everything ended happily/ 
wel 1 . 

6jiarono;iyHH|biH [blagapA 
luch^niy] a sh f 6jiaronoJiy 
qeH, -a, -o, -bi happy {end, 
etc)', safe {arrival, etc). 

6jiaronpH^TH|biH [bbga 
pr^iyatniy] a sh f 6jiaronpHH 
Ten, -a, -o, -bi favourable 
fair {weather, etc). 

6jiaropa3yMHlbiH [bbgarA 
zumniy] a sh f 6jiaropa3yMeH 
-a, -o, -bi sensible, reasonable 

6jiarop6flH|biH [bbgArod 
niy] a sh f 6jiarop6;ieH, -a 
-o, -bi noble {1) action, etc; 2) 
birth, etc; 3) metal). 

ejiarocKjiOHHOCTlb [i)bgA- 
sklonnas'^t'', -z'^d^] / -h fa- 
vour, goodwill; npoHBJiHTb 
—b K KOMy-ji. favour smb; 
noJibsoBaxbCH qbeft-ji. —bio 
stand high in smb's favour. 

6jiarococTO«HHle [bbgasa- 
stAyan^iya] n -h well-being, 
welfare; nojiHHTb -—e raise 
the well-being. 

CjiaroycxpoeHHlbiH [bbga- 
ustroyanniy] a [pa] comfort- 
able, well-appointed; —an 
iCBapTHpa well-built modern 

6jia«eHCTBlo [blAzhenstva] 
n -a bliss; HcnbiTbmaTb ~o 
be in perfect bliss; 6biTb Ha 
Bepxy —a = be in the sev- 
enth heaven. 

6jiaHK [blank, -g] m -a, -ob 
(printed) form; hhctbih — 
blank form. 

6jieAH|eTb [bl^'i^dn^et^] im- 
perf -eio, -eeiub, noiSjieAHexb 



[pabl^i^dn^et^] perf grow 
pale; pale (a/so fig)\ 6jieAHeTb 
OT CTpaxa turn white /pale 
with fear. 

SjiCAHlbiH [bl^edniy] a sh f 
6;ieAeH, -a, -o, -u (-b'l) pale, 

6jiecK [bl^esk, -zg] m -a 
1. brilliance, brightness; glit- 
ter {of metals); 2. fig bril- 
liance (0/ the mind, etc). 

6jiecH!yTb [bl'^i^snut^] perf 
-y, -euib, p -yji, imp -\\ flash 
{also fig); ^yjia mojihhh the 
lightning flashed; --yxb sna- 
HHHMH make a brilliant dis- 
play of one's knowledge; 
y Hero ^yjia MbicJib an idea 
flashed across his mind;y Hero 
'-yjia HaAejK^a there was a 
flash / ray of hope. 

ejiecTJexb [bl^'i^s^t^et^] 
imperf 6jiemy, -Huib (6jie- 
meiub), p -eji, imp -h sparkle, 
shine {also fig); glitter {of 
metals, etc); oh He Sjiemex 
yMOM he is no genius. 

6jiecTHm]HH [bl^i^s^t^a- 
sh^'iiy] a [pa] -aH, -ee, -He 
brilliant {also fig); --ne r;ia- 
3a sparkling eyes. 

6jiH)KaHUi|HH [bl^'izhayshty] 
a -aH, -ee, -ne 1. superl of 
6jih3khh; 2. next, immediate; 
npHHHMaxb ~ee yqacxHe b... 
take a personal interest in... 

6jiH«e [bl^izhi^] comp of 
6;iH3KHH & corresp adv. 

6jih3 [bl^is^, -z^] prep with 
gen denoting close vicinity, 
position close to smth: -— AOMa 
near the house, close to the 
house; ~ ;top6rH just off the 

6J1H3K HH [bl^'isk'^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f 6.ih3ok, -a, -o, 
-H (-h) 1. near {not far); na 
~0M paccxoHHHH " at a short 
distance; at close range; 2. 
dear, intimate {friend, etc); 
~jie JiioAH the dear ones; 3. 
accurate, faithful {copy, etc); 
— HH nepcBOA close transla- 

6J1H3KO [bPiska] adv near, 
close; H ero ~ 3HaK) I know 
him intimately. 

6jiH3Heu|bi [bl^iz^nH^tsf] 
pi -OB {sing Sjihshcu m -a) 
twins; xpoe [nexBepo] -—ob 
triplets [quadruplets]. 

6jiH30pyK|HH [bl^izAruk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He, sh f ^, -a, 
-o, -H short-sighted {also fig). 

6.JiH30cxlb [bPizas^t*', -z^'d'^J 
/ -H 1. closeness, proximity; 
2. intimacy. 

6jihh [bl^in] m -a, -6b pan- 

<> nepebiH ^ komom prov 
= you must spoil before you 

6jiok I [blok, -g] m -a, -ob 
technol pulley. 

6jiok II [blok, -g] m a, 
-OB bloc. 

6jioKaA|a [bUkads] / -u 

Sjigkhox [bUknot, -d] m 
-a, -OB notebook, writing- 

6J10HAHH [blAn^'d^in] m -a, 
-OB blond. 

6jiOH;iMH|Ka [bUn^d^inka] / 
-KH, -OK blonde. 

gjioxja [bUkha] / -h, pi 
6ji6xh, -—, -aM flea. 

6jiy)Kfllaxb [bluzhdat^'l im- 

21 — 


perf -aK), -aeiiib roam, wan- 

6jiy3|a [bluza] / -bi, ^ 

gjiyaJKa [blusks] / -kh, -ok 
blouse {worn by women). 

6jiid;i|o [bl^uda] n -a, pi 
-a, --, -aM 1. dish (1) con- 
tainer, 2) a kind of food); 
2. course {of a meal). 

Sjiibfliue [bl^'uttsaj n -ua, 
pi -ua, -eu, -uaM saucer. 

6o6 [bop, -b] m -a, -6b 
bean {plant and seed); 
<> ocxaTbCfl Ha ^slxcoI = get 
nothing for one's trouble. 

6o6|ep [bAb^or] m -pa, -poB 
beaver {fur). 

6o6p [bobr] m -a, -6b bea- 
ver {an animal). 

6or [bokh, -gh] m -a, pi 
-H, -6b god; 

<0> ~ ere snaex! God knows!; 
^ c to66h! l)God bless you!; 
2) nothing of the kind! 

6oraTCTB|o [bAgatstva] n 
-a, — 1. wealth, riches; 2. 
magnificence, richness. 

6oraT|biH [bAgatty] a sh f 
'-.-a, -o, -bi rich {1) people; 
2) harvest, etc; 3) ornamenta- 
tion, etc); cTpana, — aa yrjieM 
a country rich in coal. 

6oraTbip|b [bagAtlr^] m -n, 
-eft 1. hero {in legends); 2. fig 
a man of exceptional strength, 

Sorane [bAgach^i] comp of 
6oraTbiH & corresp adv. 

66ApocT|b [bodras^'t^, -z^d^] 
/ -H cheerfulness; vigour {vi- 

SoApcTB j OBaxb [bodrsty vat*"] 
imperl -yio, -yeuib, p -osaji, 

imp -yft stay up {the night); 
keep awake; be awake. 

eoApjbiH [Dodriy] a sh f 
~,-,a,-o, -bi (-bi) cheerful; brisk 
{pace, etc). 

6oeB|6H [bayi^voy] a 1. 
battle {attr), combat {attr)', 
b — 'OH roTOBHocTH iu combat 
readiness, combat-ready; ~6h 
Ayx fighting spirit, morale; 
2. bellicose; militant; 
<> ~6e KpemcHHC baptism by 
fire; ~6h napCHb co/ go-ahead 

66eK [b6y8k, -g] see 66h- 


66eH [boyan] see 66hhh. 

6oeu [bAyetj, -dz] m 6oHua, 
pi 6oHUbi, 6ohu6b soldier {an 
enlisted man). 

6o)KecTBeHHlbiH [bAzhes^'t''- 
v^mniy] a sh f 6o>KecTBeH, 
-a, -o, -bi divine. 

6oH [boy] m 66h (66io), pi 
6oH, 6oeB 1. battle, fight, 
action, combat; 2.: 6apa6aH- 
HbiH -- beat of drum; ~ na- 
c6b striking of a clock, 

eoHKJHH [b6yk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f 66eK, -a, -o, 
-H 1. smart, brisk; sharp 
{fellow); 2. glib {speech, etc); 
3.: ~a5iT0pr6BJiH brisk trade; 
--an yjiHua busy street. 

6ohk6t [bAykot, -d] m -a 

66hh|h [b6yn^a] / -h, 66eH 
1. slaughter-house; 2. slaugh- 
ter, massacre. 

66hc$i [b6ys^a], SoHTecb 
[boyt^is'', -z^] see 6oHTbC5i. 

6oHua [bAytja], 6ohu6b 
[bAytsof, -vj see 6oeu. 


— 22 — 

6oK [bok, -g] m -a (-y),p/ 
'3, -CB side {of the body or 
of an object); no ~aM on both 

O foK 6 6oK side by side; 
noa, 60KOM col quite near. 

6oKaji [bAkal] tn -a, -ob 
glass, goblet. 

Cokob|6h [bakAvoy] a lat- 
eral; side (attr); 
<> —aji KaHKa naut rolling. 

foKOM [bokam] adv side- 

60KC [boks, -gz] m -a sport 

GoKcep [bAks^'or] m -a, -ob 
boxer, pugilist. 

6ojirapiHH [bAlgar^'in] m 
-HHa, pi -bi, ~ Bulgarian. 

6ojirapcKJHH [bAlgarsk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Bulgarian. 

fojiee [bol^iya] arfy used to 
form comp: ,-~ KpacHBbiii more 
beautiful; ^ HHiepecHo more 
interesting; ~ npocToft sim- 

<C> ~ HjiH MCHee more or 
less; ~ Toro moreover; tcm 
~, HTO... all the more so 
since...; kc ^ mcm not more 

6ojie3HeHH'biH [bAl^ez^n^m- 
niy] a sh f 6oJie3iieH, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. sickly {person)) 2. pain- 

GojiesHlb [bAl^'ez^'n'*] f -h, 
-eft illness; disease. 

fiojiiexb I [bA^et''] imperf 
-eio, -eeuib 1. be ill; 2. fig col 
root {for a sports team, etc). 

gojijeTb II [b\\^ei^] imperf 
-HT, p -eji ache, hurt; mo 
y sac —I'lT? where do you 
feel pain? 

eojioTJo [bAlota] n -a, ^ 
bog, swamp. 

60JIT axb I [bAltat^j imperf 
-aio, -aeiub dangle {legs, etc). 

6ojiTiaTb II [bAltat^] imperf 
-aK), -aemb col chatter, babble, 
prattle; ^aTb B3A0p talk non- 

6ojiT|aTbCR [bAltattja] im- 
perf -aKDCb, -aembCH col 1. 
dangle {from a string, etc); 
hang loosely {of clothes, etc); 
2. lounge, loiter. 

6ojiTOBH|fl [baltAvn''a] / -ji 
col chatter, idle talk. 

6o.iib [boP] / -H, -eft pain 
{physical, mental). 

eojibtMua [bAl^n^itja] / 
-bi, ~ hospital {for care of 
the sick). 

66jibHO [bol'^na] I adv badly 
{hurt oneself, hit smb, etc); 
II impers predic: mhc ~ it 
hurts; ~? does it hurt?;MHe 
~ BiiAexb... it grieves me to 

CojibHloii [bAPnoy] I a sh 
f 66jieH, -a, {no n), -u sick 
{in poor health); bad {heart, 
tooth, etc); sore {eye, etc); 
11 as a noun 6ojibH|6H m 
-oro, -bix invalid, patient; 
<> ~6h Bonpoc sore / burning 
subject / question; ~-6eMecT0 
sore spot. 

Cojibiue fbol'^shi^j I comp 
of 6oJibUi6H; 
(I comp of MHoro; 
\\\ in neg sentences: ^ He 
no more; no longer; not... 
any more; h ~ Ty;ia He 
noftAV I shan't go there any 
more / again; — ne 6yAy 
I won't do it again; 



<> '-' Bcero most of all; best 
of all. 

6ojibujHHCTB|6 [bal^shinst- 
v6] n -a majority {greater 
part); noAasJiHiomee '— 6 over- 
whelming majority. 

6ojibm|6H [bAl^'shoy] a -an, 
-6e, -He 1. big, large {in size, 
volume, etc); great {of more 
than ordinary size, extent, 
duration, etc); 2. great {im- 
portant, eminent, illustrious); 
^ — aH 6yKBa capital letter; 
— HMH 6yKBaMH in block let- 

66m6\& [bomf a] / -w, ~ 
bomb . 

6oM6apAHpjoBaTb [bambar- 
d^irAvat^] imperf -yK), -yeuib, 
p -osaJi, imp -yfl bomb; bom- 
bard {also fig). 

SoMSapAHpoBiUHK [bambar- 
d'^irofsh^'-.ik, -g] m -a, -ob 
av bomber. 

6op|eu [bAr^ets, -dz] m -ua, 
-UOB 1. champion {a defender 
of another or of a cause); 
fighter {one who fights); ~eu 
3a MHp peace champion; 
2. sport wrestler. 

6opMOT|aTb [barmAtat^] im- 
perf 6opMoqy, SopMOMCUib, p 
-aJi, imp 6opMoqH mutter, 

6opoflla [barAda] / -bi, ace 
66po;^y, pi 66pOAbi, 6op6A, -aM 
beard {on a man's chin). 

^GpoAaBJKa [barAdafka] / 
-KH, -OK wart. 

6opo3;tla [barAzda] / -bi, pi 
66po3;;bi, 6op63A, -aM furrow 
{made by plough). 

6opl6TbCJi [bArotlja] imperf 
-loci?, OopepibCH, p -ojicji, 

-ojiacfa, imp -HCb, -HTecb 

1. fight, struggle, combat; 

2. sport wrestle. 

6opT [bort, -d] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB side, board {of a ship); 
Ha — y on board; Bbi6pocHTb 
3a 6opT throw overboard {also 
fig); qeJiOBCK 3a ~om man 

6opb6ia [bAr^ba] / -bi 
I. fight, struggle; 2. sport 

6ochk6m [bas^'ikom] adv 

6oc16h [bAsoy] a sh f ^, 
-a, -o, -bi barefooted. 

6ocoh6>k|kh [basAnoshk^'ij 
pi -eK {sing 6ocoH6H(K|a / -h) 
sandals {light summer foot- 
wear) . 

eoxamiKla [bAtan^ika] / -h 

66thk|h [bdt^ik^i] pi ■ -ob 
{sing 66thk m -a) high (rub- 
ber) overshoes. 

6othh|kh [bAt^ink^'i] pi -ok 
{sing 6othh|ok m -Ka) boots; 
US high shoes. 

66m |Ka [boch^'ka] / -kh, -eK 
barrel, cask. 

6oK)cb [bAyus'', -z^],6oHiiib- 
ca [bAishs^a] see 6oHTbCH. 

6on3H{b fbAyaz^n^] / -h 
dread, fear. 

6onTbcsi [bAyattsa] imperf 


6oHJiacb, imp 66hch, SoHTecb 
be afraid, fear; BaM neqero — ' 
you have nothing to fear. 

6pa3Hji|eu, [brAz^il^itj, -dz] 
m -bua, -bues Brazilian. 

SpasHjibCKJHH [brAz^il^- 
sk^iy] a -aH, -oe, -ne Brazil- 

6 a 

24 — 

6paK I [brak, -g] m -a, -ob 
marriage,- wedlock. 

6paK II [brak, -g] m -a 
damaged or defective articles, 

6paH|MTb [brAnh't^] imperf 
-10, -Huib, p -HJi, imp -H scold 
{a child, etc); abuse {use bad 

6pacjieT [brAS^l^et, -d] m 
•a, -OB bracelet, bangle. 

6paT [brat, -d] m -a, pi 
-bH, -bCB brother; ABOibpoA- 
HbiH — cousin. 

Spaxb [brat^] imperf 6epy, 
6epeiiib, p 6paJi, 6paJia, 6pa- 
Jio, 6paJiH, imp 6epH, BSjiTb 
[vz^at^] perf B03bMy, Bosb- 
Meiiib, p B3HJI, BSHJia, imp 
B03bMH 1. take {1) get hold 
of, grasp; 2) time, material, 
etc; 3) the blame, responsi- 
bility, etc; 4) charge by way 
of payment); — BsaflMbi bor- 
row, obtain on loan; 2. hire, 

<> ~- Bcpx take the upper 
hand; ~ npHMep c Koro-Ji. 
follow smb's example; -— 
ceSfl B pyKH pull oneself 
together; -- cboh cJiOBa o6- 
paxHO eat one's words; — 
Koro-Ji. Ha nopyKH bail smb 
out; saBOA bbhji ero Ha no- 
pyKH he was remanded in 
the care of the plant. 

6paTbC5i [brattja] imperf 6e- 
pycb, 6epembCH, p 6paJicH, 
CpaJiacb, 6paji6cb, 6paJiHCb, 
imp 6epHCb, 6epHTecb, BSflib- 
ca [vz^'attja] perf sosbMycb, 

B03bMeilIbCH, p B3HJ1CH, B3H- 
JiaCb, imp B03bMHCb, B03bMH- 

Tecb 1. touch {with the hand); 

perf also take hold of; ~ 3a 
pyKH join hands; 2. under- 
take {to do smth., a task); 
get down to, start. 

6peBH|6 [br^i^vno] n -a, pi 
6peBHa, 6peBeH, 6peBHaM log 
{of wood). 

6peA [br^et, -d] m -a 1. de- 
lirium; 2. fig col gibberish. 

6peA|HTb [br^ed'^it^] imperf 
6pe>Ky, -Hiub, p -HJI be delir- 
ious, rave. 

Spesrlaxb [br^ezgat''] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib 1. be squeam- 
ish; 2. in neg sentences: oh 
He — aeT HHKaKHMH cpeACT- 
BaMH he does not scruple to 
use any means. 

SpesrjiMBibiH [br^i^zgPivty] 
a sh f ^ , -a, -o, -bi squeam- 
ish, fastidious, 

6pe3eHT [br^i^z^ent, -d] m 
-a tarpaulin. 

6peMl5i [br^em^a] n -chh 
burden, load. 

SpejCTM [br^i^s^t^i] imperf 
-Ay, -Aeuib, p 6peJi, -Jia, imp 
-AH a concrete movement in 
a definite direction [cf 6po- 
AHTb I] plod, trudge; stroll. 

epCH [br^'ey] see 6pHTb. 

6peHCS! [br^eys^a], SpeHrecb 
[br^eyt^is^, -z^] see 6pHTbCH. 

6peK) [br'^eyu], Speeiub 
[br^eyash, -zh] see 6pHTb. 

6peK)Cb [br'^eyus^], Speeujb- 
cfl [br^eyashs^a] see 6pHTbc5i. 

6pHraA|a [br^igada] f -u, 
— ' brigade {also mil); team 
{a group of people); crew {on 
a train). 

6pHJiJiHaHT, 6pHJibsiHT [br^'i- 
l^'yant, -d] m -a, -ob diamond, 

- 25 - 


6pHTaHCK|HH [br^itansk^'iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He British. 

6pMTB|a [br^'itva] / -bi, — 
razor; 6e3onacHaH -—a safety 

6pHTb [br^it^] imperf 6peio, 
6peeiiib, p 6pHJi, imp 6peH, 
noi6pHTb [pAbr^it^] perf siiave 
{remove hair). 

epHTbca [br^itt^a] imperf 
6peK)Cb, 6peembCH, p 6pHJiCH, 
imp 6peHCH, 6peHTecb, noj- 
SpMTbCJi [pAbr^ittsa] perf 
shave {oneself). 
- 6poB|b [brof'', -v^] / -H, pi 
-H, -eft eyebrow; 
<> nonacTb He b ~b, a b rjias 
^ hit the nail on the head. 

6pOA fbrot,-cl] m-a(-y)ford. 

6po;i|HTb I [brAd^'it^] im- 
perf 6po}Ky, 6p6;tHuib, p -hji, 
imp -H [c/ 6pecTH] wander, 
i-oam, stroll. 

6pOAiHTb II [brAd^it^] im- 
perf 6p6AHT, p -HJI chem fer- 

6poflflria [brAd^aga] m -h, 
~ tramp; US hobo. 

^poHsja [bronza] / -bi 
bronze (ij an alloy; 2) a 
work or works of art made 
of bronze). 

6poHXHT [brAnkh^it, -d] m 
-a bronchitis. 

Spocjaxb [brAsat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, 6p6c{HTb [bro- 
s'^it^] perf 6p6my, -Huib, p 
-KJi, imp -h 1. throw (a stone, 
etc); hurl {objects, abuse, 
etc); 2. abandon, desert (oAie's 
family i etc); 3. give up {an 
idea, bad habit, etc); drop 
{doing smth); 
«^ -^axb BbisoB challenge. 

6poclaTbCfl [brAsattsa] im- 
perf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 6p6- 
clHTbcsi [bros^ittja] perf 6p6- 

UiyCb; -HUIbCH, p -HJICH, -H- 

Jiacb, imp -bCH, -bxecb 1. {no 
perf): ~-aTbCH qeM-Ji. (Apyr e 
Apyra) throw smth at each 
other; 2. throw oneself {at / 
upon smb, smth, into smb's 
arms, etc); rush {to smb's 
aid, etc); ~aTbCH 6e>KaTb 
take to one's heels; 
■0 —axbcsi AeHbraMH squan- 
der money; —axbCH b rjiasa 
leap to the eye. 
6p6cHXb see 6pocaxb. 
6p6cHXbC5i see 6pocaxbCH 2. 
6p6ui|Ka [broshka] / -kh, 
-eK brooch. 

6poiiiK)p|a [brAshura] / -u, 
— booklet, pamphlet. 

SpycHHKJa [brus^n^ika] / -h 
red bilberry. 

6pbi3|raxb [brlzgat^j im- 
perf ->Ky (-raK)), -:«einb 
(-raeuib), p -raJi, imp -mn 
(-ran), (5pbi3H|yxb [brlznut''] 
P^ff -y, -euib, p -yji, imp -h 
splash, sprinkle; HCKpbi —jKyx 
sparks are flying. 

6pK)KB|a [br^ukvaj / -bi 

6pK)KH [br^uk^i] pi 6pioK 
trousers; slacks. 

6pK)Hex [br^un^et, -d] m 
-a, -OB dark(-haired) man. 

6pioHex|Ka [br^un^etka] / 
-KH, -OK brunette, dark 
(-haired) woman. 

6yr|6p [bugor] m -pa, -poe 
hillock, mound. 

6.yAex [bud'^it, -d] I see 
II adv col that'll do, that's 



enough; ^ Te6e oJiaKaTb! 
there, there, stop crying. 

6yAMjibHHK [bud'^il^n^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB alarm-clock. 

6yA|HTb [bud^'it^] imperf 
6y>Ky, 6yAHmb, p -hji, imp -h, 
pa3:6yflHTb [razbiid^it^] perf 
wake (up), awaken (also fig). 

SyAJKa [butka] / -kh, -ok 
box, cabin, booth; TeJie(i)6HHaH 
-^Ka telephone box /booth. 

6yAH|H [bud^'n^i] pi -eft 
1. week-day(s); 2. fig routine, 
monotony (of daily life, etc). 

6yRT0 [butta] cj 1. as if, 
as though; OH MOJimix, ^ hh- 
qero He snaex he is silent 
as if he didn't know any- 
thing; 2. introducing object 
clauses and denoting doubt, 
uncertainty: roBOp^T, —• oh 
66jieH he is alleged to be ill; 
it seems he is ill; oh tobo- 
pHT, ~ OH HanHcaji sxy 
CTaxbib he professes to be the 
author of the article; 
<> ~ 6bi allegedly; supposed- 
ly; KaK — as if, as though. 

6yAy fbudu], 6yjiemb [bu- 
d^'ish, -zh] see 6biTb. 

6yflym|HH [budush^riy] I a 
-an, ee, -He future; next 
{day, week, etc); 
II as a noun 6y;;ym|ee n 
-ero the future. 

6yftymH0CT|b [budush'':- 
nas^'t^, -z^'d'*] / -h future 
{chance of success). 

6yAb [but'', -d''] see 6br;b. 

6y)Ky [buzhu] see 6yAHTb. 

6yHH|MH [buyniy] a sh f 
6yeH, -a, -o, -bi wild {boy, 
etc); violent {behaviour, pas- 
sions, growth, etc). 

6yK [buk, -g] m -a, -ob 

eyKamJKa [bukashka] / -kh, 
-eK small insect / beetle. 

SyKBJa [bukva] / -bi, — 
letter {of the alphabet); sa- 
FJiaBHaH / nponHCHaH ~a capi- 
tal letter; cxpoqnaH ~a small 

6yKBajibHbiH [bukval^niy] 
a literal, word for word. 

6yKBap|b [bukvar''] m -h, 
-efl school primer, ABC-book. 

SyKCT [buk^et, -d] m -a, 
-OB bouquet {of flowers). 

6yKCHp [buks^'ir] m -a, -ob 
I. tugboat; 2. towing-line; 
<C> BSHTb Ha ~ take in tow. 

6yjiaB|Ka [bulafka] / -kh, 
-OK pin {1) a pointed instru- 
ment; 2) an ornament); 
<C> 6e3onacHaji --Ka safety 

eyjiJKa [bulka] / -kh, -ok 
roll {a kind of bread); CAcSnaa 
~Ka bun. 

6yjiOMH|afl [bubch^naya] f 
-OH, -bix baker's, bakery. 

Syjibsap [bul^var] m -a. -ob 

6yjibBapH|wH [buPvarniy] 
a cheap, pinchbeck {litera- 
ture, novel, etc); ~-aH npecca 
gutter press. 

6yj!b6H [bul'^yon] m -a, -ob 
broth, clear soup. 

6yMar|a [bumaqa] / -h, ^ 
paper {1) for writing, etc; 
2) a document); 
<> u,eHHbie ~H securities. 

6yMa>KHHK [bumazhn^'ik, -g] 
m -a, -ob pocket-book, wallet. 

6yMa«<HbiH I [bumazhniy] 
a paper {napkin, etc). 

-- 27 — 


CyMajKHMH II [bumazhniy] a 
cotton (attr), made of cotton 

6yHT [bunt, -d] m -a, pi 
-LI, -oB riot, mutiny. 

6yHT|pBaTb [buntAvat^] im- 
perf -yio, -yeuib, p -OBaJi, 
imp -yft revolt, rebel. 

6ypaH [buran] m -a, -os 

GypwyasMlsi [burzhuAz^iya] 
/ -H bourgeoisie. 

6yp)Kya3H|biH [burzbuaz- 
niy] a sh f 6yp}Kya3eH, -a, 
-o, -fai bourgeois. 

eypJHTb [bur^if*] imperf 
-K), -Hiub, p -HJi, imp -H 
bore, drill (a hole). 

6ypH|biH [burnty] a sh f 
6ypeH, -a, -o, -u 1. stormy^ 
violent {also fig); 2. impet- 
uous; rapid {development , etc) . 

Syplbiii [buriy] a sh f ~, 
-a, -o, -u: -—bift MeABe^b 
brown bear; ~biH yroJib 
brown coal. 

6yplJi [bur^a] / -h, -b 
storm, tempest. 

6ycbi [bust] pi 6yc beads 
(a necklace). 

6yTep6p6fl [buterbrot, -d] 
m -a, -OB sandwich; -^ c cbi- 
poM cheese sandwich. 

6yTbiJilKa [buttlka] / -kh, 
-OK bottle. 

6y4)ep [buf^ir] m -a, p/ -a, 
-OB buffer {also fig). 

6y(j)eT [buf'et, -d] m -a, 
-OB buffet {1) a sideboard; 
2) a special counter) . 

6yxr:'jiTep [bukhgalt^jr] m 
-a, -OB book-keeper. 

SyxTja [bukhta] / -u, -- 
bay {in a shore, coast). 

6yui|eBaTb [busht^vat''] im- 
perf -yK), -yeuib, p -esaji, imp 
-yft rage, storm {also fig). 

6bi [bi], 6 [b, p] part I 
used with verbs in the past 
tense and in the infinitive 
to form the conditional-sub- 
junctive mood denoting 1. an 
action which might take or 
might have taken place under 
certain conditions: h nomeji 6u 
ceroAHH BeqepoM Ha ciaAHOH, 
ecJiH 6u y mchh 6biJio BpeMH 
I'd go to the stadium tonight 
if I had time; ecJiH 6 h snaJi 
3T0, H 6bi HasecTHJi ero B^epa 
if I had known it I'd have 
visited him yesterday; 2. an 
action planned or desired'.. 
H 6bi c yAOBOJibCTBHeM nomejl 
B TeaTp saBxpa I'd gladly go 
to the theatre tomorrow; h 6bi 
eme Bb'mHJi naio I'd like to 
have some more tea; 3. a sug- 
gestion, wish, invitation, 
mild order, request, advice: 
Bbi 6bi cejiH you'd better sit 
down; won't you sit down?; 
take a seat, please; noHHiaJi 
6bi Tbi KHHry I suggest you 
should read a book; noexaTb 
6w JieTOM K MopK)! I wish 

I could go / 1 went to the 
seaside, in summer!; 

II forming part of indefinite 
pronouns: kto 6bi hh whoever; 
HTO 6bi HH wliatever; fac 6u 
HH wherever {denoting posi- 
tion); KyAa 6bi hh wherever 
{denoting direction);. KorAa 
6bi HH whenever; kto 6bi hh 
npHuieJi whoever comes; mo 
6bi HH cJiyqHJiocb whatever 


28 — 

6biBajio [bivala] parent h: 
OH, -—, ^acTo npHxoAHJi he 
often used to come, he would 
often come. 

6biB|aTb [bWat^] impsr 
-aio, -aeiub 1. happen, occur; 
2. be sometimes present; go 
to a place {from time to time); 
■~aTb y Koro-Ji. [b xeaipe] 
visit smb [the theatre]; 3. take 
place, be held {of meetings, 
competitions, etc); 


though nothing were the mat- 

6biBm|HH [btfshty] a [pa] 
-an, -ee, -ne former, late; ex-. 

6biK [btk, -g] m -a, -6b 
bull {the male of beef cattle). 

6biji [bil], 6biJia [bila] see 


6biJio [b+'b] see 6biTb. 

6bi,;io [bib] part nearly; on 
the point of; qyxb -~ He al- 
most, nearly. 

6bicTpOT|a [bistrAta] / -b'l 
quickness; speed (a swift 

6biCTp|biH [btstrty] a sh f 
~, -a, -o, -bi quick, rapid, 
swift {current, development , 

6biT [bit, -d] m -a mode of 
life; daily life. 

6biTb [bit^] imperf 3rd per- 
son sing ecTb, p 6biJi, 6biJia, 
6bi;io, 6biJiH, fut 6yAy, 6y- 
fleiiib, imp 6ynb 1. be {1) 
somewhere, in a certain state, 
condition, etc; 2) a link-verb); 
OH 6biJi ji,6Ma he was at home; 
OH 6biJi 66jieH he was ill; oh 
6biJi pa66qHM he was a work- 
er; 2. have (possess); y nero 

ecTb 6paT he has a brother; 
y Hero 6biJio mhofo pa66Tbi 
Bwepa he had much work to 
do yesterday; 3. happen, oc- 
cur; 3T0 6biJio B^epa it hap- 
pened yesterday; BMepa 6biJia 
rposa there was a storm 
yesterday; saBxpa 6yAeT co6- 
paHHe there will be a meeting 
tomorrow; coSpanne 6yAeT 
saBTpa the meeting will be 
held tomorrow; 4.: ~ Bbi- 
Hy>KAeHHbiM be obliged {to do 
smth); ~- B cocTOHHHH CAe- 
jiaxb qxo-Ji. be able to do 
smth; -^ CBHAexeJieM qero-ji. 
witness smth; 

<> THK H ^ all right, let it 
be so; KaK ~? what's to be 
done?; 6yAb hto SyAei come 
what may. 

6bio [b^yu], 6betub [b^yosh, 
-zh] see 6HXb. 

6bK)Cb [b^yus^, -z^], 6beujb- 
cfl [b^yoshs^s] see 6HXbCH. 

SioAHcex [b^udzhet, -d] m 
-a, -OB budget {of a country, 
family, etc) . 

6K)jijiexeH|b [b^uPi^t^en'^] 
m -H, -eft 1. bulletin; 2. vot- 
ing-paper; 3. medical certifi- 
cate {given to a person on 
sick-leave); 6bixb Ha — e be 
on sick-list. 

6K)p6 [b^uro] n indecl bu- 
reau {an office). 

SropoKpax [b^urAkrat, -d] m 
-a, -OB bureaucrat. 

6k)cx [b^'ust, -zd] m -a, -ob 

SiqcTrajibTep [b^uzgal^ter] 
m -a, -OB brassiere. 

Sflsjb [b^as^, -z^] / -K 
coarse calico. 

— 29 — 


B [v, f], BO [vo; in the first 
pretonic position — va; in the 
second and other pretonic po- 
sitions — V9] prep I with ace 
1. denoting an action or move- 
ment into'. BOHTH B KOMHa- 

Ty go into a room; come into 
a room; bohth bo ABop go 
into the yard; come into the 
yard; noJio^KHTb b hiuhk put 
in a box; npnexaTb b Khcb 
arrive in Kiev; 2. denoting 
movement to, towards a place 
with the aim of reaching it: 
noexaTb b Mhhck go to 
Minsk; yexaTb b FopbKHH 
leave for Gorki; 3. denoting 
a point of time {hours or days 
of the week): b nnTHHuy on 
Friday; b npoiiijiyio [b 6y]\y- 
myio] RHTHHuy last [next] 
Friday; b xpH Maca at three 
o'clock; 4. denoting dimen- 
sions, weight: A-^HHOH B TpH 

MCTpa three metres long; bc- 
coM B TOHHy weighing a ton; 
5. denoting the beginning of 
some activity, occupation or 
state into which a person is 
drawn or enters: npuHTH 
B oxqaHHHe fall into despair; 
yrJiy6HTbCH b qTenae get ab- 
sorbed in reading; BCiynHTb 
B paaroBop enter into a con- 
versation; 6. denoting dura- 
tion within certain limits: 
(3T0 MOJKHO c^eJiaTb) B HeAeJiK) 
(this can be done) within 
a week; 7. denoting an action 
directed to some place on the 
§ur[ace of: cxyK b ABepb 

knock at the door; TOJiKnyxb 
Koro-Ji. B rpyAb push smb in 
the chest; noueJiOBaib kopo-ji. 
B jio6 kiss smb 's forehead; 8. 
denoting periodicity within 
a certain time: TpH paaa b He- 
AeJiKD three times a week; 

9. denoting passage of a thing 
from one state into another: 
npeBpaiHTb b... turn into..., 
change into... / to.. ^.; paao- 
pBaib B KJiouKH tear to bits; 

10. denoting similarity: xa- 
paKTepoM B OTua a chip of 
the old block; oh secb b MaTb 
he is the very image of his 
mother; 11. used with the word 
pa3 and comp: b abb pasa 
Bbime two times as high; 
B ABa paaa MeHbiue half 
(the...); half the size (of); 
B HecKOJibKO pas 66jibuie sev- 
eral times as much; several 
times as many; several times 
the size (of); b HecKOJibKO 
pas MeHbiue several times 
less; BO MHoro pas MeHbiue 
many times as little; m.any 
times as few; many times 
less; 12. denoting purpose: 
B uiyTKy in jest; b HaKasanne 
as a punishment; 

11 with pr denoting 1. posi- 
tion inside of, within: b kom- 
HaTe in the room; b KneBe 
in Kiev; b A6paMU,eBe at Ab- 
ramtzevo; b KJiy6e at the club; 
2. a point or period of time: 
b Mapxe in March; b stom 
[b npouiJiOM] roAy this [last] 
year; b hhtom Hacy soon after 



four, between four and five 
(o'clock); 3. distance from: 
B copoKa KHJioMexpax ot 
MocKBbi within forty kilo- 
metres of Moscow; 4. a con- 
dition, state, quality, etc: 
B 6ecnopHAKe in disorder; 
B o>KHAaHHH pending; b hht- 
Hax stained; b 6ejioM in 
white, wearing white; b oHKax 
Wearing glasses; 6biTb b y}Ka- 
ce be horrified; 


at any price; at all costs. 

earoH fvAgon] m -a, -ob 
(railway) carriage; (tram-)car; 
6ara>KHbiH — luggage van; 
;;eTCKHH ~ carriage for chil- 
dren; HcecTKHH — hard -seated 
carriage; KynHpoBaHHbift ~ 
compartment carriage; mhf- 
KHH — soft -seated carriage; 
cnaJibHbiH ^ sleeping-car; 
— -pecTopaH dining-car; — 
fljiH KypjimHx smoking-car. 
BaroHOBO^arlbiH [vAgo- 
navAzhatiy] m -oro, -bix 

Ba}KHHH|aTb [vazhn^ich^at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib col put on 

Ba»HO [vazhna] impers 
predic it is important; oMCHb 
-^ CAe.iaTb 3T0 cerojiHH it is 
very important to do it today; 
— , MToSbi OHa noBHAaJia Hac 
it is important for her to see 
us, it is important that she 
should see us. 

eaMtHibiH [vazhnty] a sh f 
Ba>KeH, -a, -o, -w (-bi) 1. im- ■ 
portant; of consequence; 2. 
self-important, consequen- 
tial; grand, pompous. 

Ba3|a [vaza] / -bi, — vase; 

Baji I [val] m -a, pi -bi, 
-OB earthen bank. 

Baji II [val] m -a, pi -bi, 
-OB technol shaft; KOJieHHaibift 
~ crankshaft. 

BajieHJKH [val^mk^i] pi -ok 
(smg^BajicHloK m -Ka) valenki 
[high boots made of thick 
felt with soles of the same 
material)', xoAHTb b ~Kax 
wear valenki. 

Baji|HTL I [vAl^'it^l imperf 
-K), BaJiHuib, p -HJi, imp -H, 
nojBajiMTb [pavAPit^] per/, 
cjBajiMTb [svAPit^] perf 1. 
bring down, fell; 2. (cBa- 
JiHTb) heap up, pile up; 
3. (cBajiHTb) fig col blame 
{smb), lay the blame [on smb)\ 
<> — 'MTb Bce B OAHy Kyny 
col lump everything togeth- 
er; ~HTb C 60JIbH6H rOJlOBbl 

Ha BAopoByK) col lay the blame 
at the wrong door. 

Baji|HTb II [vAl^it*"] imperf 
-HT, noiBajiHTb [pavAl'^it^] 
perf flock, throng, come in 
flocks {of people); fall Ireav- 
ily {of snow); pour out {of 
smoke); Hapo^ BajioM -— ht 
the people are coming in 

Baji|HTbcsi [vAl^'ittja] im- 
perf -K)Cb, BaJlHUIbCH, p -HJI- 

CH, -HJiacb, imp -KCb, -iirecb, 
nO;BajiMTbCfl [pavAl^ittja] perf 
fall {from a standing posi- 

<> ~HTbCSl C HOP col bC 

falling off one's feet; y nero 
Bce M3 pyK BajiHTcn col h? 
is very inapt / awkward, 

- 31 


BajioB|6H [valAvoy] a gross, 
total; ^an npoAyKUHJi gross 

eajibc [val's, -z] m -a, -ob 

BajiibT|a[vAPut9] / -hi cur- 
rency (money). 

Baji|«Tbc$i [vAl^'attsa] im- 
perf -Hiocb, -neiubCH 1. wal- 
low, roll about {in the dust, 
mud), 2. col loll {lie in a 
lazy manner); 3. col lie about, 
be scattered about; lie {be 
somewhere as the result of 
negligence) . 

BaM [vam] dat of bu, 

BaMH [vam'^i] instr of Bbi. 

BaHHla [vanna] / -bi, ^ 
bath; npHHHMaib — y have/ 
take a bath. 

BaHHlaa [vannaya] / -oh, 
-bix bath-room. 

BapBapcKJHH [varv3rsk**iy] 
a -aH, -oe, -He barbarous. 

BapextlKH [varnish k^^i] pi 
-eK {sing BapoKKJa / -h) mit- 

BapeHHKln [vAr^'en^'ik^i] pi 
-OB {sing BapcHHK m -a) va- 
reniki {dumplings stuffed 
with cherries, tvorog or pota- 

BapeHbifl [vAr^oniy] a 
boiled, cooked. 

BapeHbje [vAr^'en^'ya] n -h 
jam (a preserve). 

BapHaHT [var^iant, -d] m 
-a, -OB version, variant. 

Bap|HTb [vAr^it^j /mperZ-K), 
BapHUJb, p -HJi, imp -H, ciBa- 
pHTb [svAr^it**] perf 1. boil 
{eggs, fish, etc); cook {din- 
ner, etc); 2. found {steel, etc). 

BapJHTbCfl [VAF^ittsa] im- 

perf -ibcb, BapHmbC5i, p -iiJicji, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -HTecb, 
cjBapHTbcsi [svAr^ittsa] perf 
be boiling, be cooking; 


coKy col stew in one's own 

Bac [vas, -z] gen, ace ~& pr 

of Bbl. 

BacHji|eK [vas^'il^'ok, -g] m 
-bKa, -biToB corn-flower. 

Baxja [vata] / -bi cotton 
wool; wadding; najibxo na 
~e wadded coat. 

Ba(l)ljiH [vafPi] pi -Qjib 
{sing Bi^ji\a f -h) wafers. 

BaxT|a [vakhta] / -bi, ~ 
1. naut watch {time of duty); 
CTOHTb Ha ~e keep watch, 
be on duty; 2. fig: xpyAOBan 
~a production drive {enthu- 
siastic work on the occasion 
or in commemoration of smth); 
CTOHTb Ha ~e MHpa take 
part in the World Peace pro- 
duction drive. 

Baiu [vash, -zh] I pron 
poss corresp to Bbi m -ero, 
-eiviy, ~ (-ero), -hm, (o) -cm, 
Bauia /, Bauie n, Eaum pi 
your; yours; 

II as a noun Bamn pi -x 
your people {relatives). 

Bam I a [vasha] pron f -en, 
-eft, -y, -efi (-eio), (o) -evi 
see Baui. 

Baiu|e [vasha] pron n -ero, 
-eMy, -e (-ero), -hm, (o) -cm 
see Bam. 

BauiH [vashi] pron pi -x, 
-M, -- (-x), -mh, (o) -X see 

B6er|aTb [vb^'i^qat^] imperf 
-aio, -aemb, BSewlaxb [vb^i®- 


- 32 

zhat^] perf B6ery, -Huib, p 
-aji run {into a room, etc); 
come running, run in. 

B6eH [vb^ey] imp of B6HTb; 
see B6HBaTb. 

B6epM [vb^i^r^i] imp of 
Bo6paTb; see BSHpaib. 

eSepy [vb^i^^ru], B6epeuib 
[vb^i^r^osh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of Bo6paTb; see b6h- 

BSHBJaib [vb^ivat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiiib, BSHxb [vb^it^] 
perf Bo6bK), Bo6bemb, p b6hji, 
imp B6eH drive in, hammer 
in; drive {into), hammer 

<> BSHTb ce6e b rojioBy 
col get into one's head. 

b6hp aib [vb^irat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, BoSpaJTb [va- 
brat*"] perf B6epy, B6epemb, 
p -Ji, -Jia, -Jio, -JiH, imp 
B6epH absorb {;.vater, etc); 
inhale {air). 

B6HTb see B6HBaTb. 

b6jih3h [vbl^iz^i] I adv 
near by; near here; paccMax- 
pHBaib MTO-Ji. ~ examine 
smth closely; 

II prep with gen near {of 
distance); -^ ot ^ero-ji. not 
far from smth, near smth. 

B6pofl [vbrot, -d] adv: ne- 
pexoAHTb (peKy) ~ ford (a 

BBCACHHle [v^v^i^d^en^iya] 
n -H, -ft 1. introduction 
{bringing into use, knowledge, 
etc); 2. introduction {a be- 
ginning); preface. 

BBeSTH see BB03HTb. 

BBepx [v^'v^erkh, -gh] adv 
1. up, upwards {toward a 

higher place); ~ no JiecTHHue 
up the stairs; noAKHMaxbCH 
~ go up; no^HHXb — lift 
(up), raise (up); 2.: ~ no 
peKe up the river; ~ no xe- 
qeHHKD up-stream; 
<> ~ HHOM col upside-down; 
■— HoraMH col upside-down; 
head over heels. 

BBcpxy [v^v^i^rkhu] adv 
above, overhead; at the top. 

BBecTH see bboahxb. 

BBH^y [v^v^idu] prep with 
gen in view of; — xoro, 
Mxo... in \iew of the fact 
that...; as, since. 

BBOMlMTb [vvAd^it^] imperf 
BBO>Ky, BBOAHiub, p -HJi, imp 
-H, BRe[cTH [v^'v^i^s^t^'i] perf 
-Ay, -Aeiiib, p BBeJi, -Jia, imp 
-AH 1. introduce, bring in; 
~HXb BOHCKa B ropoA bring 
troops into a town; 2.: ~HXb 
B SKcnJiyaxauHKD put into 
operation {a new railway, etc); 
—-HXb B 3a6jiyH^AeHHe mis- 
lead, deceive; lead into er- 

BB03 [vvos, -z] m -a econ 
import; imports. 

BB03|HXb [vvAz^it''] imperf 
BBOHcy, BBosHiiib, p -HJI, imp 
-Id, BBe3lxM [v^v^iVt^ij perf 
-y, -eiub, p BBea, -Jia, imp 
-H import {goods, etc). 

BBbicb [wis'', -z^] adv up, 
upwards {toward a higher 

BfJiySb [vglup^, -b^] adv 
1. depthwise; 2. deep {into). 

BAalBaibCsi [vdAvattsa] im- 
perf -K)Cb, -eillbCH, p -BaJICH, 

-BaJiacb, imp -BaftcH, -Bafl- 
xecb jut out {into); 

— 33 


<^ —BaibCJi B noflp66HO- 
CTH / B AcrajiH go into de- 

BiiajicKe [vdal^i^k^e] adv 
in the distance. 

BiiajiH [vdAl^i] adv in the 
distance; ~ ot nero-Ji. far 
from smth; -^ ot kofo-ji. 
away from smb. 

BAajib [vdal^] adv: cmot- 
pexb — look into the dis- 

BABoe [vdvoya] adu 1. dou- 
ble, twice; ^ 66jibme twice 
as much; twice as many; -^ 
MCHbiue half (the...); half 
the size (of); -~ TOHbiue 
J [jiy^me u m. n.\ twice as 
thin [good, etc]; 2.: cjio- 
HCHTb -^ fold in two. 

BABoeM [vdvAyom] adv 
referring to two people: ohh 
[Mbi, Bbi] — the two of them 
[us, you]; AaBaflxe cAeJiaeM 
3T0 ~ let's do it togeth- 

BABOHHe [vdvAyn^e] adv 
1. double, twofold; 2. espe- 

BAo6aB0K [vdAbavak, -g] 
adv col besides, in addition; 
on top of everything. 

BAOBJa [vdAva] / -bi, pi 
BAOEbi, ~, BAOBaM widow. 

BAOBJeu [vdAV^etj, -dz] m 
-^ -ua, -11,6b widower. 

BAOBOJib [vdovsl^] adv in 
plenty, in abundance; to 
one's heart's content. 

BAoroHKy [vdAgonku] adv 
in pursuit of, after {of run- 
ning, etc). 

BAOJib [vdol^] I adv length- 

II prep with gen along {the 
street, etc); 

<> ^ H nonepCK far and 
wide {of travelling); snarb 
HTO-Ji. -~ H nonepeK know 
smth thoroughly, know all 
the ins and outs of smth. 

BAOx [^dokh, -gh] m -a, 
-08 breath, inhalation. 


BAOXHOBJi|flTb [vdakhnAV- 
l^at^] imperf -hkd, -Hemb,BAOX- 
HOBlHT-b [vdakhuAV^it^] perf 
-jiK), -Hiub, p -HJi, imp -H 
inspire {put life or force into; 

BAOXHyTb see BAbixaib. 

BApeGearH [vdr^eb'izg^i] 
adv 1.: paaSHTb -- smash, 
shatter; 2. col: ~ nbHH dead 

BApyr [vdruk, -g] adv 1. 
suddenly; 2. what if; — oh 
He nosBOHHT? what if he 
doesn't phone? 

BAyMaTbcsi see BAyMbieaTb- 


BAyMMBJaTbCJi [vdumiva- 
ttsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 
BAyMa|Tbcn [vdumattsa] perf 
-K)Cb, -euibCH, p -JicH, -Jiacb, 
/mp -HCH, -HTecb ponder, con- 
sider carefully. 

BAbix|aTb [vdikhat^] knperf 
-aio, -aeuib, BAOxnlyTb [vdAkh- 
nut^] perf -y, -euib, p -yji, 
imp -H inhale, breathe in. 

BereTapMaHCKJHH [v^ig^ita- 
r^'yansk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 

BCACHHle [v^ed^m^iya] n 
-h: b '-h under the author- 
ity (of); under the jurisdic 


- 34 - 

tion (o/); within {stub's) prov- 

BeAeHHJe [v^i^d^en^'iya] n 
-h: ~e ji,ejia 1) management 
of an affair; 2) law con- 
duct of a case; ^e (Aoiviaui- 
Hero) xo3HHCTBa housekeep- 

BeAH [v^'i^d^i] see eecxH. 

BeAOMlo [v^edama]: c ~a 
with (smb's) l<no\vledge; 6e3 
~a without {smb's) knowl- 
edge, without letting {smb) 
know; without (stub's) con- 

BeAOMOCT|b [v^edamas^t'', 
-z^'d^] / -H, pi -H, -efl list, 

BeAOMCTBio [v^edamstva] n 
-a, ~ department (a branch 
of the state government). 

Be;ip|6 [v^'i^dro] n -a, pi 
BCApa, BCAep, Be;;paM bucket, 

BCity [v^i^du], BCfleuib [v^i^- 
d^'osh, -zh] see bccth. 

Be;iym|HH [v^i^dush^:iy] a 
[pa] -aa, -ee, -He leading, 
chief, key. 

BeAb [v^et^, -d**] I part 
(tnostiy intens): Tbi ~ sito SHa- 
euib you know this, don't 
you?; but you know this; ho 
'- stToro He cJivMHJiocb it 
didn't happen, did it?; 
II cj denoting reason, cause: 
OH He npHAGT, ~ OH 66.neH 
he won't come., he's ill, you 
know; ne cnopb c hhm ~ oh 
npae don't argue with him, 
he's right, isn't he? 

BcjibMla [v^'ed^ma] t -bi, 
— 1. witch {a sorceress); 
2. col vixen, scold. 

Beep [v^eyar] m -a, pi -a, 
-6b fan {used by ladies). 

Be}KjiHB|biH [v^ezhl^iviy] a 
sh f '^, -a, -0, -bi polite, 
courteous, civil. 

BCSAC [v^i^z^'d^e] adv every- 

Bes'iTH I [v^i^s^t^i] imperf 
-y, -eiiJb, p Be3, -Jia, imp -h, 
nojBearH [pav^i^s^t^i] perf 
a concrete action, movement 
in a definite direction [cf bo- 
BMTbj carry {to transport)', 
drive {smb in a car, etc); 
draw {a cart). 

BesJTH II [v^i^s^t^i] imperf 
-ex, noiBesTH [pav^i^s^'t^i] 
perf impers: euy [efl u m. d.] 
~eT he [she, etc] is lucky. 

BCH I [v^ey] see Benxb. 

BCH II [v^ey] see bhtb. 

BCK [v^'ek, -g] m -a (-y), 
pi -a, -OB 1. century {years); 

2. age {a period in history); 

3. col life, lifetime; na tboh 
— XBaxHT it "nil last your 

<> ~ >KHBM — ~ yqMCb prov 
live and learn. 

BeKjO [v^ekaj n -a, pi h, 
~, -aM eyelid. 

BeKcejiib [v^eks'^il^] m -h, 
pi -H, -efl note of hand; bill 
of exchange. 

BCJi [v^'ol], BCjia [v^i^la] 
see BecTH. 

Beji|eTb [v^i^l^'et''] perf Sc 
imperf -k), -fliiib p -eji, imp 
-H order, tell {smb to do 

BCjiHKaH [v^'il^ikan] m -a, 
-OB giant. 

BCjiMK HH [v^i^l**ik'*iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He, sh f ^, -a (-a), 

— 35 ~ 


-o (-6), -H (-H) 1. great 
{important, remarkable, fa- 
mous); 2. {only sh f) too big 
{of clothes, footwear, etc). 

BejiHKOAyujH I uii [v^il'^ikA- 
dushnty] a sh f BeJiHKOAy- 
men, -a, -o, -bi magnani- 
mous, clement, generous. 

BejiHKOJienHlwH [v'll^ikA- 
Pepnty] a sh f BennKOJieueK, 
-a, -o, -H splendid; excellent,, 

BCJiHHecTBeHHlbiH [v'i^l^'i- 
ch^is'^t^v^mnty] a sh f bcjih- 
qecTsen -a, -o, -w majestic, 
grand; magnificent. 

BejiHHHH|a [v^il^ich^'ina] / 
-bi, pi- BCJiHqHHbi, eejiHmiH, 
seJiHqHHaM 1. size {extent, 
amount, dimensions, etc); 
2. math value; quantity, 

BcnoroHlKH [v'^ilAgonlo] / 
-KH, -OK cycle race. 

BejiocHnefl [v''ibs^ip'*et, -d] 
m -a, -OB bicycle. 

BCHJa [v^en8] / -bi, ^ vein 
(a blood vessel). 

BCHrepcKlMfi [v*'i^ng*'er- 
sk^iy] a -aH, -oe, -He Hunga- 

BCHrp [v'engr] m -a, -ob 

BeHecy3Ji|ei; [v^m^isuel'its, 
-dz] m -bua, -bueB Venezue- 

BenecyajibCK |hh [v*'in'*isuel**- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -ne Ven- 

BCHHK [v^en^ik, -g] m -a, 
-ob besom {a broom). 

BeHJOK [vM^nok, -g] m -ksl, 
-KOB wreath; garland, 

BeHTH.!iHTOp [v^m^'t^iPatar] 

m -a, -ob fan {for ventila- 
tion); ventilator. 

Bep|a [v^era] / -bi 1. be- 
lief, faith, trust; 2. religion, 
creed . 

Bep6|a [v^'erba] / -bi, -^ 

Bep6jiK)fl [v^i^rbl'ut, -d] m 
-a, -ob camel. 

^ Bep61oBaTb [v^'irbAvat^] 
imperf -yio, -yeuib p -obslji, 
imp -yfi saJBepGoBaTb [za- 
v^irbAvat''] perf recruit {peo- 

BepeBJKa [v^'i^r^'ofka] / -kh, 
-OK cord, rope, string; ~Ka 
AJiH 6ejibH (clothes-)line. 

BeplHTb [v^'er^it''] imperf 
-K), -Huib, p-nji, ifnp -b, noiBc- 
pHTb [pAV^er^'it^j perf '\.: 
~HTb B Koro-Ji. [bo mo-Ji.] 
believe in smb [smthj; 2.; 
~HTb KOMy-Ji. [qeMy-ji.] be- 
lieve smb [smth]; trust smb; 

■0 ~HTb KOMy-Jl. Ha CJIOBO 

take smb's words on trust, 
take smb at his word. 

BepHo [v'^erna] I adv 1. 
correctly, right; ~ roBoprixb 
be right; 2. faithfully, loy- 

II parenth col probably, most 
likely; oh, — , yexaji he must 
have left; 

<> coBepuieHHO ~! quite 
right!, quite so! 

BepHJyxb [v^i^rnut''] perf 
-y, -eiiib, p -yji, imp -h 
1. return, give back; 2. re- 
cover, get back; win back; 
3. make {smb) return, bring 
{smb) back. 

BepHlyTbcsi [v^'i^rnuttja] 
perf -ycb, -eiubca, p -yJica, 


- 36 

-yjiacb, imp -HCb, -HTecb 
return, come back; -~yTbCH 
K Bonpocy return to a ques- 

BepHJbiH [v^ernjyj a sh f 
BepeH, -a, -o, -bi (-bi) 1. cor- 
rect, true, right; 2. faithful, 
loyal, true; 3. reliable {source, 
etc)', ~oe cpe^CTBo unfail- 
ing remedy / means; 4. cer- 
tain (death); sure- (sign); 
<> HTO -^o, TO --0 there's 
no denying that. 

BepoHcnoeeAaHHle [v^era- 
ispAv^edan^iya] n -h. -h re- 
ligion; denomination {a reli- 
gious group). 

eepojioMHlbiH [v'^irAlomniy] 
a sh f BepoJioMeH, -a, -o, -bi 
perfidious, treacherous. 

eepoMTHO [v^irAyatna] par- 
enth probably; oh, ~ ymeji 
probably he has left, he 
must have left. 

BepoHTHocTJb [v^irAyat- 
nas^t^, -z^d^]' / -h probabil- 
ity; no Bcefl ~H in all prob- 

BepoflTH|b!H [v^irAyatnty] 
a sh f BepoHTeH, -a, -o, -bi 
probable, likely. 

BepcHffl [v^'ers^iya] / -h, 
-H version {of an account). 

BCplxeTb [vH^Ti^ix^\imperf 
-qy, BepTHUJb, p -leji, imp 
-TH 1. twirl; twist about, 
twiddle; 2.: -^-TeTb tojioboh 
turn one's head hither and 
thither; 3. fig col: —xexb 
KCM-ji. twist smb round one's 

BeplxeTbcfl [v'i^rt^ettja] 
imperf -nycb, BepTHiiibCH, p 
-Te^ca, -le^iacb, imp -iHCb, 

-THTecb 1. turn (round), re- 
volve; 2. fidget, move about 
{in a restless way); 
<> —TexbCJi B rojioBe col run 
in one's head / mind {of a 
word, idea, etc); ~xexbc« noA 
HoraMH col be in the way 

BepxHKajibHJbiH [v^'irt^ikal^- 
niy] a sh f BepxHKajieH, -a, 
-o, -bi vertical {line, etc). 

Bepxojiex [v^irtAPot, -d] m 
-a, -OB helicopter. 

Bep(j}|b [v'^erf^, -v^] / -h, 
-eft shipyard; dockyard. 

Bepx [v^erkh, -gh] m -a 
(-y) 1. top {of a house, box, 
etc); 2; height {of ambition, 
etc); ^ 6jia>KeHCTBa height 
of bliss; ~ coeepmeHCTBa the 
peak of perfection; 
<> OAep«axb ^ gain the 
upper hand. 

BepxH|HH [v^erkhn^iy] a 
1. . upper; 2.: ~ee nJiaxbe 
outdoor wear, street clothes 
{such as overcoat, raincoat, 

BcpxoBHbiH [v^i^rkhovniy] 
a supreme. 

BepxoBble [v^i^rkhov'ys] n 
-H, -en upper reaches; river- 

BepxoM [v^i^rkhom] adv 
astride; on horseback. 

Bepxyuj|Ka [v^i^rkhushka] / 
-KH. -eK 1. top {of a tree, 
mountain, etc); 2. col the up- 
per crust; top leaders; npa- 
BHmaH — Ka ruling clique, 

BepmHH|a [v^i^rshlna] / 
-bi, ~ top, summit, peak. 

Bee [v^es, -z] m -a (-y) 
1. weight {of a thing); Ha — 
by weight; --cm B Tpn kh- 



jiorpaMMa weighing three kil- 
ograms; npH6aBHTb [y6aBHTb] 
B -— e put on [lose] weight; 
2. fig influence, authority, 

•0 yjiejibHbiH — 1) specific 
weight; 2) fig share, propor- 

BCCejllHTbCJl [V^IS^i^PittS9] 

imperf -locb, -HUibCfl, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -Picb, -Hxecb have 
fun, enjoy oneself, make 
merry, have a good time. 

Becejibiii [v^i^s^olly] a sh f 
Beceji, secejia, secejio, ne- 
cejibi merry, gay, cheerful, 

BeceHHHH [v^i^^s^en^n^'iy] a 
spring {time, etc). 

eecjHTb [v^'es^it^] imperf 
eemy, -nuib, p -hji weigh 
{have a certain weight). 

BecK|HH [v^'esk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f bccok, -a, -o, 
-H weighty {argument, word, 
etc) . 

Becjito [v^i^slo] rt -a, pi 
Becjia, Beceji, Bec.TiaM oar; 
scull; paddle {of a canoe); 
HATH Ha Becjiax row, row a 

BCCHla [v^i^sna] / -bi, pi 
eecHbi, BeccH, BecHajvi spring 
(a season), 

BCCHofi [v^i^snoy] adv in 
spring; 6yAymeH [npoiuJiOH] 
~ next [last] spring. 

BecHyiii|Ka [v^i^snushks] / 
-KH, -eK {mostly pi) freckle. 

eecTH [v^i^s^t^i] imperf 
BeAy, BeAeuib, p bcji, Bejia, 
imp BeAH, nojBecTH [pav^i^- 
s^t'i] perf a concrete action, 
movement in a definite direc- 

tion— \, 3 [cf BOAHTb 1, 2] 

1. lead (a horse, blind man, 
etc; smb by the hand, etc); 

2. conduct, direct, run; -~ 
co6paHHe preside over a 
meeting; ~ xoshhctbo keep 
house; 3. drive {a car); 4. {no 
perf) lead {of a road, etc); 
5. {no perf) carry on {nego- 
tiations, propaganda, etc); 
~ 6opb6y wage a struggle; 
~ nepeoHCKy c KeM-Ji. cor- 
respond with smb; 

<> ~ ce6H behave. 

BecTH6K)Jijb [v^is^t^ib^uP] 
m -51, -en hall, lobby. 

BecTJb [v^esH'', -z^'d^] / 
-H, -eft news, word; 

<> nponacTb 6e3 eecxH be 
missing (in action). 

Beclbi [v^i^sl] pi -OB scales, 

eecb [v^es'', -z^] 1 pron 
def m Bcero, BceNiy, — (scero), 
BceM, (o6o) BceM, bch /, Bce 
n, Bce all, (the) whole, 
the whole of; no Bceft cxpane 
all over the country, through- 
out the country; bo bccm 
MHpe all over the world; 
II as a noun 1. Bce p/ -x 
all; everybody; 2. Bce n 
Bcero everything, all; 
<> Bcero xopoiuero! good-bye! 

BecbMa [v^'i^s^'ma] adv high- 
ly, greatly; rather {interesting, 

BeTJep [v^et^ir] m -pa (-py), 
pi -pbi, -poB wind {air in 

O ^pocaxb cjioBa na ~ep 
speak to the wind; y Hero 
~ep B rojioBe col he is 
light-minded/ empty-headed. 



BerepHHap [v*'it^ir^inar] m 
-a, -OB veterinary (surgeon). 

BerlKa [v^etlo] / -KH, -ok 1. 
branch {of a tree); twig; 2.: 
jKejiesHOAopo^Han ~Ka rly 
branch line. 

BeTpeH|biH [v^etr^iniy] a sh 
/ ~, -a, -o, -bi 1. windy 
{day, etc); 2. fig frivolous, 
empty-headed; flighty. 

BerxJHH [v^etkh^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f -^, -a, -o, -h 
decrepit; ramshackle; thread- 
bare {clothes). 

BeTHHHJa [v'lf'ch^ina] / -bi 
ham {food). 

BCHep [v^ech''ir] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB 1. evening; no '-aw 
in the evening(s); 2. (eve- 
ning) party, social. 

BCMepHHH [v^'i^ch^ern^iy] a 
evening {paper, dress, etc). 

Be«jepOM [v^ech'^iram] adv in 
the evening; ceroAHH -- this 
evening; tonight {before mid- 
night); Bqepa [aaexpa] — 
yesterday [tomorrow] evening; 
last [tomorrow] night {before 

ne4H|biH [v^ech'^niy] a sh f 
BeweH, -a, -o, -u eternal, 
everlasting; perpetual; na 
— bie BpeMena for ever. 

Bemaji|Ka [v^eshalka] / -kh, 
-OK I. peg {for hanging up 
things); stand {for coats and, 
hats); hanger {for clothes); 
2. cloak-room {for coats and 
hats); 3. tab, hanger {of a 
coat, etc). 

Bemlaxb I [v'^eshat*'] imperf 
-BK), aeiub, noBejCHTb [pAV^'e- 
s^if"] per f -luy, -cHmb,p -chji, 
imp -Cb hang, hang up. 

Beiuarb II [v^eshat**] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuib, ciBeiijaTb 
[s'^v^eshat^] perf weigh, 
weigh out. 

BCLuy [v^eshu] see secHTb. 

BemecTBJo [v'^ish^ii^stvo] n 
-a, BemecTB matter, sub- 
stance; oxpaBJiHramHe ~ a poi- 
son-gases; BspbiBMaxbie ~a 

Bemjb [v^esh^:, -zh^:] / h, 
pi -H, -eH 1. thing (1) any 
object; 2) a fact, idea, etc); 2. 
pi things, belongings; clothes; 
luggage, baggage; 3. work 
{a literary, etc, composition); 
3T0 xopouian ~b this is a 
good book [play, piece, etc]. 

BCK) [v^eyu], Beeuib [v^e- 
yash, -zh] $ee BCJixb. 

BefljiJKa [v^eyalka] / -kh, 
-OK winnowing-fan, winnow. 

BeflHHJe [v'^eyan^'iya] n -h, 
-H 1. blowing {of wind); 2. 
trend, tendency; HOBbie ~h 
new ideas / trends. 

BCHTb [v^eyat^] imperf bck), 
Beeuib, p bchji, imp Beii 
1. blow {of wind); 2. winnow 

B3a;i [vzat] adv: — h Bne- 
peA to and fro, backwards 
and forwards, back and forth. 

BsaHMHlbiH [vzAimniy] a 
sh f BaaHMeH, -a, -o, -h mu- 
tual, reciprocal. 

B3aHM0AeHCTBH|e [vzaimA- 
d^'eys^t^v^iya] n -h, -u inter- 
action; co-operation. 

BaaHMooTHomeHM |e [ vzaimA- 
AtnAshen^iya] n -h, -h inter- 
relation; ^-h Me>KAy cipana- 
MH relations between coun- 

— 39 — 


B3aHMon6Moiu|b [vz8imAp6- 
mash^:, -zh*':] / -h mutual 
assistance; mutual aid. 

BsaHMonoHHMaHH I e [ vzAima- 
pan^iman^iya] n -a mutual 

BsaAMbi [vzAym*! adv: bshtb 
^ borrow, obtain on loan; 
AaTb — lend {money, etc). 

BsaMCH .[vzAm^en] 1 adv 
instead; in exchange; 
II prep with gen instead of; in 
exchange for, in return for. 

B36epHCb [vzh^'i^r^is^, -z^j, 
BsSepHTCCb [vzb^i^r'it^is^.-z^j 
imp of B3o6paTbCH; see bsCh- 

B36€pycb [vzb'i^rus^, -z^], 
B36epeuibC5i [vzb'i^r^shs'a] 
Jst & 2nd persons of B3o6paTb- 
ch; see BsSHpaibCH. 

B36ecHTb see 6ecHTb. 

BsSecHTbCfl see 6ecHTbCH. 

B36HplaTbCJi [vzbMratt^a] 
imperf -aiocb, -^euJbCH, b30- 
6pa|TbC5i [vzAbratt§a] perf 
B36epycb, B36epembCH, p -jich, 
-Jiacb, imp B36epHCb, B36e- 
pHTecb climb (up) (a hill, 
e/c); climb {on to). 

B3BeCHT|> see B3BeUIHBaTb. 

B3BeujHB{aTb [yzv^eshiyat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, B3Be|ci{Tt> 
[vzv^es^it*] perf -my, -pHuib, 
p 'CHJi, imp -cb weigh, weigh 

B3B0A [vzvot, -d] m -a, -ob 
mil platoon. 


vanniy] a [pa] sh f bsboji- 
p6BaH, -a, -0, -bi agitated, 
troubled, perturbed; anxious, 
uneasy; excited {by some news, 


B3rjiflA[vzgl^at, -d] m -a, -oe 

1. look, glance; stare, gaze; 

2. view, opinion; 

<> Ha nepBuii — on the face 
of it; c nepBoro -^a at first 

BsrjisiHlyTb [vzgl^i^nut^] 
perf -y, BSPJiflHemi?, p -yji, 
imp -H have a look {at), cast 
a glance {at), look {at). 

B3flop [vzdor] m -a non- 
sense; stuff and nonsense. 

BSAOXHyrb see BSAHxaib 1. 

B3flparHB|aTb [vzdrag^ivat**] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, BSflpor* 
Hlytb [vzdr6gnut**] perf -y, 
-euib, p -yji, imp -h start, 

B3AwxliTb [vzdikh^t^] /m- 
perf' -aK>, ^aemb, B3A0XH|yTb 
[vzdAkhnut^] perf -y, -emb, 
p -yji, imp -H 1. sigh {with 
sadness, etc); 2. {no perf) sigh 
{for), yearn {for); be sweet 

<> BSAoxHyxb cbo66aho breathe 
freely / again. 

BSHMlajb [vz^'imat*'] imperf 
-aio, -apuib levy, collect; 
raise {taxes, etc). 

B3JieT|aTb [vz^l^i^tat^] im- 
perf .aio, -§eiiib, B3Jie|TeTb 
[vz^Pi^t^et'l perf -qy, -THmb, 
p -xeji, imp -TH fly up; take 
off {of an aircraft); 
<> B3jieTeTb Ha BdsAyx blow 

B3MaxHB|aTb [vzmakh^i- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
B3MaxH|yTb [vzmAkhnut^i 
perf -y, -emb, p -yji, imp -h 


— 40 — 

flap (wings); wave {hands, 
a kerchief, etc). 

BSMOpble [vzmor^'ya] n -h 
seaside; seashore; beach {of 
a sea). 

B3H0C [vznos, -z] m -a, -ob 

1. mstalment, payment; 

2. payment {the amount paid); 
HjieHCKHe -~bi membership 
dues; BCiynHTeJibHUH ~ en- 
trance fee. 

B3o6paTbCH see esSHpaTbCH. 

B30HTH seeBcxoj\mb. 

B30p [vzor] m -a, -oe look; 
gaze; ycxpeMHib ^ Ha kofo-ji. 
fix one's eyes on smb; see 
--bi 6biJiH npHKoeaHbi k cuene 
everybody's eyes were fixed 
on the stage. 

BsopBaxb see BspbieaTb. 

B3p6cjibiif [vzrosliy] a {also 
used as a noun B3p6cjilbiH 
m -oro, -bix) grown-up, adult. 

B3pbiB [vzrif, -v] m -a, -ob 
1. explosion; 2. fig burst, 
outburst, explosion. 

B3pbiB|aTb [vzrivat^] imperf 
-aK), -aeiiib, BsopBlaxb [vzAr- 
vat^] perf -y, -eiiib, p -aji, 
-ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, /mp-riblow 
up, explode; blast; set off 
(a charge). 

B3bicKaHH|e [vztskan^iya] n 
-H, -H punishment, penalty; 
formal reprimand. 

BSMTJKa [vz^atka] / -kh, 
-OK bribe, graft. 

B35iTb see 6paTb. 

BsnTbCH see SpaxbCH. 

BHfl I [v^it, -d] m -a (-y), 
pi -bi, -08 1. appearance, look, 
air; y Hero njioxoft ~ he 
doesn't look well; eMy Ha ~- 
jiex copoK he looks about 40; 

2. view, scene, sight; ~ na 
Mope view of the sea; Kpa- 
CHBbiH ~ beautiful sight; 
beautiful landscape; 3. pi 
views, prospects; 4. sight 
{space within vision); ckpuxb- 
CH H3 BHAy disappear, pass 
out of sight; noxepnxb hb 
BHAy lose sight of; npH —e 
at the sight {of); 
<> HMexb B ~y 1) mean, 
imply; 2) bear in mind; 
3) intend; HMeiixeB --^, hxo... 
mind that...; hh uojk KaKHM 
—CM by no means, on no 
account; noA ~om under the 
guise {of). 

BHA II [v'^it, -d] m -a(-y), 
pi -bi, -OB 1. kind, sort; 
2. biol species; 3. ling as- 

BHAJexb [v^id^'it'*] imperf 

BH>Ky, -HUJb, p -ejl, yiBHACXb 

[uv^id^'it^] perf 1. see ' {light, 
things, etc); 2. {no perf) see 
{have sight); h xopomo [njio- 
xo] BHJKy I have good [poor] 
eyesight; 3. meet, see; AaBHO 
H Bac He —eji! it's a long 
time since I saw you!; 4. live 
through, see, experience; 
5. fig see, realize; 


see through smb. 

BHAlexbCH [v'^id^ittsa] im- 
perf BHMCyCb, -HUIbCH, P -eACH, 

-ejiacb, y-BHAexbCJi [uv^'id^'i- 
ttja] perf see each other, meet. 

BHAMMO [v^id^'ima] parenth 

BHAHO [v^idna] I impers 
predic: MHe xe6H ne ^ I don't 
see you; 6biJio xopomo ^ one 
could see well; caMOAexa euie 

— 41 — 


He -- the plane is not in 
sight yet; '~', mto oh npHro- 
TOBHji ypoK it is clear that 
he's done his lesson; 
II parenth evidently; proba- 

bhahIbih [v^idniy]. a sh f 
BHAen, -a, -o, -bi (-bi) 1. visi- 
ble, seen; conspicuous, notice- 
able; 2. distinguished, prom- 
inent; 3. col portly, hand- 

BM«y [v^izhuj see BHAeTb. 

BHJKycb [v^izhus^, -z^] see 


BH3r [v'isk, -zg] m -a (-y) 
squeal, screech; yelp. 

BH3)K|aTb [v^izh^:at^] im- 
perf -y, -Hiiib, p -aji, imp -h 
squeal, screech; squall; yelp. 

BH3HT [v^iz^it, -d] m -a, 
-03 visit, call. 

BHJi [v^il], BHJia [v^ila] see 


BHji|Ka [v^ilka] / -kh, -ok 
fork {to take up food). 

BHjicfl [v^ils^a], BHjiacb [v^i- 
las^, -z^] see BHTbCH. 

BHjijbi [v^iU] pi — pitch- 
fork, fork; 

<> ~aMH Ha / no Bojie nHca- 
HO ^ it is none so sure, it 
is still very vague. 

BHHJa [v^ina] / -h guilt; 
fault, blame; no ~e Koro-ji, 
through smb's fault; CTasHTb 
KOMy-ji. B ^y blame smb, 
reproach smb; ceajiHTb ~y 
Ha Koro-ji. lay the blame on 

BHHerpex [v^'in^i^gr^'et, -d] 
m -a, -OB Russian salad. 

BHHJHTb [v^in^it^] imperf 
-K), -Hjub, p -HJi, imp -H blame. 

bhh|6 [v^ino] n -a, pi 
BHHa, -~, BHHaM wine. 

BMHOBaxlbiH [v^inAvatiy] 
a s/i / — , -a, -o, -bi guilty; 
—biH B3rjiH;^ guilty look; 
apologetic look; 
<> —I sorry! 

bhh6bhmk [v^inovn^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB he who is guilty; 
he who is to blame; culprit, 

<> •— TopjKecTBa hero of the 

BHHorpaA [v^inAgrat, -d] m 
-a grapes; vine. 

BHHorpaAHHK [v^inAgrad^- 
n^ik, -g] m -a, -ob vineyard. 

BHHT [v^int, -d] m -a, pi 
-bi, -OB 1. screw {for fasten- 
ing); 2. (screw-)propeller. 

BHHTOBJKa [v^intofka] / -kh, 
-OK rifle. 

BHOJIOHHeJilb [v^i8lAn^- 

ch^eP] / -H, -eft cello. 

BHcjeTb [v^is^et^] imperf 
BHmy, -Huib, p -eji, imp -h 
hang; be' suspended. 

BHcloK [v^isok, -g] m -Ka, 
pi -KH, -KOB temple {of the 

BHTpHHla [v^itr^ina] / -bi, 
-~ 1. shop window; 2. show- 

BHTb [v^it''] imperf BbK), 

BbeUIb, p BHJI, BHJia, BHJIO, BH- 

jiH, imp Beft, CBH|Tb [s^v^it''] 
perf coBbK), coBbeuib, p -ji, 
-jia, -Jio, -jiH, imp CBCH twist 
{wind together); weave; 
<> CBHTb rHe3A6 build a nest. 
BHTbCJi [v^ittja] imperf Bbex- 

CH, p BHJICH, BHJiaCb 1. CUfl 

{of hair); 2. wind, meander; 
3, hover {of birds, etc). 


42 — 

BHXpjb [v^ikhr^] m -h, -eft 
whirlwind {also fig). 

BHUiJHfl [v^'ishn^a] / -hh, 
-eH cherry; cherry-tree. 

BHiuy [v^'ishu] see BHceib. 

BKjiaA [fklat, -d] m -a, -ob 
1. deposit {money put in a 
bank); investment; 2. contri- 
bution {to science, etc). 

BKJiaAWBlaTb [fkladivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, BJio}K|HTb 
[vlAzhlt^] perf -y, BJi6>KHiiib, 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. put in, 
insert; ~aTb MHorocH/i [snep- 
thh] apply much effort [ener- 
gy] {to); 2. invest {money). 

BKJii04|aTb [fkPuch^at^] im- 
perf -aiO, -aeilJb, BKJIK)4|HTb 

[fkl^uch^if]' perf -y, -ikuib, 
p -HJI, imp -H 1. include {in); 
insert; 2. include, contain, 
embrace; 3. technot engage, 
start; switch on {make an elec- 
tric circuit). 

BKjiiOHJaTbcj! [f kPuch^'attsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, bkjik)- 
H|HTbCM [fk^uch'^ittja] perf 

-yCb, -HIlIbCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, 

imp -HCb, -HTecb join in; enter 
{engage in). 

BKjuoMan [fkPuch^aya] prep 
with ace including; included. 

BKjiioHHTejibHo [fkl^'uch^i- 
t^iPna] adv included. 


BKocb [fkos^, -z^] adv ob- 

<> BKpHBb H ~ 1) in a slip- 
shod/disorderly manner; 2) fig 
perversely, in the wrong way. 

BKpaTue [fkrats9] adv brief- 
ly, in short. 

BKyc [fkus, -z] m -a (-y), 

-OB taste; 6biTb cjia^KHM na — 
taste sweet; y Hero xopoiunft 
~ he shows good taste; co 
~0M tastefully; npHHTHCb no 
--y KOMy-ji. be to smb's 
taste, suit smb's taste; be 
just what one wants; o ~ax 
He cnopHT • tastes differ; 
<> BXOflHTb BO ~ Hero-Ji. 
begin to enjoy smth. 

BKycHlwH [fkusniy] a sh f 
BKycen, -a, -o, -bi (-bi) tasty, 
palatable; delicious {food); 
KaK ^o! it does taste good! 

BJiar|a [vlaga] / -h mois- 

Bjiaflejileu [vUd^el^its, -dz] 
m -bua, -bueB owner, propri- 

BjiaAJeTb [vlAd^ef*] imperf 
-eio, -eeiiib 1, possess, own, 
have; 2. be able to use, know 
how to use; wield {a weapon, 
etc); BJia^eTb HHOcipaHHbiM 
HSbiKOM know a foreign lan- 
guage; 3. fig possess, occupy 
{of a thought, etc); 
<> BjiaA^Tb co66fi control 

BJiax(H|Mfi [vlazhnty] a shf 
BJiajKen, -a, -o, -bi damp; 
moist, humid; wet {wind, etc). 

BJiacTHlwH [vlasniy] ashf 
BJiacTeH, -a, -o, -bi imperious, 
commanding; —hh ^ejiOBCK 
masterful person; — wh toh 
peremptory tone. 

BJiacT|b [vlasM^, -z^d**] / 
-H, pi -H, -efl 1. power, au- 
thority; coBeicKan ~b Soviet 
power, Soviet Government; 
~b Ha Mecxax local authori- 
ties; CTOHTby ~H be in pow- 
er; 2. pi authorities. 

43 — 


BJieeo [vl^eva] adv to the 
left; — oTMero-ji. to the left 
of smth; on the left of smth. 

BjiesjaTb [vPi^zat^] imperf 
-aK), -aeiub, ejieslib [vl^es^t^] 
perf -y, -eiub, p —, -Jia, imp 
-b 1. climb (up) {a tree, etc); 
climb {on to); 2. get in, climb 
in; get (into), climb (into); 
3. col go in {when there is 
enough room); go {into a con- 

BJicH [vl^ey] imp of BJiHXb; 
see BjiHBaTb. 

BjieHeHHJe [vl^i'^ch^en^iya] n 
-H, -H bent {for), inclination 
{for); attraction {to smb); 
HMexb ~e K Heuy-Ji. [k ko- 
My-Ji.] be drawn to smth [to 

BJie|Hb [vPech^] imperf -Ky, 
-Meiiib, p BJieK, -KJia draw, 
attract {excite interest, etc); 
<> ~Hb 3a co66h involve, 

BjiHBJaTb [vPivat^] imperf 
-aK), -aeiub, BjiHlxb [vPit^] 
perf BOjibK), BOJibeuib, p -ji, 
-jik, -jio, -jiH, imp Bjiefi 1. pour 
in {a liquid); pour {a liquid 
into smth); 2 fig give, instil 
{courage, etc). 

BJiHjiHH|e [vl^iyan^iya] n 
-H, -H 1. influence {on); OKa- 
sbiBaib --e exert influence, 
influence; 2. authority, influ- 

BjiHnrejibHJbiii [vl^iyat^iP- 
niy] a sh f BjiHHTejien, -a, 
-o, -bi influential. 

BJiHl«Tb [vl^iyat''] imperf 
-Hio. -Heiub, nojBJiHaTb [pa- 
vl^iyat^] perf influence; af- 
fect, have an effect {on). 

BJIKCM fve-el-ka-es-em] 
ahbrev (m) (=BcecoK)3Hbm Jle- 


CoK)3 MojioAe>KH) L.Y.C.L.S.U. 
(Leninist Young Commu- 
nist League of the Soviet 

BJlOJKHTb see EKJia^blBaXb. 
BJIH)5HTbC5I see BJlK)6jlHTbC5I. 

BJiK)6jilflTbC5i [vPubPattsa] 
imperf -Hiocb, -neiubCH, bjiw- 
S'lHTbcsi [vl^ub^ittja] perf 

-JIK)Cb, BJllb6HmbCH, p -HJICH, 

-HJiacB, imp -HCb, -Hxecb fall 
in love {with). 

BMecre [vm^es^t^i] adv to- 
<> ■-- c TCM at the same time. 

BMecTMTejibH|biH [vm^i^- 
s^f'it^il^niy] a sh f bmccth- 
TCJiCH, -a, -o, -bi spacious, 

BMCcTHTb see BMemaxb. 

BMecTMTbCM see BMemaxbCH. 

BMecTO [vm^esta] prep with 
gen instead of, in place of; 
~ Toro, HT66bi noHTH ry^a, 
OH... instead of going there 

BMeuiarejibCTB ] o [ vm^i^sha- 
t^il^stv9] n -a interference 
{in); intervention. 

BMeiuaibCfl see BMeiuHBaib- 


BMeuiJHBaTbcw [vm^eshiv9- 
i\s^]imperf -HBaiocb, -HBaeuib- 
CH, BMeiii|aTbC5i [vm^'i^sha- 
tts9] perf -aiocb, -aeuibCH in- 
terfere (in); meddle {in); step 
{in), intervene. 

BMcmlaxb [vm^i^sh^:at''] 
imperf -aw, -aeuib, BMecxlHTb 
[vm^i^s^t^it^] perf BMemy, 
-Hiiib, p -HJi hold, contain; 


— 44 

seat (0/ a hall)', accommodate 
(0/ a block of flats, etc). 

BMem|aTbCJi [vm^'i^sh^ia- 
ttja] imperf -aK)Cb, -aeuibCH, 
BMCCTlHTbCJi [vm^i^s^'t^ittsa] 
perf BMemycb, -HuibCH, p 
-HJiCH, -HJiacb go in {when 
there is enough room); go 
{into a container). 

BMHr [vmik, -g] adv in an 
instant, in no time. 

BHacM [vnAyom], BHafiMbi 
[vnAymt] adv: Spaxb — liire; 
rent {from smb); CAaaaxb — 
hire -out; let, rent. 

BHanajie [vnAch^'al^i] adv 
at first, in the beginning. 

BHe [vn**e] prep with gen 
outside, out of; ^ KOHKypca 
hors concours; ~ njiana not 
envisaged by the plan; over 
and above the plan; ~ no^o- 
speHHH ^bove suspicion; ~ 
coMHeHHH beyond doubt; 
<^ — ce6fl beside oneself. 

BHCApHTb see BHe^pHTb. 

BHCflplflTb [vn^i^dr^'at^] im- 
perf -HK), -neillb, BHeflp|HTb 

[vn^'i^dr^'it-^] perf -ib, -Huib, 
p -HJi, imp -H introduce {new 
methods of production, etc, 
in industry, etc); inculcate, 

BHeaanHo [vn^i^zapna] adv 
suddenly, all of a sudden. 

BHeoHepeflHOH [vn^'iAch^'i- 
r^'i^dnoy] a 1. out of turn, out 
of order; 2. extraordinary, 
special {session, etc). 


BHeuiHHH [vn^eshn^'iy] a 1. 
outward, external; 2. foreign 
{policy, trade). 

BHeuH0CT|b [vn^'eshnas^'t'', 

-z^d^j /j-H appearance, look(s); 

BHH3 [vn^is, -z] adv 1. 
down, downwards, below; 
cnycKaTbCH — go down, de- 
scend; go downstairs; 2.: ^ 
no TeMeHHK) downstream; -^ 
no Okc down the Oka. 

BHHsy [vn^izu] I adv below 
{in a lower place); down- 
stairs {on a lower floor); 
II prep with gen at the bot- 
tom of, at the foot of. 

BHHKlaib [vn^ikat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, BHiiKH|yTb [vn^ik- 
nut^] perf -y, -euib, p bhhk, 
BHHKJia, imp -H try to under- 
stand, go deep {into); scru- 
tinize, examine carefully (a 
matter, etc). 

BHHMaHHJe [vn^iman^iya] rt 
-H 1. attention; o6paTHTb —e 
Ha qTo-ji. pay attention to 
smth; o6paTHTb qbe-ji. —eHa 
qjo-ji. draw smb's attention 
to smth; 2. kindness {to), 
consideration {for), ccnsider- 

<> npMHHTb BO --e take into 
consideration / account. 

BHHMaTejibH|biM [vn^ima- 
f'lPniy] a sh f BHHMaxejieH, 
-a, -o, -bi 1. attentive; care- 
ful; 2. considerate, kind {to), 
thoughtful {of). 

BHHHbK) [vn^ich^yu] adv: 
Hrpa oKOHMHjiacb -- the game 
ended in a draw; cbirparb — ' 
draw {a game). 

BHOBb [vnof^, -v^] adv 1. 
anew, again; once more; 2. 
newly, recently; — npH6biB- 
uiHii 1) newly arrived; 2) new- 
-comer, new arrival; — Haaaa- 

45 — 


qeHHbiH newly appointed; -- 
BbJmeAuiaH KHHra recently 
published book. 

BHolcHTb [vnAs^it*'] itTiperf 
-my, BHocHiiib, p -cHJi, imp 
-CH, BHec|TH [vn^i^s^t^i] perf 
-y, -eiiib, p BHec, -Jia, imp -h 
1. bring in, carry in; bring 
{into), carry (into); 2. pay 
(in); —CHTb ;^eHbrH pay the 
money; 3. introduce, enter 
{write); ~CHTb HSMeHeHHH 
make alterations; ~cHTb no- 
npaeKH insert amendments; 
make corrections; 4. move, 
submit {a proposal). 

BHyK [vnuk, -g] m -a,-0B 

BHyipeHHHH [vnutr^m^n'iy] 
a 1. inside; internal, inner 
{also fig); 2. home, inland, 
internal {not foreign). 

BHyTpeHH0CT|b [vnutr^m- 

n9sM^ -zM^] / 


■efl 1. interior, inside; 2. pl 
internal organs; entrails. 

BHyxpH [vnutr'^i] I adv in- 
side, in the interior; 
II prep with gen inside, 
within, in. 

BHyrpb [vnutr^l I adv in- 
side, inward; 
II prep with gen inside, into. 

BHy4|Ka [vnuch^ka] / -kh, 
-BK granddaughter. 

BHyuijaxb [vnushat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiub, BHyuilHTb [vnu- 
shit^] perf -y, -HUJb, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. instil {an idea); 
bring home {to smb that...); 
impress {on smb that...); 2. 
fill {smb with a certain feel- 
ing); OH -~aeT yBa>KeHHehe 
commands (everybody's) re- 

spect; ~aTb AOBepHe be trust- 

BHflTHlbifi [vn^atnty] ashf 
BHHTeH-, -a, -o, -bi distinct, 
audible, comprehensible. 

BO see B. 

Bo6paTb see B6HpaTb. 

Bo6bK) [vAb^yu], Bo6beuib 
[vAb^yosh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of BfiHTb; see BSHsaTb. 

BOBJieK|aTb [vavl^i^kat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, BOBjie|Hb 
[vAvPech^] perf -Ky, -Meuib, 
p BOBJieK, -KJia, imp -kh 
draw {into social work, etc). 

BOBpeMfl [vovr^im'^a] adv 
in time; opportunely; He -^ 
inopportunely; at the wrong 

BO-BTOpbix [vaftArtkh] par* 
enth secondly. 

boa] a [vAda] / -bi, ace B6;^y^ 
pl BOAbi, ^, B6;;aM water; 
rasHpoBaHHan ~a aerated 
water; KHnHHenaH ^a boiled 
water; uHTbeBan ^a drinking 
water; cbipaH ~a unboiled 

<> BblBeCTH Ha HHCTyiO 

BOAy — bring to light, ex- 
pose, unmask; bmhth cyxHM h3 
~bi ^ fall on one's feet; 
get away with murder. 

BOAHTeji|b [vAd^it^il^] m 
-H, -eft driver {of a mechani- 
cal vehicle). 

BOAlHTb [VAd**it^] imperf 
Boscy, BOAHiub, p -HJI, imp 
-H [cf BecTH 1, 3] 1. lead 
{horses, blind people, etc; 
smb by the hand, etc); —HTb 
Aeieft ryjiHTb take children 
for a walk; 2. drive {a car, 
etc); pilot {a plane); 3.: -^mb 


~ 46 — 

3HaK6MCTBO keep up an ac- 
quaintance (with); keep up 
friendly relations (with); ^^Th 
ApyjK^y c... be friends with...; 

■<> ~H[Tb KOrO-Jl. 33. HOC 

col fool smb, dupe smb. 
BOAJHTbCfl [vAd^ittja] im- 

perf BOJKyCb, BOAHIUbCH, p 
-HJICH, -HJiaCb, imp -HCb, 

-Hxecb 1. {only in the 3rd 
person) be found, be; bojihtch 
JiH 4)ope;ib B 3T0M osepe? are 
there trout in this lake?; 
2. col keep company {with), 
associate {with);, h c to66h 
He Bo»[ycb I'm not playing 
with you {of children). 

BOflKJa fvotks] / -H vodka. 

BOAOBOpoT [vadavArot, -d] 
m -a, -OB 1. whirlpool; 2. //g 

BOAoeM [vadAyom] m -a, 
-OB body of water; reservoir 
{for storing water). 

BOAOjias [vadAlas, -z] m 
-a, -OB diver {working under- 
water) . 

BOAonaA [vadApat, -d] m 
-a, -OB waterfall. 

BOAonpoBOA [vadaprAvot, 
-d] m -a, -OB water-pipe, wa- 
ter-main; running water; wa- 

BOAOpoA [vadArot, -d] m 
-a hydrogen. 

BOAopocjilb [vodaras^l^] / 
-H, -eft water-plant; sea- 

BOAOxpaHHjiHu;|e [vada- 
khrAn^il^ish^:9] n -a, ~ res- 
ervoir, storage lake. 

BoeBaJTb [vayi'-'vat^] imperf 
BOioK), Boioeiub, p -Ji, imp 
BOK)H be at war {with), fight 

{with, against), wage war 

BoeHHO..., BoeHHO-... first 
element of compounds pertain- 
ing to war or armed forces: 
BoeHHonjieHHbiH [vaymApPen- 
niy] prisoner of war. 


navAzdushniy] a: ~bie chjiu 
Air Force; air forces. 

BoeHHO-MopcKiOH [vAyena- 
mATskoy] a -an, -oe, -He na- 
val; ~6h (})J1ot Navy. 

BoeHHOo6«3aHHibiH [vaymA- 
Ab^azanniy] m -oro, -bix 

BoeHHOcjiy3Kaui|HH [vaymA- 
sluzhash^:iy] m -ero, -hx 
serviceman, soldier. 

BoeHHJHH [vAyenniy] I a 
military, war(-); -^oe nojio- 
>KeHHe martial law; —bift 
saBOA munition factory; 
11 as a noun BoeHHlbifl m 
-orOj -bix serviceman, soldier. 

BO)KaT|biH [vAzhatiy] m 
-oro, -bix 1. Young Pioneer 
leader; 2. col tram-driver. 

BoxcAlb [vosht^, -zhd^] m 
-H, -eft leader {of a state, 
party); chief {of a tribe). 

BOJKy I [vAzhu] see BOAHTb. 

BO»y II [vAzhuJ see bo- 


BOKycb I [vAzhus^, -z^] 
see BOAHTbCH. 

BOJKyCb II [vAzhus^, -z^] 

see BOSHTbCH. 

BOS [vos, -z] m -a (-y), pi 
-bi, -OB 1. cart; 2. cartful 
{of), cart-load {of). 

B03..., BOG... pref of verbs . 
denoting 1. upward direction 
of an action: BOSBOAHXb 

47 — 

[vazvAd^it^] 1) erect (a build- 
ing, etc); 2) elevate {to a 
post, etc); 3) raise, lift up 
{eyes, hands); 2. repetition of 
an action or restoration to a 
previous state: B03po?Kjt5Tb 
[v9zrAzhdat^] revive, restore; 
regenerate, revitalize; Boccia- 
HaBJiHBaxb [v8sstAnavPiv9t^] 
rehabilitate, restore [see the 
word in Dictionary]. 

BOsSyAHTb see B036y}KAaTb. 

BOsSyjKfljaTb [vazbuzhdat^] 
imperf -SiK), -aeiub, B036yiAHTb 
[vazbud^it^] perf ->Ky, -jxuuib, 
p -AHJi, imp -AH 1. excite; 
arouse, rouse; provoke {feel- 
ings); 2. raise (a question, 
etc); —axb p,eJio npoiHB ko- 
ro-ji. take proceedings against 

B036y}KAeHH I e [V9zbuzhd*'e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. excitation; 
' 2. excitement, agitation. 

B03BpaTMTb sceB03BpamaTb. 

B03BpaTHTbC51 See B03Bpa- 


BOBBpamlaxb [vazvrA- 

sh^rat^] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
B03Bpa|THTb [vazvrAt^it^] 
perf -my, -xrimb, p -thji, imp 
-TH return, give back; pay 

B03Bpam,|aTbcsi [vazvrA- 
sh^rattsa] imperf ^aiocb, -aeiiib- 

CH, B03Bpa|THTbC5I [VaZVrA- 

t^ittsa] perf -mycb, -THiubCH, 

P -THJICH, -THJiaCb, /mp -THCb, 

-THTecb return (home, etc); 
come back; go back. 

B03Bpaii;eHH|e [vazvrAsh^:e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h return {home, 
etc); recurrence. 

BosBbicHTb see BosBbimaTb. 

B03Bbiui|aTb [vazvish^t**] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, bosbu- 
c MTb [vAzvfs^it^] perf eosBbi- 
luy, -Hiiib, p -HJi, imp -b 
exalt, elate, ennoble. 

B03BbiiiieHH|e [vazvtshe- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. rise, ris- 
ing; 2. elevation, rising 
ground; 3. platform, dais. 

B03BbimeHH0CT|b [VAZVl- 

shannas^t^, -z^d**] / -h, -efi 
hill, height. 

B03rjiaBHTb see bosfjibb- 
mrh . 

imperf -hk), -neiub, B03rjia- 
B|HTb [vAzglav^it^] perf -jik), 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -b head, 
be at the head of; perf also 
put oneself at the head of. 

Bosrjiac [vozglas, -z] m -a, 
-OB exclamation, cry, shout; 
~bi oAo6peHHH cheers of 

BosjlBHrjaTb [vazdv^igat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, BOSABHr- 
HJyTb [vAzdv^ignut''] perf -y, 
-euib, p B03;tBHr, Bosflsrir- 
Jia, imp -H erect {a monu- 
ment, etc). 

B03fleHCTBH|e [vAz^d^ey- 
s^t^v^iya] n -h, -h influence, 
effect {on); 4)H3HMecKoe ~e 
coercion; oKasbmaxb —- e na 
Koro-Ji. influence smb, exert 
influence on smb, have effect 
on smb. 

B03AeHCXBloBaxb [vAz^d^ey- 
styvaf^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiiib, p -OBaji, imp -yft 
influence {smb), exert influ- 
ence {on smb). 

BOSflepHcaxbCfl see BOSAep- 



— 48 

B03Aep}KHB|aTbCSI [VAZ''- 

d''erzhtV9tts9] imperf -aKx:b, 
-aeuibCH, B03Aep*|aTbcji[v8z^- 
d^i^rzhattsa] perf -ycb, bo3- 
flepjKHiubCH, p -aJicH, -ajiacb, 
imp -HCb, -HTecb keep oneself 
{from), refrain (from), abstain 

Bos^yx [vozdukh, -gh] m 
-a air {the atmosphere)', 
<> BbiHTH Ha — go out- 
doors; Ha (oTKpbiTOM) ~e in 
the open; out of doors. 

B03AymH|biH [vAzdushniy] 
a sh f BOBAymen, -a, -o, -u 
air {space, mail, brake, etc)', 
~oe coo6meHHe air serv- 

B033BaHHle [vAzzvan^iya] n 
-H, -ft appeal {to the public, 
masses); o6paTHTbCH c ~eM 
K HapoAy address an appeal 
to the people. 

B03|HTb [vAz^it^] imperf 
BOHcy, BOBHuib, p -HJi, imp -H 
[cf BesTH I] carry {to trans- 
port); drive {smb in a car, 
etc); draw {a cart). 

B03|HTbC5i [vAz^ittsa] im- 
perf BOHCyCb, BOSHIlIbCH, p 

-HjiCH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-HTecb 1. romp {of children); 
2. col potter have trou- 
ble {with), bother {with). 

F03Jiar|aTb [vazlAgat''] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, B03jio}K|HTb 
[vazlAzhit^] perf -y, bosjio- 
HCHUib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. place, 
lay {a wreath, etc); 2. en- 
trust {with), charge {with); 
<> -~aTb HaAe«jibi na ko- 
ro-Ji. pin one's hopes on smb; 


Koro-Ji. make smb respon- 

sible; ~aTb BHHy Ha Koro-Ji. 

lay the blame on smb. 

Bosjie [voz^Pi] prep with 
gen near, beside, by. 

B03Ji03KHTb sce BOBJiaraTb. 

B03Me3AH|e [vAz^m^ez**- 
d^iya] n -a retribution, re- 
taliation; punishment. 

B03MeCTHTb See BOSMCmaTb. 

B03Meui,laTb [vazm^i^- 

sh^:at^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
B03MecT|HTb [vazm^i^s^t^it^j 
perf B03Memy, -Hiiib, p -hji, 
imp -H make up for, compen- 
sate; refund. 

bo3m6«ho [vAzmozhna] I 
impers predic it is possible; 
~, ^To OH npHAei it is pos- 
sible that he may come, he 
may come; Bnojine -— it's 
quite possible; HacKOJibKO -^ 
as far as possible; 
II parenth perhaps, pos- 
sibly; OH, ~, npHAeT perhaps 
he will come, he may 

B03M6)KHOCT|b [vAZmOZh- 

nas^t^, -z^d^] / -h, pi -h, 
-eft 1. possibility; 2. oppor- 
tunity, chance; HMexb ~b 
have an opportunity, be 
able; 3. pi potentialities; 
means, resources; 
<> no (wepe) — h as far as 
possible; npH nepBOft ---h as 
soon as possible; at the 
first opportunity. 

B03M6}KH|biH [vAzmozhniy] 
\ a sh f B03M6>KeH, -a, -o, 
-bi possible; feasible; 
1 1 as a noun B03M6>KH|oe 
n -oro: CAeJiaTb Bce —oe do 
one's best, do all in one'? 

— 49 


B03MyTHTejibHlbiH [v9zmu- 
t^it^il^niy] a sh f bosmyth- 
TejieH, -a, -o, -bi outrageous, 
shocking, revolting. 

B03MyTMTb see BOSMymaxb. 



B03Mym|aTb [v9zmush^:at''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, B03My- 
T|HTb [vazmut^it^J perf bob- 
Mymy, -Hiiib, p -HJi make 
indignant, arouse indigna- 
tion; exasperate. 

B03Mym|aTbCH [v9zmush^:a- 
tts9] imperf -aiocb, -aembCH, 
B03MyT|HTbcji [v9zmut^ittj9i 
p6rf BOSMymycb, -riuibCH, p 
-HJiCH, -HJiacb be indignant, 
be filled with indignation; 
be outraged. 

BOswymeHHle [v9zmush'':e- 
n^iy9] n -h indignation; re- 

BOSHarpajiHTb S6e BOSHa- 
> rpajKAaxb. 

B03HarpaH(A|axb [v9zn9- 
grAzhdat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
B03Ha^pa;^|HXb [v9zn9grA- 
d^it**] perf BOSHarpaHcy, -riuib, 
p -HJI, imp -H reward, re- 
compense; remunerate. 

B03Harpa)KJieHM|e fv9zn9- 
grAzhd^en^iyg] n -h, -h re- 
ward, recompense; remune- 
ration; 3a He6ojibiii6e —e for 
a small consideration. 

BosHHKJaTb [vaz'^n^ikat^J 
imperf -aex, B03HHKH|yxb 
[vAz^'n^iknut^] perf -ex, p 
B03HHK, B03HHKJia arise, 
spring up, come into being; 
y MeHH ~aex noAOspeHHe, 
1X0... I'm beginning to sus- 
pect that... 

B03H;a [VAZ^n^a] / -PI col 

1. romping; fuss, bustle; 
noise, racket; 2. trouble, 

B0306HOBHXb 866 B03o6hOB- 

B0306HOBJllflXb [V9Z9bnAy- 

l^at^] imperf -hk), -Heuib, 

B0306H0B|HTb [v9Z9bnAV^it''] 

perf -Jiio, -Huib, p -HJi, imp 
-H renew {an agreement, etc)', 
resume {talks, etc). 

BOBpaKJaxb [v9zrAzhat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Bospa- 
3lMTb [v9zrAz^it^] perf bo3- 
pa>Ky, -Hiiib, p -HJI, imp -h 
object {to), raise an objection 
{to); Bbi He 6y;;exe '—axb, 
ecjiH H oxKpoK) OKHo? do you 
mind my opening the win- 

BOBpacT [v6zr9st, -zd] m 
-a, -OB age {time of life)":, 
B '-e AecHXH Jiex at the age 
of ten; 

<> BbiHXH H3 --a pass the 
age limit; be no longer of 
{some) age; be too old {for 

B03pacT|axb [vazrAstat^] 
imperf -aex, B03p|acTH [vaz- 
rAs^t^i] perf -acxex, p -6c, 
-ocjia increase, grow. 

B03pOAHXb see BospojK^axb. 

B03pOAHTbCJI 866 B03pO«- 


B03po)K;i|axb [v9zrAzhdat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, B03po- 
flJHXb [v9zrAd^it^] perf bo3- 
pojKy, -Hiub, p -HJi, imp -h 
revive, restore; regenerate, 

B03po>KAlaTbCJi [v9zrAzh- 
datt^9] imperf -aiocb, -aeiiibca. 



BoapofllHTbca [v9zrAd^itts9] 
perf B03po>Kycb, -HiubCH, p 

-HJICH, -HJiaCb, imp -HCb, 

-Hxecb revive {to life, etc). 

B03po%AeHH|e [v9zrAzhd^e- 
n^iya] n -h 1. revival, re- 
birth; 2. (B.) hist Rennais- 
sance; snoxa '-H Rennais- 

B03bMH [vAz^m^i] imp of 
BSHTb; iee 6paTb. 

BOSbMHCb [vAz^m'^is^, -z^], 
B03bMHTeCb[vAZ^m^it^IS^, -z^] 

imp of B3HTbCH; see dpaibCH. 

BOSbMy [vAz^'mu], BosbMeiiib 
[vAz^m^osh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of esHTb; see 6paTb. 

BOSbMyCb [vAZ^'mus^, -z^] 
B03bMembcji [vAz^m^oshs^a] 
1st & 2nd persons of esHTbCH; 
see 6paTbCJi. 

BOHH [voin] m -a, -ob sol- 
dier, fighting man; warrior 
(also poetical). 

b6hhck|hh [voinsk^iy] a 
-aa, -oe, -He military {hon- 
ours, service, etc); martial 
{spirit, etc); ~aH noBHHHOcxb 
conscription, compulsory mil- 
itary service. 

BOHHCTBeHHbiH [vAinstv^m- 
nty] a bellicose, warlike. 

BOHHCTByK)lU,|HH [VAinstvU- 

yubh^'iiy] a -an, -ee, -He mil- 
itant, combative. 

BOH I [voy] m BOH howl, 
howling; wail. 

Boii II [voy] see BbiTb. 

BOHJiOK [voylak, -g] m -a 
thick felt. 

BOHH la [vAyna] / -bi, pi 
BOHHbi, ~, BOHHaM War; War- 
fare; BeJiHKaH OreMecTBeH- 
Haa '^a Great Patriotic War; 

rpa>KAaHCKaH ^a civil war; 
axoMHan ^a nuclear warfare; 
BecTH '-y wage war, wage/ 
fight a war; o6-bHBJiHTb ~-y 
declare war. 

BOHCKa [vAyska] pi bohck 
{sing BOHCK I o n -a) troops, 
forces, force; dpoHexaHKOBbie 
~ armoured forces; Bos^yin- 
HOAecaHTHbie ~ airborne 


BOKsaji [vAgzal] m -a, -ob 
(railway) station; peqHofl ~ 
river transport station. 

BOKpyr [vAkruk, -g] prep 
with gen &a(it^ around, round 
{!) on all sides; 2) in a 

<> ~ Aa OKOJio col = beating 
about the bush. 

BOJi [vol] m -a, -OB ox. 

BOJiAbip|b [vAldfr^] m -h, 
-eft blister {on the skin); 
bump, swelling. 

BOjiefiSoji [vaPi^ybol] m -a 

BOJiCH- Heeojiefi [vol^iyn^i^- 
voPiy] adv willy-nilly. 

BOjiK [volk, -g] m -a, pi 
-H, -OB wolf {an animal). 

BOjiHJa [vAlna] / -bi, pi 

BOJJHbl, -~, -aM (BOJIHaM), 

-aMH (BOJiHaMH), (o) -ax (boji- 
Hax) wave {!) of water, etc; 
2) phys; 3) fig); BspbiBHan 
— a blast. 

BOjiHeHH|e [vAln^'en^iya] n 
-H, pi -H, -H 1. roughness (o/ 
water); na MOpe ^e the sea 
is rough; 2. excitement, agi- 
tation, emotion; nervousness, 
being nervous; 3. pi riots, ' 

— 51 -^ 


BOjiH|oBaTb [valnAvat^] im- 
perf -yvD, -yeuib, p -OEaJi, imp 
-yn, BsjeojiHoeaTb [vzval- 
HAvat^] perf excite, agitate; 
upset (0/ had news, etc)', dis- 
turb, worry; move {smb 
deeply, etc). 

BOJiH|oBaTbC5i [ valoAvattja] 
imperf -yiocb, -yeiubCH, p 
-OBajicH, -OBajiacb, imp -yflcH, 


[vzvalnAvattja] perf 1. ripple; 
be rough {of water); 2. be nerv- 
ous; be excited; t)e disturbed, 
be worried; be upset. ' 

BOJioKHTJa [valAk^ita] / -bi 
red tape; col long and trouble- 
some affair. 

BOJioKHJo [valAkno] n -a, 


HaM fibre (a thread or thread- 
like substance). 

BOJioc [volas, -z] m -a, pi 
-bi, BOJioc, -aM 1. pi hair {of 
people); head of hair; 2. hair 
{of animals); kohckhh -- 

bojioc|6k [valAsok, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB 1, dim of bojioc; 
2. filament {in electric lamps); 
hair {in instruments); 
<> 6biTb Ha ~6k ot Hcro-Ji. 
be within a hairbreadth of 
smth; BHceTb/flepmaxbCfl Ha 
~Ke hang by a thread. 

B0jiuie6H|biH [vAlshebniy] 
a sh f B0Jiiiie6eH, -a, -o, -bi 
1. magic; 2. enchanting, be- 

BOJibHJbiH [voPniy] a sh f 
BOJieH, -a, -o, -bi (-b'l) 1. free 
{thought, etc); 2. impudent, 
free, familiar {behaviour, 

BOJlbK) [VAPyu], BOJIbSuib 

[vApyosh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of BjiHXb; seeBJiHsaTb. 

BOJiifl [v61''9] / -H 1. will 
{1) strong, weak, etc; 2) to 
live, etc); CHJia ^-h will-pow- 
er; 2. liberty, freedom; Ha 
~e at liberty, free; oiny- 
CKaxb na ~io set at liberty; 
<> JiioAH AoSpoH ~H people 
of good will; AaBaxb —10 
give vent to (emotions, etc), 

BOH I [von] col I adv out 
{outward); Bbirnaxb -- turn 
out, chuck out; Bb'mxH ~ go 

II inter]' away!, away with 
you!; ~ oxciOAa!, nomeji -~! 
get out (of here)!, clear out! 

BOH II [von] pa/-^ co/ there, 
over there; ~ oh H^ex there 
he is; there he is coming; 
— xaM over there; 
<> BOH OHO Hxo! SO that's it! 

BOHsjaxb [vAnzat^] imperf 
-aK), -aeujb, BOHSjuxb [vAn^- 
z'^it^] pert BOHJKy, -Huib, p 
-HJi, imp -H stick {a pin, etc); 
thrust, stab {a knife, etc). 

BOHJb [von**] / -H <:o/ stink, 

Boo6paiK|axb [vAAbrAzhat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, Boo6pa- 
3|Hxb [vAAbrAz'^it^] perf boo- 
6pamy, -Huib, p -hji, imp -h 
imagine, fancy; —axb ce6e 
qxo-Ji, take smth into one's 
head, imagine smth; —aio, 
KaK OH y;],HBHJiCH! col I can 
just imagine how surprised 
he was!; 

<> (MHoro) ~axb o ce6e col 
think too much of oneself; 
BOo6pa3uxe! fancy! 


52 — 

BOo6pa%eHHle [vAAbrAzhe- 
n^iya] n -h imagination. 

Boo6pa3HTb see BooSpan^aTb. 

Boo6ii;e [vAApsh^ie] adv 1. 
in general, generally; on the 
whole; 2. always, on all 
occasions; 3. in neg sentences 
at all; oh — ne snaex sto- 
ro he doesn't know this at 

BOOAyuicBHTb see eoo/tymeB- 


B00flyuieBJieHH|e [vadusht^- 
vPen^iya] n -h 1. inspiring, 
rousing; 2. enthusiasm, inspi- 

BooAyuieBjil«Tb [vadushi^v- 
Pat^] imperf -hk), -neiub, 
Booji.yiiieB{HTb [vadusht^v^'it^] 
perf -jiK), -Huib, p -HJi, imp 
-H inspire, fill with enthu- 

Boopy}K|aTb [vAAruzhat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, Boopy- 
»CiHTb [vAAruzhtt^] perf -y, 
-HUib, p -HJI, imp -H arm 
{with); equip {with weapons) 
{both also fig). 

Boopymjarbcji [vAAruzha- 
ttj9] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 
B00py}K|iiTbCfl [vAAruzhtttja] 
perf -ycb, -HiubCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -HTecb 
arm, arm oneself (with) 
{also fig). 

BOopyiKeHHJe [vAAruzhe- 
n^iya] n -a, -ft 1. armament, 
equipment, equipping; 2. ar- 
mament, arms; coKpameHHe 
^\i reduction of armaments; 
HMCTb Ha — H be armed 
/e(5uipped with; CHHib c 
'-H discard {a weapon). 

BOopyiKHTb see eoopyjKaTb. 

BOopy»HTbcsi see eoopy- 


BO-nepBbix [vAp^ervtkh] 
parenth firstly, in the first 

BonHK)ii;|HH [V9p^iyush*':iy] 
a -an, -ee, -He crying, noto- 
rious, scandalous; ~ee npo- 
THBOpeMHe flagrant contradic- 

BonjioTHTb see BonJiomarb. 

BonjiomjaTb [v9plAsh'':at*'] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Bonjio- 
TJHTb [vaplAt^it^] perf bo- 
njiomy, -rimb, p -hji, imp -h 
incarnate, embody {an idea, 
etc); personify, be the per- 
sonification of; -~aTb b ce6e 
personify, be the personifi- 
cation / embodiment of; ~aTb 
B )KH3Hb realize, bring into 

Bonji|b [vopl^] m -H, -eft 
(loud) cry, howl; wail {of 

BonpeKH [vapr^i^k^i] prep 
with dat in spite of, despite; 
contrary to; '^ HheMy-Ji. me- 
jiaHHK) against smb's desire. 

Bonpoc [vApros, -z] m -a, 
-OB question; point {in a de- 
bate); aa^aib ~ ask a ques- 
tion; 3T0 cepbesHbiH — it is 
a serious matter; -- b tom, 
mo... the point is that...; 

<> ~ »H3HM H CMepTH 3 

matter of life and death; 
HTO 3a —! of course!, no 
doubt!; aio eme ~ that is a 
question; it remains to be 
seen if...; noA ^om undecid- 

Bop [vor] m -a, pi -u, -6b 
thief; KapMaHHbift ^ pick- 

— 53 — 


pocket; ;^ep)KHTe ^a\ stop 

<0> Ha ~e uianKa ropHT prov 
^ an uneasy conscience be- 
trays itself. 

B0pBaTbC5i see BpbieaTbCH. 

BOpo6|eH [varAb^ey] m-bi, 
-bCB sparrow; 

<> cTpejiHHbifl -~eH col an old 
bird, an old hand, an old 

Bop|oBaTb [varAvat^] im- 
perf -yio, -yeuib, p -oBaji, 
imp -yft steal {money, etc). 

BopoH [voran] m -a, -ob 

BOpoHla [vArona] / -u, ~ 
crow (a bird); 

^ nyraHafl --a Kycxa 6ohtcsi 
prov = once bitten, twice 

Bop6M|Ka [vAronka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. funnel {for pouring 
liquids); 2. crater {made by 
a shell, etc). 

BopOT [vorat, -d] m -a, 
-OB collar {of a garment). 

Bopoia [vArota] pi BOpoT 
gate(s); goal {posts in games). 

BOpOTHUK [varAt^n^'ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB collar {of a gar- 
ment); oTJiojKHOH ~ turn- 
-down collar; ctoh'^hh ~ 
stand-up collar. 

BopoHJaTb [vAroch^at**] im- 
perf -aK), -aeiiib move, shift; 
turn {stdhes, pieces of furni- 
ture, etc). 

BopoHJaTbCH [vAroch^att^a] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubcn turn 
(over) {in bed); 6ecnoK6HHO 
--aTbCH toss (about) {on the 

BOpHlaTb [vArch^at^J imperf 

-y, -Huib, p -5ji, imp -h 1. 
growl {of a dog); 2. col grum- 
ble, growl '{with discontent). 

Boc... see B03... 

BOceMHaAuaTMH [vas^i^m- 
nattsatty] num ord eight- 

BoceMHafluaT|b [vas^i^m- 
nattjat^, -d^] num card -h, 
-bK) eighteen. 

B6c|eMb [vos^im'^] num card 
-bMH, -bMbK) (-CMbib) eight. 

BOceMbAecHT [vos^im^'d^i- 
s^'it, -d] num card BOCbMHAe- 


ceMbiOAecHTbio) eighty. 

BOceMbcoT [vas^i^msot, -d] 
num card BOCbMHcoT, BOCbMH- 

CTaM, —, BOCbMHCXaMH (bO- 

eight hundred. 

BOCK [vosk, -zg] m -a (-y) 
wax, beeswax. 

BOCKJlMKHlyXb -[vAskl'ik- 
nut^] perf -y, -euib, p -yji, 
imp -H, BocKjiHUJaxb [vaskl^i- 
tjat^] imperf -aro, -aeiiib ex- 
claim, cry out. 

BOCKJiHiJ(aHH|e [vaskPitsa- 
n^iya] n -h, -h exclamation, 

BOCKjiHU,axb see bockjihk- 

BOCKpecjaxb [vaskr^i^sat^] 
imperf -aK), -aeuib, BOCKpec- 
HJyxb [vAskr^esnut^] perf -y, 
-eiiib, p BocKpec, imp -h 
1. rise from the dead; 2. fig 
revive {of a feeling, etc); 
-—axb B naMHXH recur to 
one's memory. 

EOCKpeceHH|e [vaskr^i'^s^e- 
n^iya] n -h I. relig resur- 
rection; 2. fig revival. 


54 — 

BOCKpeceH|be [vaskr^i^s^e- 
n^ya] n -lh, -hh Sunday. 

BOCKpecHyxb see BOCKpe- 

BOCKpecHbiH [vAskr^esnty] 
a Sunday {aitr); — jxenh 

BOcnajieHHi^ [v9spAl^e- 

n'^iya] n -a, -h inflammation 
{of the lungs, etc). 

BOcnHTaHHJe [vssp^ita- 
n^iya] n -h 1. education {of 
the younger generation, the 
masses, etc); upbringing; 
training {mental, physical, 
etc); xpyAOBoe ~-e labour up- 
bringing, education through 
work; 2. breeding, good 

BOcnHTaHH|hiH [vAsp^itan- 
niy] a [pa] sh f BocnHTan, 
-a, -o, -bi well-bred, polite, 
courteous; Aypno/ njioxo ~biH 
ill-bred, rude. 

BOcnHxaxb see eocnnxbiBaxb. 

BOcnHXbiB|axb [vAsp^itl- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, eoc- 
nHxjaxb [vasp^itat^] perf-aio, 
-aeiiib 1. bring up, educate; 
2. foster, cultivate, inculcate. 

BOcnjiaMeHMxbcji see boc- 


BOcnjiaMeHJnxbcji [vaspb- 
m^i^n^attja] imperf -nexcn, 
BOcnjiaMeH | nxbca [ vaspla- 

m^i^n^ittja] perf -hxch, p 
-HJicH, -HJiacb catch fire, ig- 

BOcnojibsoBaxbcsi see nojib- 

SOBaXbCH 1. 

BocnoMHHaHHJe [vaspam^i- 
nan^iya] n -h, pi -h, -h 1. 
memory, recollection; 2. pi 
memoirs, reminiscences. 

BOcnpexMXb see Bocnpemaxb, 

Bocnpemlaxb [vaspr^i^- 

sh^:at^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
BOcnpex'iHXb [vaspr^i^t^it''] 
perf Bocnpemy, -nmb, p -hji, 
imp -H prohibit, interdict; 
BXOA ~eH no admittance, no 

BOcnpHHMHMBlbiH [vaspr^l- 
imch^iviy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. receptive {mind); intel- 
ligent {person); 2. suscepti- 
ble {to smth), 

BOcnpHMMMJaxb [vaspr^i- 
n^imat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
BOcnp'iHHHXb [vaspr^in^at^j 
perf -nuy-, -HMeiub, p -hhhji, 


-HMH perceive, apprehend; 
absorb, take in, grasp {ideas, 
etc); interpret {as); ~axb 
Hxo-Ji. KaK AOJiJKHoe accept 
smth as a matter of course; 
— axb qxo-Ji. c y^oBJiexBope- 
HHeM welcome smth. 
BOcnpoHSBecxH see Bocnpo- 


BocnpoH3B|oflHxb [vaspraiz- 

VAd^it^] imperf -ojKy, -o^^HiUb, 



^bjCgbj-bfj pgf^j: .Qjj^y^ -eAeiub, 
p -en, -ejia, imp -cah 1. re- 
produce {a sound, etc); 2.: 
— oAHXb B naMHXH call to 

BocnpoHSBOAcxB ] o*[ vaspraiz- 
votstva] n -a econ repro- 
duction; pacumpeHHoe ^o 
enlarged reproduction. 

BOccxalBaxb [vasstAvat^] 
imperf -lo, -eiub, p -BaJi, boc- 
cxa|xb [vAsstat^] perf -Hy, 
-Heiiib, p -Ji, imp -Hb revolt, 
rise {against). 

55 — 


BOccTaHaBjiHB|aTb [vasstA- 
navPivat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
BoccTaH|oBHTb [vasstanAv'^it^j 

perf -OBJIK), -OBHUIb, p -OBHJl, 

imp -OBH 1. rehabilitate, re- 
store (economy, etc); -— aTb 
CBoe SAopoBbe recover one's 
health; 2. fig: —aib b na- 
MHTH call to mind; 3. rein- 
state (m former employment, 
etc); -—aTb kofo-ji. b npaBax 
restore smb to his rights, 
rehabilitate smb; 4. set, in- 
cite (smb against smb / smth). 
BoccTaHHle [vAsstan^iya] n 
-H, -H uprising, rebellion, 
revolt; noAHHXb --e rise in 



Boccxaxb see BOCCTaBaxb. 

BOcxoK [vAstok, -g] m -a 
east; na --e in the east; na 
^ eastward (s); noexaxb Ha 
~ go east. 

Bocxopr [vAstork, -g] m -a, 
-OB delight, rapture; 6bixb b 
~e ox qero-Ji. be delighted 
with smth; 6bixb BHe ce6H ox 
--abein raptures; npHBo^HXb 
Koro-Ji. B ~ delight smb; 
enrapture smb; npHXo^HXb b 
~ go into raptures, be de- 

Bocxoprlaxbcsi [vsstArga- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibOi 
be delighted (with); express 
one's delight (with). 

BOcxoHHbift [vAstoch^niy] a 
east, eastern; oriental. 

Bocxpe6oBaHH|e [vAstr^^ba- 
van^iya] n -h: ao -^h poste 
restante. ^ 

BocxHxHxejibHJbiH [vaskh^i- 

t^it^il^nty] a sh f bocxhxh- 
xejiCH, -a, -o, -bi delightful; 
delicious; exquisite {flower, 

BOcxHiu|axbCJi [vaskh^i- 
sh^:attsa] imperf -aiocb, -a- 
euibCH admire, be delighted 
{with), be carried away {by). 

BocxoA [vAskhot, -d] m -a, 
-ob: ~ coJiHua sunrise. 

BOCbMep|Ka [vAs^m^orka] f 
-KH, -OK (an) eight; (the) eight. 

BOCbMHAecflx|biH [vas^m^i- 
d^i^s^atiy] numord eightieth; 
'-bieroAbi the eighties. 

BOCbMOH [vAS^'moy] num 
ord eighth, 

BOX [vot, -d] part 1. de- 
noting the fact that smth is 
or is taking place before 
smb's eyes, here, etc here, 
there; ~ h h here I am; '— 
OHa HAex here she is coming; 
2. intens (with nouns) there's; 
— ' JienxHH! there's a lazy- 
-bones!; ~ MOJio^eu! good for 
you [him, etc]l; 3. intens 
(with pron or adv) this / that 
is...; -^ Mxo H xoqy that's 
what I want; ~ sxox this 
one; ~ h Bce that's all; 
■0 BOX eiu,e! col indeed!, 
what next!; '- xe6e (m) na! 
col well, I never!; well, to 
be sure!; — axo Aa! col that's 
something like!; I should 
say!; box oho hxo! there it is! 

BOXKHyxb see BXbiKaxb. 

BOiiieji [vAshol], Bouijia 
[vAshla] 1st & 2nd persons 
of bohxh; see BXOAHXb. 

BOUIb [VOSh, -Zh] / BIUH, 

dat BuiH, instr BoiubK), pi 
BuiH. Buiefl louse. 


— 56 — 

BOK) [voyu], Boeiub [voyash, 
-zh] see BbiTb. 

BOK)H [vAyuy] see BoesaTb. 

BOK)K) [vAyuyu], BOibeiub 
[vAyuyash, -zh] BoesaTb. 

BRBAlaTb [fpAdat''] imperf 
-aio, -aeiiib, Bna|cTb [fpas^t''] 
perf -Ay, -Aeiub, -ji, imp -ah 
1. (mo per/) fall {into), dis- 
charge (m/o) (0/ a river); 2. 
fall {into a reverie, etc); 
— aTb B oTqaHHHe give way 
to despair. 

BnaflHHla [fpad^ina] / -bi, 
~ hollow, cavity, depression. 

BnajibiH [fpalty] a sunken, 

BnacTb see Bna^aTb 2. 

BnepBbie [fp'^i^rvtyg] adv 
for the first time. 

BnepeA [fp^'i^r^ot, -d] adv 
<> njiaxHTb — pay in advance. 

BnepCAH [fp^'ir^i^d^'i] I adv 
1. in front; BCTaxb -- take 
a stand in front; hath -— go 
in advance; 2.: y Hee mhopo 
BpeMCHH — she has plenty 
of time; y nee ueJian >KH3Hb 
~ her whole life is before 
her; mto ero jkact ~? what 
does future hold in store for 

II prep with gen in front 
of, before; hath ~ Bcex go 
ahead of all; 
<> 6biTb ~ take the lead. 

BnenaxjieHHle [fp^ich^i^tl^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h impression 
{produced on smb, etc); ne- 
OTpasHMoe ~e profound im- 
pression; y MCHH TaKoe -~e, 
HTO... I have an impres- 
sion, that... 

BnHxaTb see BnHTbieaTb. 

BnHTaTbCfl see BnHTbisaTbCH. 

BnHTWB|aTb [fp^ittvat^j 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Bnurlaxb 
[fp'^itat^j perf -aro, -aeiub 
absorb, imbibe {also fig). 

BnMTbiB|axbcn [fp^itWattsa] 
imperf -aexcH, BnHx|axbC{i 
[fp^itattsa] perf -aexcH be 
absorbed, soak {into). 

BnjioxHyio [fpUtnuyu] adv 

1. close {to), very near {to)\ 

2. fig col in real earnest. 
Bnjioxb [fplot^, -d^] adv: 

~ Ao (right) up to; down to 
{the smallest details, etc). 

BnojiHe [fpAln^'e] adv quite, 

Bnonbixax [fpapikhakh, -gh] 
adv in one's haste; in a 

Bnopy [fporu] adv col: 6biTb / 
npHHTHCb ~ fit {of clothes). 

BnocjieACXBHH [fpAs^Petst- 
v^ii] adv afterwards, later on. 

BnoxbMax [fpAt^makh, -gh] 
adv in the dark. 

BnpaBO [fprava] adv to the 
right; --' ot qero-A. to the 
right of smth; on the right 
of smth. 

BnpeAb [fpr^'et^, -d*"] adv 
henceforth, in future; in the 
<> — AO until, pending. 

BnporojiOAb [fprogalaf*, 
-d''] adv. >KHTb ~ live in 
(dire) poverty. 

BnpOK [fprok, -g] adv 1.: 
aaroTOBJiHTb ~ store (up) 
{for use later); 2.: hath '— 
do good; eMy sto noHACT — 
this will do him good, he 
will profit by this. 

57 — 


enpoHCM [fproch^im] cj 
however, but; nevertheless. 

BnpbicKHB|aTb [fprls'^k^i- 
V9t^] imperf -aK), -aeiiib, 
Bnpb'icHJyxb [fprisnut^] perf 
-y, -emb, p -yji, imp -h 
inject {a fluid, medicine). 

BnycK|aTb [fpuskaf] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, BnycxlHib 
[fpus^t^it^] perf enymy, Bny- 
CTHiEfa, p -Hji, imp -H let in, 
admit {into a room, etc). 

Bnycxyio [fpustuyu] adv 
col (al!) for nothing, to no 

Bpar [vrak, -g] m -a, -6b 
enemy; opponent [of smth). 

Bpa}Kala [vrAzhda] / -u en- 
mity, hostility; oHTaxb ~y 
K... feel animosity against... 

BpaMCAe6H|biH [vrAzhd^eb- 
niy] a sh f BpajK^eSeH, -a, 
-o, -bi hostile, inimical. 

BpajKecKlHH [vrazhask^iy] 
a -aH, -oe, -ne enemy {attr)., 

epacnjiox [vrAsplokh, -gh] 
adv: saciaib / sacTHrnyTb ~ 
take by surprise, take una- 
wares, surprise. 

Bparaplb [vrAtar'*] m -h, 
-eft goalkeeper. 

Bpaxb [vrat''] imperf spy, 
Bpeuib,. p BpaJi, Bpajia, Bpa- 
Jio, BpajiH, imp BpH, coBp|axb 
[sAvrat''] perf -y, -eiiib, p 
-aJi, -ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, imp -h 
col lie, tell lies; Bpeuib! it's 
a lie! 

Bpan [vrach^, -j^] m -a, 
-eft physician, doctor; 3y6- 
HOH ~ dentist. 

BpaneCHbiH [vrAch^ebnly] 
a medical. 

Bpaiujaxb [vrAsh^:at^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuib revolve, ro- 
tate, turn. 

BpamlaxbCH [vrAsh^:atts9] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH 1. re- 
volve, rotate, turn; -~axbCH 
BOKpyr qero-Ji. turn round 
smth, circle smth; --axbCH 
BOKpyr CBoeft och revolve on 
its axis; 2. fig: ~aTbcn cpe- 
j\A yneHbix [aKxepoB u m. n.\ 
mix / mingle with scientists 
[actors, etc]. 

Bpefl [vr^et, -d] m -a harm, 
injury; damage, loss; npHHo- 
CHXb / npHqHHHXb ^ do harm; 

BpeflHxejilb [vr^i^d^it^iP] 
m -H, pi -H, -eft 1. agric pest; 
pi also vermin; 2. wrecker, 

BpeAH|biH [vr^ednjy] a sh 
f Bpe;ieH, -a, -o, -u (-bi) 
hurtful, harmful, bad, inju- 
rious; unhealthy; ~aH npH- 
BbiMKa bad habit; ---oe npo- 
h3b6actbo unhealthy trade. 

BpeMCHHO [vr^em^mno] adv 
temporarily; ~ hcrojikhk)- 


u m. n.) acting (director, 

BpeMeHHJbiH [vr'em'mniy] 
a sh f {no m), -a, -o, -bi tem- 
porary, interim; provisional 
{government, measure, etc). 

BpeM|si [vr^em^a] n -chh, 
pi -ena, -ch, -enaM 1. time 
{1) a period or interval; 2) a 
point in duration; a precise, 
usual, or proper moment; 3) 
duration, continuance); cKOJib- 
Ko ~eHH? what time is it?; 
eme He Hacxajio ~h the time 


- 58 - 

has not come yet; 2. time, 
epoch; times; 3.: --h ro^a 
season {of the year); 4. ling 
tense; npoiiie;tiiiee ~h past 
tense; 6yAymee ~h future 

•O^ Bce >~fl all the time; al- 
ways; B nocjieflHee '-a lately, 
of late, recently; b cbgc -^a 
1) at one time; in one's 
time; 2) in due course; na 
"-ji for a time, for a while; 
Ha nepeoe ~Ji for a start; 
B TO ~fl KaK while; c xene- 
HHCM ~eHH in time, even- 
tually; CO ~eHeM in due 
course;with the years;TeM~e- 
HCM meanwhile; —a ox ^chh 
from time to time; co —chh 
(HameS Bcxpe^H u m. n.) since 
(our meeting, etc). 

BpH [vr^i] see epaxb. 

BpoAe [vrod^i] prep with 
gen like, such as; He^xo ~ 
col a kind of. 

Bpo)KAeH|HbiH [vrAzhdMn- 
nty] a inborn, innate; con- 

Bpy [vru], Bpeiiib [vr^osh, 
-zh] see epaxb. 

Bpynjaxb [vruch^at^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, BpyH|HXb [vru- 
ch^'it^] perf -y, -Hiub, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. hand, hand in, 
deliver; present {credentials, 
etc); 2. fig entrust {one's 
fate, etc). 

BpuBJaxbcsi [vrivattja] 

imperf -awcb, -aeiiibCH, bo- 
pBJaxbCJi [vArvattsa] perf 
-ycb, -euibCH, p -aJiCH, -ajiacb, 
-aJiocb (-ajiocb), -ajiHCb (-a- 
jiHCb), imp -HCb, -Hxecb burst 
{into a room, etc). 

Bpflfl jiH [vr^atPi] part 
hardly, scarcely, 

BcaAHHK [fsad^n^'ik. -g] m 
-a, -08 rider, horseman. 

Bce [fs^e] pron pi -x, -m, 
~ (-X), -MH, (o, o6o) -X see 

Bce I [fs^o] pron n Bcero, 
BceMy, ~, BceM, (o6o) -m see 

Bce II [fs^o] col I adv 1. 
all the time; 2. still {up to 
the present time); yet {in neg 
sentences); ~ eme still {up 
to the present time); yet {in 
neg sentences); 

n part used in- comparisons 
for emphasis: ~ Jiyqiue h 
JiyHiue better, and better; ~ 
66Jibiiiee KOJiii^ecxBO Jiiojieu. 
an ever increasing number 
of people; -^ BospacxaiomHH 
ever increasing, ever growing; 
<> ~ xe nevertheless, still. 

Bce... first element of com- 
pounds, corresp in meaning 
to eecb: BcepoccHHCKHH [fs^i- 
rAs^iysk^iy] All-Russian. 


mozhniy] a all kinds of, ail 
possible, various. 

BcerAa [fs^i^gda] adv al- 

Bcero I [fs^i^vo] gen & ace 
of Becb & Bce; see secb. 

Bcero II [fs^i^vo] I adv 
altogether, (all) in all; 
II part only, only just, but; 
<> —-HaBceroonly, only just, 

BCCH [fs^ey] gen, dat, instr 
& pr of bch; see Becb. 

BcejieHH|aji [fs^'i^Pennaya] 
/ -OH universe. 



BcejiHTb see BcejiHib. 

BcejiHTbCJi see BceJinxbCH. 

BcejilflTb [fs^i^l^af^] imperf 
-HK), -neiiib, BcejiJHTb [fs**!^- 
l^it^] perf -10, -Hiiib, p -h;i, 
imp -H 1. put {tenants into 
a house)', install, lodge; hx 
'--HJiH B HOByK) KBapxHpy 
they have been given a new 
flat; 2. fig inspire {smh with 
smth', smth into stub), imbue 
{smh with smth)', ~HTb b ko- 
ro-Ji. HaAe>K;iy raise hopes in 
smb's breast; give smb hopes; 
— HTb cxpax excite fear. 

BcejijflTbCM [fs^i^l^attja] 
imperf -niocb, -nembCH, Bce- 
ji|HTbC5i [fs^i^Pittj9] perf 

-lOCb, -HIlIbCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, 

imp -HCb, -Hiecb move {into 
a dwelling); install oneself 
{in a dwelling). 

BccM [fs^em] instr of Becb 
& Bce, dat of Bce; see Becb. 

BCCM [fs^om] pr of Becb & 
Bce; see Becb. 

BceMepHO [fs^i^m^erna] adv 
in every possible way. 

BceMH [fs^em^i] instr of 
Bce; see Becb. 


[ fs^i^m^irnaistAr^ich^isk^iy ] 
a -an, -oe, -He of world his- 
torical significance / impor- 

BceMHpHbiH [fs^'i^m^irnty] 
a world {attr), world-wide. 

BceMy [fs^i^mu] dat of Becb 
& Bce; see Becb. 

BceHap6AH|biH [fs^mArod- 
nty] a sh f BcenapoAeH, -a, 
-o, -bi national, nation-wide; 
—oe AeJio the common cause 
of the nation. 

BceoSmlHH [fs^i^6psh^:iy] a 
-an, -ee, -He general, univer- 
sal {practice t joy, etc). 

Bcepbes [fs'^i^'r^yos, -z] adv 
in earnest, seriously; npH- 
HHMaxb ~ take seriously. 

BcecoK)3HbiH [fs^isAyuznly] 
a AU-Union, national, USSR 

BcecTOpOHHJHH [fs^istAron^- 
n'^iy] a all-round, thorough, 
comprehensive, detailed. 

Bce-raKH [fs'^otak^i] cf & 
part nevertheless, still, yet, 
for all that. 

Bcex [fs^ekh, -gh] gen, ace 
& pr of Bce; see bccb. 

Bceuejio [fs^i*^tsel9] adv 
entirely, wholly. 

BCKaKHBlaxb [fskak^ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, BCKOH|Hxb 
[fskAch^it^] perf -y , BCKo^Hiiib, 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. jump {1) 
on to a chair, etc, 2) into a 
tram, etc)', 2. jump up; bcko- 
qpixb c nocxejiH jump out of 
bed; BCKoqHXb na hofh jump 
up, jump to one's feet. 

BCKHnjixHxb see KHnnxHXb. 

BCKOjibSb [fskoPs^, -z^] adv 
casually, in passing; cKaaaxb 
qxo-Ji. -- make a casual 

BCKope [fskor^i] adv soon 
{after), shortly {after). 


BCKpHKHB I axb [fskr^'ik^i vat^i 
imperf -aio, -aemb, BCKpHK- 
HJyTb [fskr^'iknut^] perf -y, 
-eiiib, p -yji, imp -h cry out, 

BCKpbiB|aTb [fskrivat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeiub, BCKp|bixb 
[fskrtt^] perf -6k), -oeuib, p 


— 60 — 

-tiji, imp -OH 1. open, unseal; 
2. fig reveal, disclose; 
BCKpbiTb cepbe3Hbie HeAocxax- 
KH lay bare serious short- 

BCKphiBJaxbcn [fskrtvattsa] 
imperf -aexcH, BCKp|uxbcsi 
[ fskr I tts9 ] p^r/ -oexcH, p -biJi- 
CH, -biJiacb 1. burst, break 
{of an abscess); 2.: pen a 
BCKpbiJiacb the ice in the riv- 
er has broken up. 

BCKpbixb see BCKpbisaxb. 

BCKpbiTbCsi see BCKpbieaxbCH. 

BCJieA [fs^'l^et, -d] 1 adv: 
-^ 33 after, following; haxh 
'- sa KeM-;i. follow smb; 
II prep with dat: CMOxpexb 
'^ KOMy-Ji. follow smb with 
one's eyes. 

BCJieflcxBHe [fs^'l^'etjtv^iya] 
prep with gen in consequence 
of, owing to. 

BCJiyx [fslukh, -gh] adv 

BCMaxpHBlaxbCH [fsmatri- 
V9ttj9] imperf -aracb, -aemb- 
CH, BCMOxplexbCH [fsmAtr^e- 
ttja] per/-K)Cb, BCMoxpHiubCH, 
p -eJicH, -eJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb peer {into, at); scru- 
tinize, look closely. 

Bcnaxaxb see naxaxb. 

BcnoMHH|axb [fspam^inat^] 
imperf -aK), -aeiub, BcnoM- 
HJHXb (fspomn^it**] perf -kd, 
-HUJb, p -HJi, imp -H recollect, 
recall, remember. 

BcnoMoraxejibHbiH ffspamA- 
gat^iPnly] a auxiliary, sub- 

Bcnoxexb see noxexb 1. 

BcnbijibHHBlbiH [fsplPch^'i- 
viy] a sh f --t -a, -o, -bi 

hot-tempered, quicktempered. 

BcnbixHB|axb [fsplkh^'ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Bcnbix- 
HJyxb [fsplkhnut''] perf -y, 
-euib, p -yji, imp -h 1. blaze 
up, take fire; flash {of a 
light); break out {of a fire; 
also fig); 2. flush, blush. 

Bcnbiiu|Ka [fsplshka] / -kh, 
-CK 1. flash {of lightning, 
etc); 2. outburst {of emotions); 
fit {of anger, etc). 

Bcxajeaxb [fstAvat^] imperf 
-K), -eiub, p -BaJi, imp -Ban, 
Bcxajxb [fstat^] perf Bcxany, 
BCxaHeuib, p -Ji, imp -Hb 1. 
stand up, rise, get up; —Baxb 
H3-3a cxojia get up from the 
table; Kor^a oh -~ex? when 
does he get up?; h y>Ke ~ji 
I'm up already; ~Baxb Ha 
qxo-Ji. get on smth; 2. fig 
rise, rise up {to defend smth). 

BCxaBHXb see BcxaBJiHXb. 

BCxaBJi|MXb [fstAvPat''] im- 
perf -HKD, -HeUIb, BCXaBJHXb 

[fstav^'it*'] perf -jiio, -Huib, p 
-HJI, imp -h put in, fix iji; 
put {into), fix {into); ~HXb 
3y6bi have a set of teeth made. 

BOX ax b see Bcxasaxb. 

BcxpCBOJKHXb see xpcBO- 

JKHXb 1. 

BCxpexHXb see Bcxpe^axb. 
BcxpexHxbCJi see Bcxpenaxh- 


BCxpeHJa [fstr^ech^a] / -h, 
~1. meeting {by accident , etc); 

2. sport meeting, meet, match; 

3. reception {1) a formal wel- 
come; 2) a formal assembly); 
reunion {of friends, etc). 

BcxpeH|axb [fstr^'i^ch^at*'] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, BCxpex|HXb 

— 61 — 


[fstr^et^it^] perf BCTpe^y, 
-Hiub, p -Hji, imp -b 1. meet 
{smh, a train, etc); 2. receive, 
greet {smb)\ —aib rocTefl 
welcome one's guests; 3. meet 
with {kindness, etc)', — aTb 
Ten.HbiH [xoJioAHbm] npHCM 
get a warm [cold] welcome; 
'— aTb c yAOBJieTBOpeHHCM 
welcome; — aTb anjioAHCMCH- 
TaMH greet with applause; 
<> ~aTb B uiTbiKM give a 
hostile reception; —aib H6- 
BbiH roA see the New Year in. 

BCTpeHlaxbCJi [fstr^i^ch^a- 
tt^a] imperf -aKXb, -aeuibCH, 
BCTpexlHTbCfl [fstr^et^ittsa] 
perf BCTpeMycb, -HuibCH, p 
-HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -bCH, 
-biecb 1. meet {of people, 
lines, etc); meet with, come 
across; 2. see {each other; lit- 
tle of smb, etc); 3. be found 
{in some area, of plants, etc). 

BCTpeHHbiii [fstr^ech^niy] I 
a: — Bexep head wind; — 
noesA train from the opposite 
direction; ^ njian counter- 

1 1 as a noun BcxpeHHlbiH 
m -oro, -bix: nepBbiH -^ col 
the first man one meets; any- 
body; {Kamji^bm) — h none- 
peHHbiH col anybody and ev- 

BCTynjaxb [fstupat^] imperf 
>aK), -aeuib, BCTyn|HTb [fstu- 
pHi^] perf -jik), BCTynHuib, p 
-HJi, imp -H 1. enter, march 
{into); 2. join {a party, trade 
union, etc); 3. enter {into), 
start {an argument, conversa- 
tion, etc); 
^ -^axb B 6paK c kcm-ji. 

marry smb; ---aTb b AeficTBHe 

come into operation; ~aTb 
b cHJiy come into effect; —ajb 
B CBOM npaBa assert oneself; 
— axb Ha nyib {neeo-A.) em- 
bark on the path {of). 

BCTynjaTbCH [fstupattsa] im- 
perf -aKx:b, -aeiubCH, Bcry- 
n|HTbCji [fstupMttja] perf 
-jiiocb, BCiynHmbCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb stand 
up {for), stick up {for). 

BCTynHTejibH|biH [fstupM- 
t^iPnty] a introductory; en- 
trance {attr); ~oe cjiobo 
opening address. 

BCTynMTb see BciynaTb. 

BcrynHTbCJi see BCTynaxbCH. 

BCxoAJHTb [fskhAd^it^] im- 
perf BCXO>Ky, BCXOAHUIb, p 

-HJI, imp -H, b3o|hth [vzAytMl 
perf -HAy, -HAeuib, p -meji, 
-iiijia, imp -HAH 1. mount, 
ascend {to), climb {a moun- 
tain); 2. rise {of the sun, 
moon) . 

BCK) [fs^u] ace of bch; see 

BCWAy [fs^udu] adv every- 

BCH [fs^a] pron f bcch, 
Bceft, BtK), Bceft, (o, o6o) BceH 
see Becb. 

BCflKJHH [fs^ak^iy] I pron 
def -an, -oe, -ne 1. any; ev- 
ery; 2. all kinds of, all wts 

II as a noun 1. bchkIhA 
m -oro, -hx anyone; every- 
one; 2. BCHKJoe n -oro 
anything; ^oe fibiBaex things 
do happen; 

^ BO -~0M cjiywae in any 
case, anyhow; na — hh cjiy- 


— 62 ~ 

Hafi just in case; to make 
sure; to be on the safe side. 

BTHXoMOJiKy [ft^ikhAmolku] 
adv col on the quiet. 

BTOpr|aTbCJi [ftArgattsa] im- 
perf -aiocb, -aeiubcn, sTOpr- 
JHyTbCfl [ftorgnuttja] perf 
-Hycb, -Heiuben, p -ch, -Jiacb 
invade {a country), encroach 
(upon), break (into). 

BTopHHHo [ftAr^ich^na] adv 
a second time, for the second 

BTOpHHHbiH [ftAr^ich^niy] a 
1. second (reading, etc); 2. sec- 
ondary (symptoms, etc). 

BTOpHHK [ftorn^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB Tuesday. 

BTOpoH [ftAroy] I num ord 
& a \. second; 2. the latter 
(of two); 

l\ as a noun Bxoploe n 
-oro^ -bix second course (of 
a meal). 

BToponflx [ftarAp^akh, -gh] 
adv hastily, in a hurry; in 
one's hurry, 

RTopocTeneHHibiH [ftara- 
s^t^i^p^'enntyj a sh f exopo- 
cTeneneH, -a, -o, -bi minor 
(question, etc). 

B-TpeibHX [ftr^et^ikh] par- 
enth thirdly. 

BTpoe [ftroya] adv\. three- 
fold, three times (as much, 
mamy, etc); ~ MeHbme a third 
(o^2.: cJiojKHTb ~ fold in 

BTpoeiM [ftrAyom] adv re- 
ferring to three people: mm 
[oHH, Bbi] ^ the three of us 
[of them, of you]. 

BTys [ftus, -z] m -a, -ob 
(=Bbicmee xexHHHecKoe yqe6- 

Hoe saBefldHHe) technical col- 
lege / institute. 

BxbiKJaxb [ftikat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiiib, BoxKHlyxb [vAtk- 
nut^] perf -y, -eiiib, p -yji, 
imp -H stick (a needle, etc); 
drive (a stake, etc, into smth). 

BxflrHBJaxb [ft^ag^iv9t^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, BXHHlyxb 
[ft^i^nut^] perf -y, BXHHeiub, 
p -yji, imp -H 1. pull in, 
draw in; pull (into, on to), 
draw (into, on to); 2. breathe 
in; absorb (a liquid); 3. fig 
draw (into); involve (in). 

BxnrHB|aTbcsi [ft^ag^iva- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeiiibCH, 
BTflHJyxbcsi [ff^i^nuttjs] perf 
-ycb, BXHHeuibCH, p -yjicH, 
-yjiacb, imp -Hcb, -Hxecb get 
used (to); become keen (on). 

BxJiHyxb see BxnrHBaxb. 

BxanyxbCfl see BXHPHBaxbCH. 

Bys [vus, -z] m -a, -ob 
(=Bbiciiiee yMednoe saBe^e- 
HHe) higher educational es- 

ByjiKaH [vulkan] m -a, -ob 

BXOA [fkhot, -d] m -a, -ob 

1. entrance (the act or right 
of); admission, admittance; 

2. entrance (door); cjiy>Ke6- 
HbiH ~ staff entrance. 

BxoAJHxb [fkhAd^it^] imperf 
BXOJKy, BXOAHiiib, p -Hji, imp 
-H, boh|xm [vAyt^i] perf 
-Ay, -Aeiiib, p Boiueji, Bomjia, 
imp -AH 1. enter (a room, 
etc); come in, step inside; 
come (into a house, etc); go 
in (enter); go (into a room, 
etc); 2. go in (when there is 
enough room); go Unto a con- 

^ 63 — 


tainer); 3. go {into details, 
stub's interests, etc)', 4. be a 
member (of); take part (in); 
■~HTb B cocxas be a member 
(of), be (a) part (of); —HXb 
B qHCjio be (a) part (of), be 
reckoned (among); 
<> ~HTb B MOAy come into 
fashion; ~HTb b cMjiy / b ach- 
CTBHC come into effect; ~HTb 
B 6biT become usual in our 
[their] life; ~HTb b aobc- 
pHe K KOMy-ji. win smb's 
confidence; -~HTb b nbe-ji. 
nojiojKeHHe sympathize with 
smb, understand smb's posi- 
tion, put oneself in smb's 
place; --HTb b HcropHio go 
down in history; -^Hxb c 
npeAJio^KeHHCM b npasHxejib- 
CTBO submit a proposal to 
the government. 

BIJCIIC [ve-tse-es-pe-es] 
abbrev (m) (=BcecoK)3HbiH 
UeHxpajibHbifi CoBex npo4)ec- 
CHOHajibHbix Coiosob) the 
Central Council of Trade 
Unions of the USSR. 

BHepa [fch^i^ra] adv yester- 
day; -^ yxpoM yesterday morn- 
ing; ~ HOHbK) last night 
(after midnight). 

BHepauJHHH [fch^i^rashn^iy] 
a yesterday's; Becb — aenb 
the whole of yesterday. 

BMexBepo [fch^et^v^irs] adv 
1. fourfold, four times (as 
much, many, etc); -^ MeHbuie 
a quarter (of); 2.: cjioH^HXb 
'- fold in four. 

BHexBepoM [fch^it^v^i^rom] 
adv referring to four people: 
Mbi [oHH, Bbi] ~ the four of 
us [of them, of you]. 

BuiH [fshi], Buieft [fshey] 
see Boiub. 

B-bcsA [vyest, -zd] m -a, 
-OB 1. entrance (for trans- 
port); 2. approach (a way 
leading to...). 

BTjCsiKlaxb [vyi^zh^.-at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, B-belxaxb 
[vyekhat^] perf -Ay, -jxeuih, 
p -xaji 1. ride in, drive in; 
ride (into), drive (into); enter 
(on horseback or in a vehicle); 
2. move (into a new flat). 

Bbi [vi] pron pers 2nd per- 
son pi (and polite, respectful 
sing) Bac, Ban, sac, BaMH, (o) 
Bac you; 6e3 Bac without 
you; Kxo ji,aji BaM axy KHHry? 
who gave you this book?; h 
BHAeJi Bac I saw you; oh ao- 
BOJieH BaMH he is pleased 
with you; mu roBopHJiH o sac 
we spoke about you; Bhkxop 
ceftqac y Bac? is Victor at 
your place now? 

Bbi... pref denoting 1. com- 
pletion of an action: Bbmrpaxb 
[viigrst^] win, gain; 2. move- 
ment to the outside: Bbi6e- 
>Kaxb [vib^izhat^] run out 
(of the house, etc); 3. attain- 
ment of an end by an action: 
BbixpeCoBaxb [vftr'ibavat^J 
demand and obtain. 

BbiSMBJdxb [vib^ivat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, Bbi6|HXb [vl- 
b^it^] perf -bio, -beiiib, p -hji, 
imp -eH 1. knock out (a wedge, 
etc); smash (a window); bh- 
6HXb npoxHBHHKa dislodge the 
enemy; 2. beat out (the dust); 

<> Bbl6HXb Aypb H3 rOJlOBbl 

col knock the nonsense out 
of smb. 


— 64 — 

BbiSHpjaTb [vib^'irat''] im- 
perf -aK), -aeiiib, BbiSplaxb 
[vibrat^] perf Bbi6epy, Bbi6e- 
peuib, p -aji, imp Bbi6epH 

1. choose; select, pick out; 
--aHTe! take your choice!; 

2. elect {representatives, etc); 

3. take (everything) out. 
BbiduTb see BtidHBaxb. 
Bbi6op [vibar] m -a 1. 

choice; alternative; ocxaHo- 
BHTb CBOH -- Ha HCM-ji. choose 
smth, fix on smth; no cbo- 
CMy ^y of one's own choice; 
2. Bbi6op|bi pi -OB election(s); 
HATH Ha ~bi go to the polls; 
<» Ha ~- at choice. 

Bbi6opHbiH [vibarniy] a 
elective {office); electoral. 

Bbi6opbi see Bbi6op 2. 

Bbi6pacbiB|aTb [vibrastvat^] 
Imperf -aio, -aeiiib, Bbi6po- 
cJHTb [vtbras'^it^] perf Bbi- 
6poiijy, -HUJb, p -HJi, imp -b 

1. throw out; discard {give 
up); chuck out; —aib b okho 
throw out of the window; 
'— axb Ha 6eper cast ashore; 

2. fig col waste, squander, 
throw away; 

<^ Bbl6pOCHTb H3 FOJIOBbl COl 

put out of one's head. 

Bbi6paTb see Bbi6HpaTb. 

Bbi6pocHTb see Bbidpacbmaib. 

BbidbiBJaTb [vibivat^] im- 
perf -aw, -^eiub, Bbi6|biTb 
[vibU^l perf -y^y, -yAeuib, 
p -biji leave, quit; -^arb h3 
Hrpbi leave the game, quit, 
be out of it; 

-<^ Bbl6bITb H3 CXpOfl 1) quit 

the ranks; 2) mil become a 


BblBCCHTb see BblBeiUHBaib. 

BbiBec|Ka [viv^iska] / -kh, 
-OK J. sign, signboard; 2. fig: 
noA — Koii under the guise 

Bb'lBeCTH see BblBOAHTb. 

BbiBeuiHB|aTb [viv^eshi- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, bw- 
BecJHTb [viv^is^it^J perf Bbi- 
Beiiiy, -Huib, p -HJI, imp -h 
hang out {a flag, etc); put 
up {an announcement). 

BbiBHXHlyxb [vtv^ikhnut^] 
perf -y, -eiiib, p -yji, imp -h 
put out (of joint), dislocate; 
'-yxb Hory sprain one's foot. 

BbiBOA [vivat, -d] m -a, -ob 

1. withdrawal- {of troops); 

2. conclusion, inference; cAe- 
jiaxb -- draw a conclusion; 
npHHTH K ~y arrive at a 

BbiBOA|HTb [vivAd^it^] im- 
perf BbIBO>Ky, BblBOAHlUb, p 
-HJI, imp -H, BblBejCTH [vl- 

v^is^t^i] perf -Ay, -Aeiub, p 
-ji, imp -AH 1. lead out, take 
out; help out; —Hib BoficKa 
withdraw troops; 2. expel, 
remove {smb from a commit- 
tee, etc); 3. exterminate, 
destroy {vermin); remove 
{stains); 4. grow, raise {ani- 
mals); hatch {from the egg); 

<> ~HTb H3 3a6jiy}KAeHHfl 

undeceive, open the eyes {of); 
~HTb Koro-Ji. H3 ce6M put 
smb beside himself; —Hib 
Koro-Ji. H3 TepneHHH try smb's 
patience; BbiBCCTH Koro-Ji. h3 
xepneHHfl exasperate smb; 

-~HTb M3 CTpOH put OUt of 

action, disable; destroy {mil- 
itary equipment). 



BbiBos [vtvas, -z] m -a econ 
export; exports. 

BblBOSJHTb [viVAZh't^] im- 

perf BbiBOHcy, BbmoaHiub, p 

-HJI, imp -H, BbIBe3|TH [vl- 

v^is^t^i] perf -y, -eiiib, p — -, 
-jia, /mp -H 1. take out (0/ 
some place by vehicle); re- 
move [garbage, etc); 2. export. 

BbirjiaAMTb see rjia^Hib 1 . 

BbirjiHAleTb [vlgl^'ad^it^] 
imperf Bb'irjiHH<y, -HLUb, p -eji, 
imp -H look {bad, young; etc). 

BbirJi^AbiB|aTb [viyPadt- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
BbirjiMHJyTb [vlgl^anut^l per} 
-y, -euib, p -yji, imp -h 1. 
look out (0/ the window, etc); 
2. peep out {through smth), 
emerge {from behind smth). 

BbirHaTb see BbiroHHXb. 

BbiroBapMB|aTb [vigAvar^i- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, bm- 
roBop|HTb [vtgavar'^it^] perf 
-K), -Huib, p -HJI, imp -H 
1. pronounce, utter; 2. {no 
perf) col reprimand, rebuke. 

BbiroBOp [vfgavar] m -a, 
-OB 1. pronunciation {the 
mode of); 2. reprimand; re- 
proof; scolding. 

BbiroBopHTb See BuroBapH- 

Baib I . 

BbiroAJa [vig9d9] / -bi, ~ 
advantage, benefit; profit, 
gain; HSBJie^b —y derive ben- 
efit {from); sto ^aeT mhofo 
~ this has many advantages. 

BbiroAHibiH [vigadniy] a sh 
f Bbiro;teH, -a, -o, -bi advan- 
tageous {position, etc); prof- 
itable; paying. 

BbiroHlflTb [vigAn^at^] im- 
perf -HK), -Hemb, Bbir|HaTb 

[vlgnat^] perf -ohic, -oHHiub, 
p -Haji, imp -OHH drive out, 
expel {from home, school, etc); 
Bbirnaxb Koro-ji. c paSoxbi 
col give smb the sack / bird. 

BbirpyiK|aTb [vtgruzhat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, Bbirpy- 
3;HTb [vlgruz^it^] perf bm- 
rpyjKy, -Huib, p -hji, imp -h 
unload {cargo, etc). 

BbiAaJBarb [vfdAvat''] im- 
perf -K), -euib, p -Baji, imp 
-Baft, BbiAaJTb [vtdat^l perf 
-M, -mb, -CT, -;iHM, -AHxe, 
-AyT, p -Ji, -Jia, imp -h 1. 
give, hand; distribute; 2. give 
up {a criminal); extradite; 
3. give away, betray {a secret, 
etc); 4. set up {for), make 
pass {for); -^-oaxb ce6H 3a 
Kor6-;i. give oneself out to 
be smb, pretend to be smb. 

BbiAaJBaTbcn [vidAvattsa] 
imperf -K)Cb, -euibCH, p -Baji- 
CH, -Bajiacb, imp -BaftcH, 
-Baflxecb, BbiAa|Tbcsi [vfda- 
tts9] perf -MCH, -iUbCH, p -jicn, 
-jiacb, imp -iicH, -Hxecb 
1. stick out, protrude, jut 
out; 2. be conspicuous {for); 
stand out {among others); 
3. occur, happen to be; bm- 
AajiCH xopouiHH AeHb it hap- 
pened to be a fine day; y 


qacoB I happened to have a 
few hours to spare. 

BbiAaxb see BbiAaBaxb. 

BbiAaxbC5i see BUAaBaxbCH. 

BbiAaHJa [vfd9ch^9] / -h, ^ 

1. delivery {handing over); 
distribution, issue, payment; 

2. extradition. 
BbiAaH)ii;|HHCH [vtdAyu- 


— 66 — 

sh^:iys^9] a [pa] -ancH, -eecH, 
-HecH remarkable, distin- 
guished; outstanding, emi- 

BbijlBHrlarb [vidv^igat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, bwabh- 
H|yTb [vfdv^inut^] perf -y, 
-eiub, p -yji, imp -h 1. pull 
out, move out; — aib hiuhk 
(cTOJia) open a drawer; 2. fig 
put forward, suggest {a theory, 
idea, etc); ^axb Bonpoc raise 
a question; ^-axb o6BHHeHHe 
npoTHB Koro-ji. bring a charge/ 
an accusation against smb; 
— axb Ha nepBbifl njian put in 
the forefront; —aib na ne- 
peAHHH njian push into the 
foreground; 3. nominate {to 
an office; a candidate); pro- 
mote (to a higher position). 

BHJiejlHTb see Rbl^eJIHTb. 

!?tiiflejiHTbcsi see BbiAejiHibCH. 

Bbi;ieji|«Tb [vid^i^l^at^] 
imperf -hkd, -Heiub, Bbijte- 
Ji|HTb [vtd^il^it^] perf -lo, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. single 
out, choose; allot {money); 

2. portion {give as a share); 

3. mark out {as suitable for); 
distinguish {smb). 

Bbi;ieji|«TbCJi [vid^'i^l^attja] 
imperf -^KDCb, -HeuibCH, bw- 
flcji] HTbCM [vld^iPittja] perf 

-K)Cb -HIUbCH, p -HJICH, -H.TaCb, 

imp -HCb, -Hxecb be distin- 
guished (by), stand out {]) 
for smth; from others; 2) 
against a background). 

BbiAep)KaHH|biH [vid^irzhan- 
niy] a [pa] sh f BbiAep^aH, 
-a, -o, -bi 1. self-possessed; 
2. ripe {cheese, tobacco, etc); 
old (wine). 

BbijtepwaTb see Bhij^epma- 

Bbi;iep)KHB|aTb [vid^'erzhl- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, bm- 
flep)K|aTb [vid^irzhat^] perf 
-y, -Hiiib, p -aji, imp -h 
1. bear, stand, sustain {also 
fig); BbiAepJKaxb 6ypK) weath- 
er a storm; Bbi;tep>Kaxb 
HcnbixaHHe stand the test; 
BbiAep>Kaxb 3K3aMeH pass an 
examination; 2. contain one- 
self; OHa He BbiAepH^ajia h 
pacnjiaKajiacb she broke down 
and burst into tears; 
<> BbiflepJKaxb pojib keep up 
one's role; Bbi^ep^axb xapaK- 
xep stand firm, be steadfast; 
be true to oneself; Bbijiep- 
}Kaxb TpH H3;iaHHfl run into 
three editions. 

Bb'wepjKKJa I [vid^irshka] / 
-H 1. self-control, self-posses- 
sion; endurance, staying pow- 
er; 2. photo exposure. 

BfaijiepjK|Ka II [vld^irshka] 
/ -KH, -eK quotation, excerpt. 

Bbinox [vfdakh, -gh] m -a, 
-OB expiration, exhalation. 

BbijipecCHpoBaxb see ApeccH- 

BbwyMaxb see BbiAyMbmaxb. 

BbiflyMbiBJaxb [vidumtvat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, Bbi^y- 
M|aTb [vidumat^] perf -aio, 
-aeuib 1. invent, devise; 2. 
concoct, fabricate, make up; 
<> He ~aH! col 1) do as you 
are told!; 2) stop this non- 

Bbiesfl [vfyast, -zd] m -a, 
-OB 1. departure, leaving; 
2. exit, way out {for vehicles); 
'^ H3 ropoAa town gates. 

67 — 


Bbie3}KlaTb fviyi^zh^.-at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Bbie|xaTb 
[viyskhat^] perf -jxy, -A'^uih, 
p -xaji 1. leave, go out (of); 
~aTb H3 ropoAa leave the 
town; —aib na Aany go to 
the country; Bbiexaib sa rpa- 
HHuy go abroad; 2. move, 
change residence; — axb h3 
KsapTHpbi move, change res- 

BbiSBaxb see BbisbieaTb. 

BbI3A0paBJIHB{aTb [vizdA- 

ravPivat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
Bbi3;topoB|eTb [vizddv^v^ii^] 
perf -eio, -eeuib recover, be 
convalescent, get better. 

Bbi30B [vizaf, -v] m -a, -ob 
1. summons, subpoena; 2. 
challenge {to contest, etc); 

Bbi3biB|dTb [vizivat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, Bbi3B|aTb 
[vlzvat^j perf Bbi30By, sbiso- 
Beuib, p -aji, imp Bbi30BH 
1. call {a doctor, a taxi, etc); 
^axb aKiepa call an actor 
before the curtain; ^aib na 
6hc encore; 2. challenge (to 
a contest, etc); 3. summon 
(to a court, etc); 4. arouse, 
excite; call forth, provoke, 
cause; — -aib BocnoMHHaHHe 
y Koro-ji. MCM-Ji. remind 
smb of smth; —axb cjiesbi y 
Koro-ji.. draw tears from smb; 
>-aTb coMHeHHH give rise to 

Bbi3bi6aK)ii;|HH [vizivayu- 
sh^:iy] a [pa] -an, -ee, -He 
defiant; outrageous, revolting; 
provocative {behaviour, etc). 

BbiHrpaTb see BbmrpbiBarb. 

BWHrpbiBJaTb [viigriv9t^] 

imperf -aio, -aeuib, BWHrpIarb 
[vtigrat^I perf -aio, -aeuib 
win, gain; Bbinrpaxb y kofo-ji. 
beat smb, defeat smb {in a 
game, etc). 

BbiHrpbiui [viigrish, -zh] m 
-a, -eft 1. prize {in a lottery, 
etc); winnings; 2. gain, prof- 
it; winning {the act of). 

BbiHrpbiuiHbiH [vligrishnty] 
a advantageous {position, etc). 

Bb'lHTH see BblXOAHTb 1, 2, 

3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

BbiKHAbiBJaTb [vik^idivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, BbiKHH|yTb 
[vlk^inut^] perf -y, -euib, p 
-yji, imp -b throw out; discard 
{give up); chuck out; —axb 
B OKHO throw out of the 
window; ~axb Ha 6eper cast 

BbiKJid;ibiBlaxb [vikladtvat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, BWJiOH(|HTb 
[vfbzhtt^f perf -y, -HUib, 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. take out 
{things from a suitcase, etc); 
lay out, spread out; 2. fig 
col tell plainly, unbosom, set 
(before smb) {one's thoughts, 
etc); 3.; —axb Knpinmou 
brick; --axb KaMueM face 
with masonry; ~axb njiHxaMH 
flag {a pavement, etc). 

BbiKjiioMaxejiIb [vikl^uch^a- 
t^iP] m -H, -eft electr switch. 

BbiKJiK)H|axb [vikPuch^at^I 
imperf -aio, -aemb, BbiKJiio- 
H|HXb [vfkl^uch^it^j perf -y, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -H switch 
off, turn off {electric light, 
gas, etc); cut off {the tele- 
phone, etc); ~aTb Moxop shut 
off / stop an engine. 

BbiKpacHTb see KpacHXb 1. 



BbiKpoHK|a [vtkraykal / -h, 
BbiKpoeK pattern {for sewing). 
BbiKynaTb see Kynaib. 
BUKynaTbcsi see KynaibCH, 

BblJI [Vil] see BblTb. 

BbiJie3|aTb [vil^i^zat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, BbiJie3|Tb 
[vll^is^t^] perf -y, -eiub, p 
^, -Jia, imp -H 1. crawl out; 
climb out; 2. col get out {of 
a tram, etc); 3. fall out, 
come out {of hair); wear {of 

BMJienHTb see jiennxb 1. 

Bbi;ieT|aTb [vtPi^tat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, BbiJierjeTb 
[vll^it^it^] perf BhiJieny, -Huib, 
p -en, imp -h start, leave 
(by air); 

<> 3T0 Bbwerejio y mchm h3 
rojioBbi it has escaped me. 

BbiJie4HB|aTb [vtl*'ech^iv9t^] 
imperf -aro, -aeiub, BbiJie- 
H|HTb [vil^ich^it^] perf -y, 
-Hiiib, p -HJi, imp -H cure {a 
patient; a disease). 

BbiJiHB|aTb [viPivat''] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, BbiJiJHTb 
[vll^'it^] perf -bK), -beiub, p 
-HJI, imp -eft 1. pour out, 
empty; 2. cast, mould, found. 

BbiJiHB|aTbC5i [viPivattj9] 
imperf -aeicn, Bbiji|HTbcsi [vf- 
l^ittsa] perf -bexcH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb 1. run out, 4Dour out; 
overflow; 2.: HCHSBecTHO, bo 
HTO 9T0 BbiJibexcH it's not 
known what will come of 
it / how it will shape. 

BblJIHTb see BblJIHBaTb. 
BblJIO%HTb see BMKJiaAblBaXb, 

BbiMor|aTb [vimAgat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeujb extort. 

BbiMneji [vimp^'il] m -a, -ob 
pennant; pendant. 

BblMblTb see MblTb. 
BblMblTbCH see MblTbCH. 

BbiMbiiijjieHHMH [vfmishPin- 
niy] a [pa] concocted, fabri- 
cated; invented; imaginary, 

BbiM|5i [vfm^a] n -chh ud- 

BblHCCTH see BblHOCHTb. 

BbiHHMJaTb [vin^imat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, BbiHJyTb [vf- 
nut^] perf -y, -euib, p -yji, 
imp -b take out {of a bag, 
etc); pull out {a handkerchief, 

BbiH|ocHTb [vinAs^it^] im- 
perf -omy, -ocHiiib, p -ocHJi, 
imp -ocH, BbiHecJTH [vlnh- 
s^t^i] perf -y, -euib, p ^, 
-jia, imp -H 1. carry out, 
take out {of some place); 
bring out; —ocHTb mto-ji, bo 
;;BOp take smth into the yard; 
~ocHTb mo-Ji. Ha yJiHHy take 
smth into the street; — ochtb 
Ha 6eper wash ashore; 

2. submit {for discussiony, 

3. stand, bear, endure {pain, 
smb, etc); 4. pass {a resolu- 
tion, sentence, etc); 

<> —ocHTb Ha cbohx njie- 
nax bear {the brunt). 

BbiH6cjiHB|biH [ vinos ''l^i- 
viy] a sh f ^, -a, -o, -u 
hardy, tough {able to endure 
fatigue, hardship, etc). 

BbinyflHTb see BbiHy>KAaTb. 

BbinyiKfllaTb [vtnuzhdat^j 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Bbiny- 
;i|HTb [vlnud^it^] perf bw- 
Hyxcy, -Huib, p -HJI, imp -h 
force, compel; make {smb do 



smth); OH Bhmymjxen CAejiaxb 
9T0 he has / is forced to do it. 

BbiHyTb see BbiHHMaxb, 

BbinaA [vtp9t, -d] m -a, -ob 
attack, calumny. 

BbinaA I arb [vipAdat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, Bbina|cTb 
[vlpas^t^] perf -jxy, -Aeiiib, 
p -j\, imp -Ah 1. fall out {of 
smth); drop out {of smb's 
hands); 2. fall {of rain, etc); 
BbinaJio MHoro cnery there 
has been a heavy fall of 
snow; 3. fall out, come out 
{of hair); 4.: eMy Bbmajia 
qecTb... he had the honour...; 
CMy Bbmaji yupiCnvi the lot 
fell on him; 

^ BbinacTb Ha a^jik) KOMy-ji. 
fall to smb's lot. 

BbinHcaTb see BbmHCbiBaxb. 

BbinHCWBlaTb [vip^istvat^] 
imperf -av), -aeuib, BbinHJcaxb 
[vfp^isat^] perf -my, -meiiib, 
p -caji, imp -urn I. copy out 
{of a book, etc); 2. subscribe 
{to a periodical); order {a 
commodity by mail); 3. dis- 
charge {from the hospital). 

BbinHxb see nnxb. 

BbinjiaBJKa [vlplafks] / -kh, 
-OK 1. smelting {of iron, etc); 
2. smelt, smelted metal. 

BbinOJIHHXb see BbmOAHJiXb. 

BbinojiHtilxb [vipAln^at^] 
imperf -hk), -j^euib, Bbinoji- 
H|Hxb [vlpaln^'it^] perf -lo, 
-HUJb, p -Hji, imp -H carry 
out, fulfil, implement; carry 
into effect, accomplish; '-HXb 
AOJir do one's duty; — HXb 
o6eui,aHHe keep one's prom- 
ise; '-HXb ynpaacHeHHH do ex- 

BunpaBHXb see BbmpaBJiHXb. 

BbinpaBji|flxb [vtprAvl^at'j 
imperf -hk), -neuib, Bbinpa- 
BjHXb [vlprav^it^] perf -jik), 
-Hiub, p -HJI, imp -b 1. straight- 
en {a nail, etc); 2. correct (a 
manuscript, etc); — nxb nojio- 
jKCHHe remedy the situation. 

Bb'inpsiMHxb see BbinpHM- 


BbinpflMjiJHxb [vipr^i^m- 
V'ai^] imperf -hk), -aeuib, bm- 
npMM|Hxb [vfpr'sm^it^j perf 
-jiio, -Hiub, p -HJI, imp -H 
straighten {a piece of wire^ 

BbinyKJilbiH [vipukliy] a 
sh f ^, -a, -o, -bi 1. salient, 
prominent, bulging; 2. con- 
vex {glass); 3. fig vivid. 

BbinycK [vlpusk, -zg] m -a, 
-OB 1. issue {of money, etc); 
output; 2. number, instal- 
ment {of a serial story, etc); 
3. graduates; co-graduates; 
students finishing school; b 
3X0M roAy fioJibuioH -- the 
number of graduates this 
year is large. 

BbinycKJaxb [vipusk^t^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, BbinycxlHXb 
[vlpus^t^it^] perf Bbinymy, 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -H 1. let 
out {people, water, etc); let 
go {of); 2. set free, release; 
3. graduate, turn out; 4. turn 
out, produce; 5. publish, issue 
{books, etc); release {films); 
6. issue {money, etc); 7. leave 
out, omit. 

Bbipa6axbiBlaxb [vlrAbdti- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, Bbi- 
paSoxjaxb [virabatat^] per^ 
-aio, -aeuib 1. produce, manu- 


— 70 

facture, make; generate (pow- 
er); 2. work out, draw up 
(a plan, etc); 3. form, culti- 
vate {a habit, strong will, etc). 

BbipaSoTJKa [virabatka] / 
-KH, -OK 1. manufacture; 
2. output; 3. col make (qua- 

BbipaJKJaxb [virAzhat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, ewpaslHTb 
[vlraz^it^] perf Bbipa>Ky, 
-Hiiib, p -HJi, imp -H express 
(an idea, desire, etc). 

Bbipa^eHHle [virAzhen^iya] 
n -H, -H expression. 

BbipaSHieJlbHlblH [virAz^i- 

t^il^niy] a sh f BbipasHxeJieH, 
-a, -0, -bi expressive (gesture, 
etc); significant (look, etc). 

BbipasHTb see Bbipa}KaTb. 

BbipacTldrb [virAstat^j im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, BbipacTJH 
[vtrss^t^i] perf -y, -eiiib, p 
Bbipoc, BbipocJia, imp -h 
1. grow, grow up; 2. col grow 
(out of a coat, etc); 3. in- 
crease (of wages, etc); Bb'mycK 
npo/;yKu,HH Bb'ipoc Ha 12°/o 
the output increased 12 per 
cent; 4. grow (into), develop 
(into); 5. arise, appear, 
spring up. 

BbipacTHTb see Bbip^mHsaib. 

BbipamHB|aTb (virash^.i- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, Bbipa- 
cxlHTb [viras^t^it^] perf bh- 
pamy, -Huib, p -HJI, imp -h 
1. rear, breed, raise; grow, 
cultivate; 2. fig train (per- 
sonnel, etc). 

BbipBarb I see Bbipbrnaxb. 

BbipBaxb II see pBaxb II. 

BbIpOAHXbC5I see BbipOH<AaTb- 


BbipoiKfl|axbC5i [virAzhda- 
tt^a] imperf -aexcH, Bbipo- 
A|Hxbc« [vtrad^ittsa] perf -wi- 
CH, p -HjicH, -HJiacb degener- 

BbipoH'iHXb [viran^it^] perf 
-K), -Hiub, p -HJI, imp -H let 
fall, drop. 

Bbipyraxb see pyraxb. 

BbipyraxbCfl see pyraxbCH 1. 

BbipyMJaxb [viruch^at*'] im- 
perf -aK), -aeiub, BbipynJHxb 
[vfruch^it^] perf -y, -Huib, 
p -HJI, imp -H 1. come to 
(smb's) help; rescue, save; 
help (smb out of trouble); 
2. gain, make (money); clear 
(a profit). 

BbipbiBJdxb [vtrivat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, BbipBJaxb 
[vlrvat^] perf -y, -emb, p -aji, 
imp -H 1. tear out, snatch 
(out), pull out; -~axb c Kop- 
HeM uproot (also fig); — axb 
3y6bi have one's teeth pulled 
out; 2. fig col wring, wrest 
(consent, etc, from smb). 

Bbica;iHXb see BbicajKHBaxb. 

BbicaiKHB|axb [vtsazhivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, BbicaA|HXb 
[visad^it''] perf Bbica>Ky, 
-Hmb, p -HJI, imp -H 1. make 
(smb) get off (a tram, etc); 
set down, drop (passengers); 
land (troops); disembark, put 
ashore; 2. plant, transplant. 

BbicejiHXb see BbicejiHXb. 

Bbicejijaxb [vis^i^Pat^] im- 
perf -HK), -nemb, BbicejiJHxb 
[vts^iPit^] perf -lo, -nmb, p 
-HJI, imp -H evict (tenants). 

BbicKasaxb see BbiCKasbmaxb. 

BbicKasaxbCfl see BbicKasbi- 




BucKasbiBaHHJe [viskaziva- 
n^'iya] n -h, -h statement, 

BbicKaBbiBJaTh [vtskazivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, BbicKa|- 
saTb [vlskazat^J perf -my, 
-»eiiib, p -3a;i, imp ->kh 
tell, state; express {in words); 
BbicKasaTb npejinoJiojKeHHe 
suggest {as a supposition). 

EbicKa3biB|aTbCfl [viskazi- 
vattja] imperf -aiocb -aemb- 
CH, BbiCKajsaTbCfl [viskazattja] 
perf -}Kycb, -:H<:embCH, p -sajicji, 
-aajiacb, imp -jKHCb, -H<HTecb 
speak {one's mind, opinion, 
etc), have one's say; — 3a 
[npoTHs] declare oneself in 
favour [against]. 

Bbicjiaib see BbicbiJiaTb. 

BbicjiyiuaTb see BbicJiymn- 

BbicjiyujHBlaTb [vislushi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, bm- 
cjiym|aTb [v^slushat^JperZ-aio, 
-aeuib 1. listen {to smb), hear 
{smb)', 2. med sound; examine. 

BbicMeHB I axb [ V is^m^ei vat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, Bbicivie|- 
Jirb [vis^'m^iyat'^] perf -k>, 
-eiub, p -HJi, imp -H make 
fun of, ridicule; deride. 

BbicMopKaTbcn see cMopKaib- 


BbicoKJHH [vtsok^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f --, -a, -o (-6), 
-H (-H) 1. high, tall; highland; 

2. high {prices, quality, etc); 

3. high, lofty {aims, style, 
etc); 4. high, high-pitched 
{voice, note, etc). 

BbicoKOMepH|biH [visakA- 
m^erniy] a s/i / BbicoKOMepen, 
-a, -o, -u arrogant, haughty. 

BbicoT|a [vtsAta] / -b'l, pi 
BbicoTbi, BbicoT 1 height {of 
a mountain, etc); altitude; 

2. hill, height, ridge; 

<> 6biTb / GKasaxbCJi na ~e 
nojioKeHHM be equal / rise to 
the occasion; 6biTb na ~e be 
equal to the occasion; Ha 
ii6ji«H0H ^e up to the mark. 

BbicnaxbCfl see BbicbmaxbCH. 

BbicxaBHxb see BbicxasJinxb. 

Bbicxas'iKa [v+stafka] / -kh, 
-OK exhibition, show; display, 

BbicxaajiJHxb [vistAvl^at^] 
imperf -hk), -nemb, Bbicxa- 
B|HXb [vlstav^it^] perf -jikd, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -b 1. put 
in front, put forward, ad- 
vance; 2. fig col chuck out, 
turn out {of the room, etc); 

3. exhibit, display, show; 
4.: ~HXb Mbfo-Ji. KaHAHfla- 
xypy nominate smb, propose 
smb's candidature; ~flxb 
CBOK) KaHAH;iaxypy run {for 
president, etc); 5.: —^xb 
Koro-Ji. B xopomeM [hjioxom] 
CBexe represent smb in a 
favourable [unfavourable] 
light; —HXb Koro-Ji. b CMem- 
HOM BHAe expose smb to rid- 
icule; 6. adduce,, put for- 
ward; raise {objections). 

BbicxHpaxb see cxHpaxb. 

BbicxpaHBJaxb [vistraivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Bbicxpo|Hib 
[vtstrait^] perf -lo, -rHuib, p 
-H Ji , imp -ii\,(no imparl) build, 
erect; 2. draw \i^ {troops, etc). 

Bbicxpeji [vtstr^il] m -a, -ob 
shot; report {of a shot). 

BbicxpoHXb see BbicxpaH- 
l saxb. 


72 - 

BbiCTynjaTb [vtstupat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, BbiCTyn|HTb 

[vlstup^it**] perf -n\o, -Hiub, 
/) -HJT, imp -H 1. come / step 
forward; come / step out {of 
a line, rank); 2. speak {at a 
meeting); perform {during a 
concert, etc); ~aTb c AOKJia- 
AOM deliver a report; give a 
lecture; ~aTb c peMbio make 
a speech; ~aTb Ha cuene act, 
play; appear on the stage; 
~aTb B ne^aTH write (for the 
press); —axb no paAHO broad- 
cast; speak [perform, etc] 
over the radio; —aib no xe- 
JieBHAGHHio televise; speak 
[perform, etc] on TV; 3. come 
out {in favour of smth, 
against smth); —axb b samHTy 
Koro-Ji. take smb's part, stand 
up for smb; ~aTb b aamHxy 
Mero-Ji. advocate smth; come 
out in favour of smth; ~aTb 
c npH3biB0M appeal, make an 
appeal, make a plea {for smth); 
'— axb c npoTecTOM protest, 
make a protest; 4. stand out 
{of sweat); start {to one's 
eyes, said of tears); 5. {no perf) 
jut out, run out. 

BbiCTynjieHHJe [vistupl^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -Pi 1. speech {at 
a meeting); performance {on 
the stage); -— e b neqaxH ar- 
ticle {in a newspaper, etc); 
2.: pcBOJiiouHOHHbie -~h revo- 
lutionary actions / movement. 

BbicyiuHTb see cyuiHTb. 

bmciu|hjI [vfshiiy] I superl 
of bmcokhh; TOBapbi ~ero 
Ka^ecTBa goods of superior 
II a -an, -ee, -He 1. supreme 

{command, organs of govern- 
ment, etc); 2. higher {educa- 
tion, etc); 

<> B ~eH creneHH highly, ex- 
tremely; ~afl Mepa naKasa- 
HHji capital punishment. 

BbicbiJijarb [visilat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, Bbicjiarb 
[visbt^j perf Bbimjiio, Bbim- 
Jieuib, p Bb'icjiaji, imp BbiujJiH 
1. send {a parcel, etc); 2. ban- 
ish, exile; deport, expel. 

Bbicbinarb see Bbicbmaxb. 

Bbicbinlaxb [vtslpat''] im- 
perf -aio, -aeujb, BbiCbin|aTb 
[vfstpat^j perf -jiio, -Jieuib, 
p -aji, imp -H 1. pour out 
{sand, sugar, flour, etc); spill 
{sugar, etc); 2. col pour out 
{into the street, said of people). 

FbicbinjaTbCfl [vistpattsal 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, bw- 
cnjaTbCJi [vispattjs] perf 

-JlK)Cb, -HUJbCH, p -aJlCH, 

-ajiacb, imp-ncb, -Hxecb have 
a good sleep; sleep enough. 

BbixeKJarb [vit^i^k^t**! im- 
perf -aex, BbiTe|Hb [vft^'ich'"] 
perf ^^eT, -Kyx, p -k, -KJia 
1. run out, flow out, leak out 
{said of liquids); 2. {no perf) 
have its source {of a river); 
3. {no perf) result, follow 
{as a consequence); co bccmh 
~aK)mHMH oxcKDAa nocJieACX- 
BHHMH with all ensuing con- 

Bbirepexb see BbiXHpaxb. 

BbiTCHb see BWxeKaxb 1. 

BbiTHpjaxb [vif'irat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, Bbirleperb 
[vtt^ir^it^l perf -py, -peuib, 
p -ep, -epJia, imp -pH wipe, 
wipe dry; '-aib nujib dust. 

73 — 


BbiTpaBHTb see xpaBHTb 1. 

BbiTb [vtt^] Itnperf bok), 
Boeuib, p BbiJi, imp boh howl 
(of a dog, etc); wail (of wind, 

BbiyH|HTb [vluch''{t''l perf 
-y, -Huib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. 
learn (a poem, etc); —HTb 
HBHsycTb learn by heart; 
2 teach, train. 

Bbixofl [vtkhat, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1.: npH ~e h3,.. when 
going out of..., when coming 
out of...; ~ Ha pa66Ty ap- 
pearance at work; ~ h3 nip- 
THH leaving a party; ~ b ot- 
CTaBKy resignation {from of- 
fice, etc); — Ha nencHK) retire- 
ment on a pension; ~ h3 
BOHHbi withdrawal from a 
war; 2. exit, street door; —a 
Hex no exit; 3. fig way out; 
4. appearance {of a book); 
^ Aaxb ~ give vent {to); 
3HaTb Bce xoAbi M ~bi know 
all the ins and outs. 

BbixoAJHTb [vtkhAd^it^] im- 
perf Bbixomy, BbixoAHiiib, p 
-HJI, imp -H, BbiH|TH [vtyt^i] 
perf -Ay, -AeiHb, p Bbimeji, 
BbiiuJia, imp -AH 1. go out 
{of a house, etc); come out 
{of a house, etc); get out {of 
a car, etc); 2. leave {a trade 
union, party, etc); bbihth h3 
BOHHbi drop out of a war; 
3.: ~HTb Ha pa66Ty come to 
work; ^-HTb b Mope put 
to sea; 4. be published, ap- 
pear, be out; ^htb b CBex 
be out, be published; 5. run 
out, come to an end; 6.: hs 
nee BbiftACT xopouiHH ymi- 
xejib she will make a good 

teacher; aaAa^a ne Bumjia the 
sum has not come out; h3 
sxoro HHqero ne BbiHAex noth- 
ing will come of it; y nero 
HHMero He bwuijio he failed; 
7. be by origin; oh BbimeJi 
H3 pa66MHX he is a worker by 
origin; 8, {no perf) give on, 
look on, overlook {of win- 
dows, etc); 

<> ~HTb B OTCxaBKy resign 
{an office, etc); retire {from 
business, etc); ~iixb h3 ceSn 
lose one's temper; ~HTb h3 
xepncHHH lose patience; ~Hxb 
H3^eHHji find a way out; 

— Hxb H3 SeperoB overflow the 
banks; bbixoahx, hxo... it ap- 
pears that...; 3X0 ne BbixoRHX 
y Hero h3 rojioBbi he can't 
get it out of his head; he 
can't help thinking about it. 

BbixoA|Ka [vfkhatka] / -kh, 

-OK trick {of a child); prank. 

BbixoAH|6H [vikhAdnoy] I a: 

— an ABepb street door; ~6h 
KOCXK)M Sunday suit; ~6h 
AeHb day off, rest-day; 

II as a noun bmxoahIoh 
m -oro, -bix day olf, rest-day; 
<> -~6e noc66He discharge 

BbiHepKHBJaxb [vich''6rk''i- 
V9t^] imperf -ara, -aeuib, bw- 
HepKH|yxb [vfch^'irknut^] perf 
-y, -emb, p -yji, imp -h cross 
out, strike out; --axb h3 
CHHCKa strike off a list; 
<> BbiHepKHyxb H3 naMHXH ef- 
face from one's mind. 

Bbinecxb see BbiMHxaxb. 

Bbinex [vfch^'it, -d] m -a, 
-ob deduction {from smb'$ 
wages, etc); 


74 — 

<> 3a ~0M minus, allowing 
(for), with the deduction {of). 

BbIHHCJl|aTb [Vich''is''l^at^] 

imperf -hk), -^emb, ebmnc- 
ji|HTb [vich^is^l^it^] pert -lo, 
-HUJb, p -HJi, imp -H calcu- 
late, compute. 

BbiHHTJaTb [vich^itat*'] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, BbiMJecxb 
[vlch^is'^t^] perf -ly, -Teuib, 
p -cJi,, imp TH 1. deduct, 
keep back {money); 2. math 

Bbiuje [vishi^] I comp of 
BbicoKHH & corresp adv; 

II adv 1. above (m a text); 
2.: ~ no TeqeHHK) farther up 
the stream; 

III prep above, over; ^to 
— MOHx CHJi it is beyond 
my power; sto — Moero 
noHHMaHHH it is beyond me. 

Bbiiueji [vishal], Bbiiujia 
[vishla] p of BbiHTH; see 


8biiiiHB]aTb [vishivat^] im- 
perf -aro, -aeujb, Bbiiii|HTb 
[v+shit^] pcrf -bio, -beuib, 
p -HJI, imp -eft embroider, 

BbiiiiHHla [vishina] / -bi 
height {of a pole, etc); ~6h 
B nHTb^ecHT MexpoB fifty me- 
tres high. 

BblLUHTb see BblUJHBaXb. 

Bbim|Ka [vhhka] / -kh, -ck 
tower; fiyposan -— Ka derrick. 

BwiiijiH [vfshPi] imp of 
BbicJiBTb; see Rbicbi-naTb. 

BbiujjiK) [vfshl^uj, Bbimjieiub 
[vfshPish, -zh] Jst & 2nd 
persons of Bbicjiaib; see bu- 

BblflBHTb see BblHBJI^Tb. 

BbiJiBji|flTb [viyi^vPat^] im- 
perf -HK), -Heillb, BblSIBlHTb 

[vfyav^it^] perf -Jiio, -HUJb, p 
-HJI, imp -H 1. reveal, bring 
to light; 2. bring out, make 

BblflCHHTb see BblHCHHTb. 

Bbi5icH|flTb Iviyi'^s^n^at''] 
imperf -hio, -neujb, Bbijic- 
HJHTb [vfyas^n'^it*'] perf -lo, 
-HUJb, p -HJI, imp -H find out; 
clear up, elucidate. 

BbeTHaM|eu [v^'yi^tnam'^itj, 
-dz] m -ua, -ues Viet-Na- 

BbexHaMCKJHH [v^yi'^tnam- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Viet- 

BbCTCH [v^yot^a] see BHXb- 


BbK) [v^'yu], Bbeuib [v^yosh, 
-zh] see BHXb. 

Bbsbrja [v^yuga] / -h, -^ 
snow-storm; blizzard. 

BbibmlHAcfl [v^yush'':iys^9] 
a [pa] -ancH, -eecH, -hcch: 
— eecH pacxeHHe climber {a 
plant); ~Hec5i bojiocu curly 

Bfl}KH [v^i^zhf] see BHsaxb. 

BJDxy [v^i^zhu], BR>KeiiJb 
[v^azhash, -zh] see BHsaxb. 

BJi3',axb [v^i^zat^] imperf 
BH>Ky, BH^euib, p -aji, imp 
BHJKH, clBflsaxb [s^v^i^zat^j 
perf 1. bind, tie up {sheaves, 
etc); 2. knit {with needles); 

R«3H|yxb [v^aznut^] imperf 
-y, -emb, p -yji (bhs), BHSJia, 
imp -H stick (/) in the mud; 
2) to one's teeth). 

BJiJi [v^al], B»jia [v^alaj 
see BflHyxb. 

— 75 — 


Bflji|biH [v^aliy] ashf^, -a 
-o, -bi 1. withered (flowers, 
etc); 2. languid, sluggish, 
slack, inert. 

BflHJyTb [v^anut''] imperf 

-y, -eiub, p BHJi (-yji), bhjib, 
saiBflHyTfa [zAv^anut^j per} 
fade, wither; 

<> yuiH -~-yT col it makes one 
sick to hear {smb talk). 

ra [ga] m indecl abbrev (= 
reKiap) ha, hect. 

raBaHjb [gavan^] / -h, -en 

.^ raAlaib [gAdat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, noiraAarb [pagA- 
dat^] perf 1. "tell fortunes, 
tell smb's fortune; 2. {no perf) 
guess, surmise; 
0- ~aTb Ha KO(j)efiHofi ryiu,e 
= make wild guesses. 

raAKJMH [g^tk'^iy] a -a9i, 
-oe, -He, sh f ra^OK, -a, -o, 
-H nasty {disgusting, very 
unpleasant); bad, naughty, 

raflocT|b [gadas^t^, -z^d^] 
/ -H, -efl 1. muck (smth dis- 
gusting); abominable stuff; 
2. vile act / thing, dirty trick. 

raAK)Kla [gAd^uka] / -h, 
-- viper {also fig). 

raa [gas, -z] m -a, -ob gas 
(/) an air like substance; 2) for 
heating, etc; 3) used in war- 

raaeTJa [gAz^'eta] / -m, ~ 
newspaper; cTeHHan —a wall 

rasHt^HKauHJH [gaz^if^ika- 
tsiya] / -H 1. gasification; 
2. installation of gas pipe- 
lines {in a populated area). 

rasoH [gAzdnJ m -a, -oa 

lawn; no —-y He xoAHTb! keep 
off the grass! 

rasonpoBOA [gazaprAvot, -d] 
m -a, -OB gas-main.^ 

raHK|a [gayka] f'-n, racK 

rajiaHTepeHH|biH [galan^t^i^- 
r^eynty] a: — bift MarasHH 
haberdasher's shop; —bie to- 
Bapbi haberdashery {goods). 

rajiaHTCpe|fl [galan^'t^'i^- 
r^eya] / -h haberdashery 

rajiepejfl [gal^i^r^eya] / -h, 
-H gallery. 

rajiJKa [galka] / -kh, -ok 
(jack) daw. 

rajioiuH [gAloshi] pi rajioui 
{sing raji6ui|a / -h) galosties, 

r£fiCTyK [galstuk, -g] m -a, 
-OB (neck)tie. 

raMaK [gAmak, -g] m -ii, -6b 

raHCKJHH [gansk^iy] a -aa, 
-oe. -He Ghanaian. 

rapaiK [qArash, -zh] m -a, 
-en garage. 

rapaHTHploBarb [garAn^f*!- 
ravat^] psrf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiiib, p -oBaji, imp -yii 

rapAep66 [gard^i^rop, -bj 
m -a, -OB 1. wardrobe ([or 



holding clothes)', 2. cloak-room 
(for coats and hats); CAaxb 
najibTO B — • leave one's coat 
in the cloak-room; 3. clothes, 

rapMOHHKJa [gArmon^'ika] / 
-H, -^ accordion; concertina. 

rapMOHHploBaTb [garmAn^i- 
ravaf*] Imperf -yex, p -oBaji 
harmonize (ay/Z/i), be in keep- 
ing {with). 

rapHHsoH [garn^izon] m -a, 
-OB garrison. 

rapHH^ [gArn^ir] m a, -ob 
garnish, trimmings. 

rapHHTyp [garn^itur] m -a, 
-ob: — Me6ejiH set / suite of 
furniture; ~ 6ejibH two-piece/ 
three-piece underwear. 

rac|.HTb [gAs^'it''] imperf 
ramy, racHUib, p -hji, imp 
-H, noiracHTb [pagAS^'it^] perf 
put out (a fire, etc); turn off 
{the gas, tight, etc). 

racHlyib [^asnut^] imperf 
-ex, p rac, racjia, imp -h go 
out {stop burning)', become 
dim / dark. 

racTpoHOM [gastrAnom] m 
-a, -OB gastronom {a provi- 
sion store). 

racTpoHOMHHecK;Hfl [gastra- 
nAm^ich'^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, 
-He: ~HH MarasHH = racxpo- 


rauiy [gAshu] see racHXb. 

rBapAH|ji [gvard^iya] / -h, 
-ft Guards; 
<> cxapafl ~fl old guard. 

rB03flHK|a I [gvAz'^d'^ika] / 
*H, -^ carnation {a flower). 

reosAjiKla 11 [gvAz'^d^ika] 
/ -H clove {spice), 

r§03A|b Igvps^'t'', •z^'d''] m 

-H, pi FBOSAH, -efi nail {for 
fastening)', tack (a small nail). 

FAC [gd'^e] adv where {de- 
noting position); ^ 6bi hh 

rjie-jiH6o [gd^'el^iba], rae- 
-HM6yAb [gd^en^ibut^, -d^], 
FAe-xo [gd^'eta] adv some- 
where, in / at some place; 
anywhere {in inter sentences). 

FCKxap [g^i^ktar] m -a, -ob 

reHCpaji [g^in^i^ral] m -a, 
-OB general {a military offi- 
cer); — -Maftop major-general; 
~-jieHxeHaHx lieutenant-gen- 
eral; — -nojiKOBHHK colonel- 

FeHepa;ibHlb!H [g^m^'i^ral^- 
niy] a general {secretary, 
assembly, etc); — bift mxa6 
General Staff; —an penexH- 
UHH dress rehearsal; ~oecpa- 
»<eHHe bnttle royal. 

rcHepaxop [g^m^i^ratar] m 
-a, -OB generator; dynamo; 
-— K0Jie6aHHH oscillator. 

reHHajibH|biH [g^m'^ial^niy] 
a sh f rcHHajieH, -a, -6, -bi 
of genius; great, brilliant. 

fchhIh [g^en^'iy] m -h, -ea 

reoFpa4)Hlji [g'lAgraf^'iya] / 
-H geography. 

reojior [g^i^olak, -g] m -a, 
-OB geologist. 

reojioFHlfl* [g^'iAlog^iya] / 
-H geology. 

reoMexpMJJi [g'*iAm^etr*'iya] 
/ -H geometry. 

reopFHH [g^iAtg^'in] m -a, 
-OB dahlia. 

rep6 [g^erp, -b] m -a, pi 
rbi, -OB (coat of) arms, rocy- 

- 77 


AapcTBeHHbiH ~ national em- 

repKyjiec [g^irkul^es, -z] m 
-a porridge oats. 

repMaHCK|HH [g^'i^rman- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He German. 

repMCTMHecK^HH [g^irm^^i^- 
t''ich'*isk''iy] a -an, -oe, -He 
hermetic; —an Ka6HHa pres- 
surized cabin. 

rep6|ft [g^i^roy] m -h, -ee 
1. hero {a noble and brave 
man); 2. character, personage"; 
rjiaBHbiH ~H hero {of a nov- 
el, etc). 

rH6eji|b [g^ib^il^] / -h 
death; ruin (also fig); wreck 
(of a ship); downfall, fall {of 
an empire, etc). 

rH6K|HH [g^'ipk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f rH6oK, -a, -o, 
-H" flexible, supple {also fig). 

rvi6H\yTb [g'^ibnut^] imperf 
-y, -euib, p -yji (rH6), rnbjia, 
imp -H, no|rH6HyTb [pAg^ib- 
nut**] perf [cf norH6aTb] per- 
ish (i) die; 2) be destroyed); 
be killed, lose one's life; be 
lost, sink {of a ship); crash 
{of an aircraft). 

FHrdHT [g^igant, -d] m -a, 
-OB giant; saBOA--^ giant 

rHrHeH|a [g^ig^iyena] / -u 

PHfl [g^it, -d] m -a, -ob 
guide {conducting tourists, 

rHAp.o... first element of 
compounds pertaining to water 
hydro...; rHAposjieKipocTan- 
UHH [g^'idraePiktrAstantjtya] 
hydroelectric station. 

FHMH [g^imn] m -a, -ob 

anthem; rocyAapcTeeHHbia ~ 
national anthem. 

rHMHacTHK|a [g^imnas'^t^i- 
ka] / -H gymnastics; xy^o- 
>KecTBeHHaH ~a callisthenics. 

THnc [g'^ips, -bz] m -a 1. 
min gypsum; 2. plaster (of 
Paris); 3. me^. plaster cast. 

rHpji«HA|a [g^irPanda] / -bi, 
~ garland {of flowers); fes- 

PHpisi [g^ir^a] / -h, -b 
weight {used in weighing). 

FHTapla [guitars] / -bi, -- 

rjiaBJa I [glAva] m & f 
-bi, pi FJiaBbi, ~ head {the 
<> 80 ~e at the head (of). 

rjiaeja II [gUva] / -bi, pi 
iJiaBbi, — chapter {of a book). 

rjiaBHOKOMaHAyioml MH[gl3V- 
nakAmanduyush^iiy] m -ero, 
-Hx Commander-in-Chief. 

rjiaBHJbiH [glavnty] I a 
main, chief; principal; --bifl 
Bpaq head doctor; ~oeynpaB- 
jieHHe central administration;' 
~biH noMTaMT Central Post- 

11 parenth r Ji a b h o e above 
all; the main thing is...; 
<> ~biM 66pa30M mainly, 

r;iar6ji [gUgol] m -a, -ob 

rjiifllHTb [gUd^it^] imperf 
rjiaHcy, -Huib, p -hji, imp -h, 
BbirjiaAJHTb [vlglad^it*"] perf 
Bbir;ia>Ky, -Huib, p -hji, imp 
-b, nolrjiaAHTb [pAglad^it^] 
perf 1.' iron, press; smooth 
(down) {a drpss, etc); 2. (no- 
rjiaAHTfa) stroke, caress; 



-0~HTb npoTHB luepcTH stroke 
the wrong way / against the 

rjiaAK|HH [glatk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f rjiaAOK, -a, -o, 
-H 1. smooth; 2. plain {with- 
out ornament). 

rjias [glas, -z] m -a, pi -a, 
-- eye {the organ of sight); 

<> (CKHSaTb HT0-.1.) B ~a 

(say smth) to {smb's) face; 
3a ^a behind smb's back; 
Ha --ax y kofo-ji. / Ha HbHX-ji. 
^ax before smb's eyes; xoxb 
-- BbiKOJiH = it is pitch-dark; 
c ~y Ha rjids tete-a-tete; 
HeBoopyjKeHHbiM ~om with 
the naked eye. 

rjia3yHb|si [gUzun^ya] / -h 
fried eggs. 

rjiacHocTlb [glasnas^t^, 

-z^d'] / -H publicity {being 
public); npeASTb ~h give 
publicity to, make public. 

rjiacHbiH [glasniy] a ling 

rjiHHJa [gPina] / -bi clay 
{an earthy material). 

rJioTlarb [gUtat^] imperf 
-ivy, -aeiiib 1. swallow; gulp 
down, bolt; 2. fig devour, 
swallow up; 

<► — dib cjiesbi choke down 
one's tears / sobs. 

rjioxlKa [gl6tk8] / -kh, -ok 
1. anat gullet; 2. col throat; 
<^ BO BCK) --Ky col at the 
top of one's voice. 

rjioxloK (glAtok, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB gulp; sip; AafiTe eMV 
—OK BO^bi give him a drink 
of water. 

r^oxHlyxb [glokhnut^] im- 
perf -y, -eiijb, p rjiox, rjioxjia, 

imp -H, oifjioxHyxb [Aglokh- 
nut*'] perf become deaf. 

FjiySiKe [glubzht^] comp of 
FJiydoKHH & corresp adv. 

FjiySHHJa [glub^ina] f -bi, 
pi rjiy6HHH, FJiy6HH 1. depth 
{also fig); 2.: e '-e Jieca 
[cxpaHbi] in the heart of the 
forest [country]; 
<> B — e AyuiH at heart; ao 
-~bi AyuiH to the bottom of 
one's heart. 

FJiySoKlHH [glubok^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He, sh f ~, -a, 
-6 (-0), -h(-h) 1. deep {river, 
snow, etc); -^-aH xapejina 
soup-plate; 2. fig deep, pro- 
found; 3.: ~0H HO'ibK) in the 
dead of night; -^oii oceHbK) 
in the late autumn; 
<> ~HH cxapHK very old man; 
— aji cxapocxb extreme old 
age; venerable age. 

Fjiynocxlb [glupss^t^', -z^d^] 
/ -H, -efi 1. stupidity, foolish- 
ness; 2. col foolish thing, 
foolishness; nonsense, rub- 
bish; Sojixaxb —H talk non- 
sense; ~h! nonsense! 

FJiynlbiH [glupiy] a sh f 
~, -a, -o, -bi foolish, stupid, 

FjiyxjOH [glukhoy] I a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f ^, -a, rjiyxo, 
rjiyxH 1. deaf {also fig); 2. 
toneless {voice, etc); 3. re- 
mote, out-of-the-way; godfor- 
saken; lonely, solitary {place, 
etc); 4. wild, dense {forest); 
5. blind {window); blank 

II as a noun r ji y x | 6 fi m 
-oro, -hx, r ji y X I a h / -ofl, 
-HX deaf person; 



^0^ — ofi corjiacHbiH ling voice- 
less consonant. 

rjiyxoHeMOH [glukhan^i^- 
moy] I a deaf-and-dumb; 
1 1 as a noun rjiyxoHeMJoH 
m -oro, -b'lx, r Ji y X o H e- 
M I a H / -OH, -bix deaf-and- 
-dumb person, deaf mute. 

rjiyui|MTb [glushit^] imperf 
-y, -Hiub, p -HJi, imp -H 
1. muffle, deaden (sounds); 
drown (sounds); 2. stun (of or 
with a blow); 3. fig choke, 
suppress, stifle (protests, etcy, 
4. jam (broadcasts); throttle 
down (an engine). 

rjiyuijb [glush, -zh] / -h, 
instr -bK) i. backwoods; 2. 
out-of-the-way corner. 

rjibiSja [gl+ba] / -bi, ~ block 
(of ice, etc); KaMeHHan ~a 

rjiflA|eTb [gl^i^'d^et^] imperf 
rjiHH<y, -Huib, p -eji, imp -h, 
noirjiflJiexb [pagl^i^d^et''] perf 
1. look (at), stare (at); 2. col: 
rjiHAexb 3a kcm-ji. look after 
smb; rjiH^eTb sa neM-ji. see 
to smth; 

<> (hath) KyAa rjiasa —at 
(walk) without choosing one's 
way, (walk) aimlessly; xoro 
H --ii col at any moment; it 
looks as if. 

rnaxb [gnat^] imperf fohk), 
roHHUib, p iHaji, FHajia, imp 
roHH a concrete action, move- 
ment in a definite direction 
— 1 {cf roHHTb 1] 1. drive 
(urge along); drive out, turn 
out (send away); 2. hurry on, 
urge on; ~ jiouiajib ride a 
horse hard; 3. pursue, chase 
(an animal). 

rHa|TbCJi [gnatts9] imperf 
roHK)Cb, roHHUibCH, p -jica, 

-JiaCb, -JlOCb (-JlOCb), -JIHCb 

(-jiHCb), imp roHHCb, roHHTeck 
a concrete action, movement 
in a definite direction [cf ro- 
HHTbCH] 1. pursue, run (a//er); 
2. fig col seek (wealth, fame^ 

THeB [gn^'ef, -v] m -a anger, 
rage, wrath. 

rnesAlo [gn^i^zdo] n -a, pi 
FHes^a, rnesjx 1. nest (1) for 
laying eggs; 2) a place that 
swarms); 2. technol socket. 

rnex [gn^ot, -d] m -a 1. op- 
pression, yoke; 2. fig weight, 
burden (of sorrow, etc). 

rHexymJHH [gn^i*^tush'':iy] 
a [pa] -an, -ee, -He oppres- 
sive (overburdensome); -^an 
TOCKa anguish, 

rnemb [gn^osh, -zh] see 


FHH [gn*'i] see rnyib. 

FHHJiiOH [gn^iloy] a sh f 
~, -a. -0, -bi 1. rotten, de- 
cayed; putrid; 2. wet, muggy 
(weather); 3. fig rotten, cor- 

rHHjXb [gn^it^] imperf -ib, 
-emb, p -JI, -jia, -jio, -jih, 
c'lFHHxb [zgn'^it^] perf rot, 
decay (also fig); putrefy. 

fhoIh [gnoy] m -h pus. 

rHycHfbiH [gnusniy] a sh f 
FHycen, -a, -o, -w, infamous, 
foul, vile. 

FHyxb [gnut''] imperf rny, 
FHeuib, p FHyji, imp phh, 
cornlyxb [sAgnut^] perf -y, 
-emb, p -yji, imp -h 1. bend, 
bow; 2. (no perf) fig col drive 
(at), aim (at); 


- 80 

-0- ~ cnHHv nepCA kcm-ji. 

kowtow to smb; '-' cbok) jih- 
HKK) col have it one's own 

ro66|H [gAboy] m -h, -es 
oboe, hautboy. 

roBOplHTb [gavAr^it'*] im- 
perf -K), -Hiiib, p -HJi, /mp -h, 
nojroBOpHTb [pragavAr^it^j 
perf, cKaajaTb [skAz^t''] perf 
CKajKy, CKasceiub, p -aji, imp 
CKajKH 1. {no perf) speak, 
talk {say words); ~HTb no- 
-pyccKH speak Russian; ~ht 
MdcKBa this is Moscow call- 
ing; 2. (cKaaaTb) say, tell; 
OH — 'HT, MTO... he says that; 
— HTb npasAy tell the truth; 
~HTb HenpasAy tell lies, tell 
a lie; 3. (noroBopHib) speak, 
talk {to, with smb); 4. {no 
P^^f) f^S indicate, mean, 
betoken; ~HTb b nojibsy 
Koro-Ji. [qero-Ji.] do smb 
[smth] credit; 3to mhc HHqero 
He '-HT this doesn't mean 
anything to me; 
-0- -^-HT, HTO... they say 
that...; HHane — « in other 
words; ne ~fl y^KC o... not 
ito mention..., to say nothing 
of...; coScTseHHo ~« as a 
matter of fact; HeHero (h) 
-^ATbit goes without saying; 
HTO H — MTb col there's no 
denying it; KaK cKasarb it 
depends; KaK saw cKasarb 
who knows; it's difficult to 
say; raK cKasarb so to say; 
TpyAHo CKasarb there is no 
telling; cKasaHo — cAejiano 
col no sooner said than done; 
HCHero CKasarb! well, to be 

roBfljiHHla [gAV**ad'in9] / 

-M beef. 

rofl [got, -d] m -a, pi -u 
(-a), -OB year; b stom — y 
this year; b dy^ymeM — y 
next year; b np6m.fioM — 'y last 
year; eMy rpw -~a he is three 
years old; (rpH paaa) b ^ 
(three times) a year; Asa ~a 
TOMy HaaaA two years ago; 
qepes ABa ^a in two years; 
copoKOBbie ~bi the forties; 
BHcoKocHbifl -— leap-year; xe- 
KyinHH — this year, current 
year; ypojKaHHbiii ~ bumper 
crop year; 

<> c HoBbiM ~om! a happy 
New Year!; scrpena HoBoro 
~a New- Year's party; Kpyr- 
jiwfl ~ all the year round; 
H3 ~a B ~ year in, year 
out; B MOM ~u at my age; 
B ^Ax elderly; He no ~aM 
beyond one's years; Sea ro- 
Ay HeACjisi col =for a short 

roAiHTbCfl [gAd^ittsa] im- 
perf ro^ycb, -HiubCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, Hxecb be 
fit {for), fit, be suitable, 
suit; do; 

<> arc (HHKyAa) ne ~Hrcfl 
that won't do; raK nocry- 
narb/ ACJiarb He ~Hrcfl one 
mustn't do such things, one 
mustn't behave this way. 

roAHHHUH [gAd^'ich^'niy] a 

1. a year's, of a year; for a 
year;B ~ cpoK within a year; 

2. annual, yearly. 
roAH'ibiH [godniy] a sh f 

roAen, a, -o, -bi (-bi) fit {for), 
suitable (/o/-); good {for), val- 
id {for). 

^ 81 - 


roflOBOH [gadAvoy] a annu- 
al, yearly. 

roAOBiu,MH|a [gadAfsh^iina] 
/ -bi, ~ anniversary. 

roMcycb [gAzhus^, -z^] see 


roji [gol] m -a, pi -u, -6b 
goal {score); 3a6HTb — score 
a goal. 

rojiJiaHA|eu [gAlan^d^its, 
-dz] m -ua, -uee Dutchman. 

rojijiaHACKlHH [gAlansk^iy] 
a -aH, -oe, -He Dutch. 

rojiOBla [galAva] / -bi, ace 
rojiosy, pi rojiOBbi, rojioB, 
-aM head {1} of the body; 
2) the foremost part; 3) the 
brain; 4) an individual ani- 

O BblKHHyXb H3 '-bl col put 

out of one's head; BCKpyxHTb 
rojiOBy KOMy-Ji. turn smb's 
head; b n^pByio r6.iOBy first 
of all; GHepT^ rojioBy rashly, 
headlong; cjiom^ rojiOBy like 
mad, at breakneck speed; he 
CBOM) rojioBy to one's own det- 
riment/disadvantage; ^6h 
pynaxbcfl aa Kor6-Ji. answer 
for smb with one's life; 
OKyHyrbCJi / yfixH c ~6ft b... 
be utterly absorbed in... 

rojioBOKpymeHHle [galava- 
kruzhen^iya] n -si, -u giddi- 

ro^iofl [gobt, -d] m -a 1. 
hunger, starvation; 2. famine. 

rojioA|aTb [galAdat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiub 1. starve, suffer 
hunger; go without food; 2. 
be on hunger-strike. 

roji6AH|biH [gAlodniy] a sh 
f rojioAeH, -a, fojioaho, ro- 
jiOAHu (-bi) 1. hungry; 2.: 

~biH roA year of famine; 
~bifl naeK starvation rations. 

rojiojieAHma [gaUPed^itja] 
/ -bi glazed frost; ice-covered 

rojioc [gobs, -z] m -a, pi 
-A, -OB 1. voice (/) a sound; 

2) of a particular person; 

3) opinion); rp6MKHM ~om in 
a loud voice; bo Becb.— at 
the top of one's voice; 2. 
vote (1) a formal expression 
of a wish or choice; 2) the 
right to give such an expres- 
sion); peuiaiomHH -- casting 
vote; noAaTb / OTAaxb -' aa... 
give one's vote for...; npaBO 
peiuaKDmero [conemaxejibHoro] 
~a voting [speaking] right; 
<> B OAMH — with one voice, 
unanimously; roBopHXb / nexb 
c HyjKoro ~a repeat slav- 

rojiocoBaHH|e [galasAva- 
n^iya] n -h, -h voting, vote; 
x^flHoe ~e secret ballot; 
nocxaBHXb na '-e put to the 
vote; npoBecxH -~e hold / take 
a vote; Ka6HHa ajih ~5i poll- 

rojiocloBdxb [galasAvat^] 
imperf -yio, -yeuib, p -ob^ji, 
imp -yfi vote (for). 

rojiySoH [galuboy] a light 
blue, sky-blue. 

rojiy6i;|bi Jgaluptst] pi -6b 
{sing rojiy6\en m -ua) golub- 
tsy {stuffed cabbage-rolls). 

r6jiy6|b [g61up'', -b^J m -h, 
pi -H, -eft pigeon, dove. 

r6ji|biH [g61iy] a sh f '^^ 
-a, -o, -bi naked; bare. 

roHCHHle [gAn^'en^iya] n -h, 
-H persecution; victimiza- 



tion; noABepraxb ~k) perse- 
cute; victimize. 

roHH [gAil^i] seernaib. 

roHHCb [gAH^i's^, -z^], ro- 
HHxecb [gAn^it^is^, -z^] see 

roHJKa [gonka] / -kh, pi 
-KH, -OK 1. hurry, haste; 2. 
pi sport race {of vehicles or 
boats)', rpe6Hbie ~kh boat- 
-race(s); n^pycHbie ~kh re- 

"^ —Ka BOopyHceHHH arms 
r^ce . 

roHopap [gariArar] m -a, 
-OB fee; royalties; author's 

roHK) [gAn^u], roHHuib 
[gon^ish, -zh] see rnaxb. 

roHibcb [gAn^us^, -z^], ro- 
HHuibcn [gon^ishs^a] see 


roHlflTb [gAn^at^] imperf 
-Hio, -neujb [cf THaib 1] 1. 
drive {from one place to an- 
other, urge along); 2. col send 
on errands {repeatedly), make 
run {for smth). 

rOH|«Tbcsi [gAn^attjs] im- 
perf -HK)Cb, -HerubCH [r/rnaxb- 
ch] 1. pursue, run {after)-, 2. 
fig col seek {wealth, fame, 

rop|d [gAr^j / -bi, ace ropy, 
pi ropbi, — , -aM 1. mountain; 
hill, HflXH noA ropy go down- 
hill; HATH B ropy go uphill 
[also see <>]; KaxIxbCH c ^u 
slide downhill; 2. col heap, 

•<> HAxil B r6|iy do well, pros- 
per; rise up in the world; He 
3a '-aMH at hand; nnp ~6h 
great / sumptuous feast; cxo- 

«xb ~6h 3a... defend with 
might and main; stand firm 
by {smb)\ — a c njien col a load 
off smb's mind. 

ropasAo [gArazda] adv 
much, far {with comp). 

rop6dx|biH [gArbatiy] a sh 
f '-, -a, -o, -bi 1. hunch- 
backed, humpbacked; 2.: -~biH 
HOC acquiline nose; 
<> --oro MorHJia HcnpdeHx 
prov = can the leopard 
change his spots? 

r6p6lHXbc« [gorb^ittsa] im- 
perf -JlKDCb, ^HUIbCH, p -HJICH, 

-HJiacb, imp -bCH, -bxecb, 
C:'r6p6HXbC5i [zgorb^ittsa] perf 
stoop {bend the body, etc); 
perf also become bent. 

ropAJiixbCJi [gArd^itt^sa] im- 
perf rOpJKyCb, -HHIbCH, p -HJI- 
CH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 
be proud {of); pride oneself 

ropAocxlb [gordas^t^, -z^d^] 
/ -H pride {in smth; the ob- 
ject of). 

ropAJwH [gordiy] a sh f ~, 
-a, -o, -bi (-bi) proud. 

rople [gor^a] n -n grief; 

<> eMy H ^51 Majio col he 
doesn't care a fig; y6HxbiH 
^CM broken-hearted; --e mhc 
c to66h col what trouble 
you give me! 

ropjeBaxb [gar^i^vat^] im- 
perf -WK), -loeuib, p -eBAji, 
imp -K)H grieve {for); mourn 

ropjexb [gAr^et^] imperf -lo, 
-Huib, p -eji, imp -H 1. burn. 
{also fig); 2. shine {of the 
face, etc); sparkle {of eyes). 

— 83 — 


ropeHJb [gor^ich^, -j^] / -h 
1. bitter taste; 2. bitter stuff, 
bitter thing; 3. fig bitterness. 

ropHSOHT [g9r^iz6nt, -d] m 
-a, -OB horizon {also fig); 

ropH30HTajibH 1 bifi [ gar^izAn- 
tal^niy] a sh f ropHSOHTa- 
jieH, -a, -o, -bi horizontal. 

ropHcxlbiH [gAr^istly] a sh 
f ^y -a, -o, -bi mountainous, 

ropjijo [gorla] /i -a, ~ 
throat; AwxaxejibHoe ~0 anat 
windpipe; y MeHH b —e ne- 
pecoxjio my throat is dry; 
•0 KOMOK / KJiyGoK B — -e lump 
in the throat; no —o col 
more than enough; 6biTb cbi- 
TbiM no ~o HCM-Ji. col be 
sick and tired of smth; npH- 
craTb c ho}k6m k ~y k ko- 
My-Ji. col worry the life out 
of smb {demanding smth). 

r6pjibiiii|Ko [g6rHshk9] n 
-Ka, -eK neck {of a bottle); 
mouth {of any vessel). 

ropH I [gorn] m -a, -ob 
technol furnace, hearth. 

ropH II [gorn] m -a, -ob 
bugle {a small trumpet). 

ropnlbiH [gornty] a \.: ~-aH 
uenb chain / ridge of moun- 
tains; ~-oe ymejibe mountain 
gorge; 2. mining {industry, 
engineer, etc); —oe AeJio min- 

ropHflK [gArn^ak, -gj m -§l, 
-OB miner; mining engi- 

ropoA [gorat, -d] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB town, city; Bbiexaib / 
noexaib aa ropo^ go to the 
country, go out of town; 

^HTb 3a ropoAOM live out of 
town, live in the country. 

ropOACKloH [garAtjkoy] a 
-an, -6e, -He urban, town 
{attr), city {attr); municipal; 
—He mmejin townsfolk. 

ropox [gArokh, -gh] m -a 

ropcoBeT [garsAv^^t, -d] m 
-a, -OB (= ropoACKOH coeeT) 
Town / City Soviet; Town / 
City Council. 

ropcT|b [gors^t^, -z^d''] / 
-H, pi -H, -efl handful {also 

ropHHula [gArch^itja] / -u 

ropHMHHHK [gArch^ishn^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob mustard plaster; 
cxaBHTb — apply a mustard 

ropuiloK fgArshok, -g] m 
-Ka, -kcb (earthenware) pot. 

ropbKJHH [gor^k^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f ropeK, -a, -o, 
-H 1. bitter {of taste); 2. fig 
bitter, unpalatable; 3. fig 
miserable {lot, etc); 
<> ~HH nbflHHua inveterate / 
confirmed drunkard. 

ropiOHlee fgAr^uch^iya] n 
-ero fuel; petrol, gas. 

ropqHJHH [gAr^ach^iy] a 
-an, -ee, -ne, sh f -^ , -a, 
-6, -H 1. hot {having a high 
temperature, very warm); 2. 
fig hot, ardent, fervent; hot- 
-tempered, fiery; heated {ar- 
gument, etc); very warm, 
hearty {welcome, etc); 3. fig 
busy {time); 

<> no — HM cjiCAaM hot on 
the heels {of); close in the 
tracks (of), without delay. 


- 84 - 

ropjmlMTbcn |g9r''i^ch^itts9] 
imperf -ycb, -HuibCH, p -p'ijich, 
-HJiar.b, imp -I'lCb, -Hiecb, 
paslropJiHHTbCJi [razgar^i^- 
ch^ittss] perf get excited; get 

roc6aHK [gozbank, -g] m 
-a, -OB (= rocyAapcTBeHHbiH 
6aHK) State Bank. 

rocHHTajilb [gosp^ital^jm -h, 
pi ,-H, -efl (military) hospital. 

rocno;i!HH [gaspAd^in] m 
-HHa,/7^ -a, rocno;!, -aM 1. gen- 
tleman; 2. Mr; sir; ;iaMbi h 
~a! ladies and gentlemen!; 
3. master {one who controls); 
caM ce6e --hh one's own 

^O' ~HH cBoero cjioea man of 
one's word. 

rocnoACTBlo [gAspotstva] n 
-a 1. supremacy; rule, domi- 
nation {over)\ 2. prevalence, 

rocn6ACTB!oBaTb [gAspotst- 
yv9t*'] imperf -y\o, -yeiub, p 
-osaji, imp -yft 1. rule {over); 
2. prevail, predominate; 3. 
command , dominate {of a hill, 

rocnoAb [gAspot**, -d''] m 
rocnoAa the Lord, God; 
<> ~ c to66h! 1) God bless 
you!; 2) nothing of the kind! 

rocno)K|a [gaspAzha] / -h, 
-eft 1. lady; 2. Mrs; Madam; 

rocTenpHMMHtbiH [gas^t^i- 
pr^iimniy] a sh f rocxenpn- 
HMCH, -a, -o, -bi hospitable. 

rocTenpHHMCTB|o [gas^t^i- 
pr'^iimstva] n -a hospitality; 
OKasbiBaTb ~o give / show 

rocTHH|aji [gAS^t^inaya] / 
-oii, -bix drawing-room. 

rocTMHHU,|a [gAs^t'^in'^itsa] 
/ -bi, ~ hotel; inn; ociaHo- ^ 
BHTbCH B ~e put up / stay at j 
a hotel. ' 

rocT|HTb [gAs^'t^it''] imperf 
romy, -Hiub, p -Hji, imp -h 
stay {with smb); be on a vis- 
it {to smb, some place). 

rocT|b [gos^'t'', -z*'d*'] m -h, 
pi -H, -eft guest, visitor; 
6biTb B ~HX y... be on a 
viiit to...; HATH B ~H go on 
a visit, go visiting; pay a 
visit; npHXOAHxe (k HaM) b 
~h! come to see us! 

rocyAapCTBeHH|biH [gasu- 
darstv^'mniy] a state; nation- 
al {anthem, etc); -^bift ag- 
HTeJib statesman; ~bift cxpoft 
regime, state system; ~bift 
5i3biK official language; —bift 
nepeeopoT coup d'etat; ~aH 
HSMena high treason; acao 
~0H BaH<H0CTH a matter of 
national importance. 

rocyAapCTB|o [gasudarstva] 
n -a ~ State; country, na- 

roTOBlHTb [gAtov^it^] im- 
perf -JiK), -HUJb, p -HA, imp 
-b 1. prepare, make ready; 
train {teach); 2. cook {food); 
make, fix {dinner, etc); 
3. have {smth) in store {for 

roTOBlHTbcsi [gAtov'^iitja] 
imperf -Jiiocb, -HuibCH, p -hji- 
CH, -HAacb, imp -bCH. -biecb 
get ready (for), prepare 

roTOBlbiH [gAtovty] a sh f 
~, -a, -0, -bi 1. ready, pre- 

85 — 


pared; tu — ? are you ready?; 
OH -~- Ha Bce he is ready / 
willing to do anyttiing; 2. 
finished {articles, etc); ~oe 
nJiaTbe ready-made clothes; 
MocT ~ the bridge is finished; 
<> Ha BceM —CM with board 
and lodging. 

romy [gAsh^:ul seerocxHib. 

rpSL6\'em [grAb*'6sh, -zh] m 
-e>Ka, -e>KeH robbery {also fig 
col); plunder(ing). 

rpa6|HTb [grab^it^] imperf 
-jiK), -Huib, p -HJi, imp -b, 
oirpaSHTb [Agrab^'it^] perf 
rob; sack (a town, etc); 
imperf also plunder, loot. 

rpa6|jiH [grabl^i] pi -ejib 
(-Jiefl), -JiHM rake (a tool). 

rpdBH|fl [grav^iy] m -« 

rpaBibp|a [grAV^ura] / -bi, 
^ engraving, print; etching 
{an impression). 

rpaA [grAt, -d] m -a hail 
{frozen rain). 

rpaflyc [gradus, -z] m -a, 
-OB degree {a unit of meas- 
urement); CKOJlbKO ceroAHfl 
--0B? what's the temperature 
today?; A^cHib -— ob lenjia 
[xojiojia] ten degrees above 
[below] zero. 

rpaAycHHK [gradus^'n^'ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB thermometer. 

rpaKAaHHH [grazhdAn^in] 
m -a, pi rpa>KAaHe, rpaynjxaH, 
rpaiKAdHlKa [grAzhdanka] / 
-KH, -OK citizen {a member 
of a state); ~! hello!, I sayl 

rpa>RAaHCK|HH [grAzhdan- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -ne civil, 
civic; civilian; ~aH naRHXH^a 
civil funeral ceremony. 

rpa3KAaHCTB|o [grAzhdanst- 
V9] n -a citizenship, nation- 
ality; noJiy^HTb npasa ~-a 
be admitted to the citizen- 
ship [also see <>]; 
<^ nojiyHHTb npaea —a re- 
ceive universal recognition. 

rpaM3dnHc|b [grAmzap^'is^, 
-z^] / -H, -efi (gramophone) 
recording; MysbiKa b --h re- 
corded music. 

rpaMM [gram] m -a, -ob 

rpdMOT|a [gramata] / -h, 
■^ 1. reading and writing; 
yqHTbCH —e learn to read 
and write; 2.: BepHTCJibHue 
--bi credentials; noxBa^bHafl 
^a (school) certificate of 
encouragement; noHeTHan ~a 
diploma (of honour); 
<> ({)HJibKHHa —a col ^ use- 
less scrap of paper. 

rpaMOTH|bifl [gramatnty] a 
sh f FpaMOTen, -a, -o, -bi 1. 
literate; educated; 2. compe- 
tent, skilful. 

rpaHarja [grAnata] / -m, ^ 

rpaHAHOsHlbift [gr^n^d^'idz- 
niy] a sh f rpaHAHoaen, -a, 
-0, -bi grandiose, grand; 
immense, vast. 

rpaHHT [grAn^it, -d] m -a 

rpaHMula [grAn^'itsa] / -u, 
~ 1. border; frontier; bound- 
ary; noexaxb aa --y go 
abroad; sa —efl abroad {in 
another country); H3-3a ~bi 
from abroad; 2. fig limit; 
nepeuTH Bce ~bi overstep the 
limits; 3TO nepexoAHTBce ^U 
it's the limit. 



rpaHMHlHTb [grAn^'ich^it^] 
imperf -ht border {on) {also 


rpaH|b [gran^] / -h, -efl 1. 
facet, side; 2. fig border, 
verge, brink; npoBOAHTb -^-b 
Me>KAy... draw a distinction 

rpa(l)la [grAfa] / -bi, pi -bi, 
— , -aM column {in printing). 

rpa(|)HK [graf^'ik, -g] m -a, 
-OB graph, diagram; time- 
-table, schedule; tomho no 
~y according to schedule. 

rpa(})HKla [graf^ika] / -h 
black-and-white art. 

rpa(})HH [grAf^in] m -a, -ob 
decanter; carafe. 

rpau,H63H|biH [gratsioznty] 
a sh f rpauHoaeH, -a, -o, -bi 

rpan [grach^, -j^] m -a, 
-eii rook {a bird). 

rpeSeHJKa [gr^i^b'^onka] / 
-KH, -OK comb {for the hair); 
«0* CTpHHb Bcex noji OflHy 
'-^ Ky^ (try to) make everyone 
fit into the same pattern. 

rpeSjeHb [gr^eb^m^] m -hh, 
-HCH 1. comb {for tfie hair); 
2. comb {of a cock); 3. crest 
{of mountains, etc). 

rpe6|eu [gr''i^b*'etj, -dz] m 
-ua, -UOB oarsman, rower. 

rpeSeuijoK [gr^ib^i^shok, 
-g] m -Ka, -kob see rpedenb 
1, 2. 

rpe6ji|ji [gr^ebl^a] / -h 

rpesJHTb [gr^ez^it^] imperf 
rpejKy, -Hiub, p -hji dream, 

rpCK [gr^ek, -g] m -a, -oa 

rpejiJKa [gr^elka] / -kh, -ok 
hot-water bag; footwarmer; 
ciaBHTb --Ky apply a hot-wa- 
ter bag / footwarmer. 

rpcMleib [gr^i^'m^et''] im- 
perf -JiK), -i^mb, p -eji, imp 
-H rattle; clatter; clank; 
resound, ring out {also fig); 
~HT rpoM it is thundering, 
it thunders. 

rpeHJiaHA|eu [gr^i^nlan^- 
d^i(s, -dz] m -ua, -ues Green- 

rpeHjiaHflCKiHM [gr^i^^nlan- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Green- 

rpelcTH [gr^'i^s^t^i] imperf 
-6y, -6emb, p rpe6, -6Jia, imp 
-6h 1. row {with oars); scull; 
paddle; 2. rake {hay, etc). 

rpCTb [gr^et^] imperf rpero, 
rpeeiub, p rpeji, imp rpeft 1. 
give out warmth; coJiHue 
CHjibHo rpeer it's very warm 
in the sun; 2. warm, heat; 
warm up; 3. keep warm {of a 
coat, etc). 

rpex [gr'^ekh, -gh] I m -a, 
-OB sin {moral offence); co- 
EepiuHTb — nepcA... sin 

11 predic col it's a sin {to 
do smth); ■— o6H>K^Tb pe6eHKa 
it's a sin to treat a child 
badly; ne -- h oiAOXHyxb it 
wouldn't be bad to have a 

<> c '~6m nonojiaM col hard- 
ly, barely {manage to do smth).' 

rpCMaH|Ka [gr^i^ch^anka] / 
-KH, -OK Greek woman; Greek 


rpenecKlMH [gr^ech^isk^iy] 
a -an. -oe, -He Greek. 

87 — 


rpeHHeB|biM [qr^ech^n^iviy] 
a: ~aH Kpyna buckwheat; 
— an Kama buckwheat por- 

rpeuilHTb [gr^i^shit^] imperf 
-y, -Hiub, p -Hji, imp -H 
1. sin; 2. sin {against), 
violate {the truth, etc). 

rpH6 [gr^ip, -h] m -a, -6b 
mushroom; toadstool. 

rpHB|a [gr^'ivo] / -bi, — 

rpHBCHKHK [gr^fv^m^'ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB ten-copeck coin 

rpHM [gr^im] m -a make-up 
{of an actor). 

rpHMac|a [gr'^imasa] / -bi, 
'- grimace; Aejiaib ~bi make 

rpHnn [gr^^ip, -b] m -a flu, 
influenza, grippe. 

rpo6 [grop, -b] m -a, pi 
-b'l, -OB coffin; 
<> flo ~a till death. 

rposla [grAza] / -b'l, pi 
rp63bi, ~ (thunder)storm; nac 
sacTaJia —a we were caught 
in a (thunder)storm. 

rpo3fl|b [gros^t^, -z^d^] / 
-H, pi -H (-bH), -eft (-bee) 
cluster {of grapes, etc). 

rposlHTb [grAz^it^] imperf 
TpOHcy, -Huib, p -HJI, imp -h 
1. threaten; 2. shake {one's 
finger, fist at smb). 

rposHlbiM [grozniy] a sh f 
rpoaeH, -a, -o, -u (-bi) ter- 
rible, formidable; threaten- 
ing, menacing; stern. 

rpoM [grom] m -a, pi -bi, 
-OB 1. thunder; 2.: ^ anjio- 
flHCMGHTOB a storm of ap- 

<> ^ cpe;i,H flCHoro He6a a 

bolt from the blue; Merarb 
~bi H MOJiHHH rage, storm. 

rpoMaflH|biH [grAmadniy] a 
sh f rpOMaACH, -a, -o, -bi 
huge, enormous, vast, im- 

rpoMKlHH [gromk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He, sh f rpoMOK, 
-a^ -o, -H 1. loud {sound); 2. 
fig famous, celebrated; — oe 
I'lMH famous / great name; 
~aH cjiasa great fame; 3.: 
--He cjiOBa fine words, high- 
flown talk; 6e3 ~hx cjiob 
without a fuss. 

rpoMKoroBopMTeJi|b [grom- 
kagavAr^it^il*'] m -h, -en loud 

rpoMosAKlHK [grAmostk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -ne, sh f rpoMoa- 
AOK, -a, -0, -H cumbersome, 
bulky, unwieldy. 

rpoMHC [gromch^i] comp of 
rpoMKHH & corresp adv. 

rpoxoT [grokhat, -d] m -a 
crash {a noise); rattle; rum- 
ble; roar, thunder. 

rpySocTlb [grubas^t^, -z^d^] 
/ -H, -eft rudeness; roughness; 
roBopHTb ~H KOMy-Ji. be rude 
to smb. 

rpySjbift [grubiy] a sh f — , 
-a, -o, -bi 1. coarse, rough 
{skin, material, etc); crude 
{workmanship) ; 2. harsh 
{voice); 3. rude, coarse {words, 
etc); 4. flagrant, gross {viola- 
tion, blunder, etc). 

rpyAJa [gruda] / -bi, ~ 
heap, pile. 

rpyAMHK|a [grud^inka] / 
-H brisket; bacon. 

rpyAHJOH [grudnoy] a; — 4n 


88 — 

KJiexKa anat thorax; -^oPi pe- 
6eH0K baby. 

rpyfllb [grut'', -d^] / -h 
(-h), pi -H, -efi breast; chest 
{of the body)', bust, bosom; 
KopMHTb ^hvi nurse, suckle 
(a baby). 

rpya [grus, -z] m -a, -ob 
1. load {what is carried)', 
freight, cargo, goods; 2. bur- 
den, weight. 

rpysHH [gruz^in] m -a, ^ 

rpysHHCKlHfi [gruz^insk^'iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Georgian. 

rpy3|Hrb [gruz^if*] imperf 
rpyxy, rpyaniub (-Hiub), p 
-TAji, imp -H, nojrpyaHTb 
[pagruz'^it'*] perf load {goods, 
etc); embark {cargo, etc); 
entrain; emplane. 

rpysoBHK [gruzAv^'ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB lorry; US truck. 

rpy34HK [grush^:ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB loader; stevedore, 

rpyHT [grunt, -d] m -a, -ob 
soil; ground, bottom. 

rpynn|a [gruppa] / -bi, ~ 
group; cluster {of trees, etc). 

rpycT|HTb [grus't^it^] im- 
perf rpymy, -Huib, p -h;i, 
imp -H be sad; feel blue; 
long {for), yearn {for). 

rpycTHo [grusna] I adv 

II impers predic it is sad; 
CMy —, MTO... he is sorry 
that...; MHe ^ cJibimaTb sto I 
am sorry to hear that. 

rpycTHlbiH [grusniy] a sh f 
rpycTCH, -a, -o, -bi (-bi) sad. 

rpyui|a [grusha] / -h, ~ 
pear; pear-tree. 

rpw)K|a [grfzha] / -h med 
hernia, rupture. 

rpbi3|Tb [gris^t^] imperf 
-y, -euib,/7 — , -Jia, imp -h 1. 
gnaw {bite); nibble {like a 
rabbit, etc); eat {nuts, etc); 
2. fia nag. 

rpRfllna [gr^atka] / -kh, -ok 
bed {with vegetables or ber- 

rt)$i3H|HTb [gr^'i^z^n^it''] im- 
perf -i6, -Hiiib, p -HJi, imp 
-H, sairpHSHATb [zagr^i^z**- 
n^it^] perf soil, make dirty. 

rpH3H0 [gr^azna] I adv 
dirtily; untidily; 
II impers predic: na yjiHue 
— it's muddy outdoors; b 
KOMHaie ~ it's dirty in the 
room; the room is untidy / 
full of litter. 

rp^3H|biJI [gr^azniy] a sh f 
rpflscH, -a, -0, -bi (-bi) 1. 
dirty; filthy; ~oe 6ejibe dirty 
linen; washing; 2. muddy 

<> —an jiHHHOCTb dirty 
character {a person). 

rpji3|b [gr'^as^, -z''] / -h 
1. dirt; mud, slush; 2. fig 
filth; corruption; 3. pi -h, 
-eu med mud; 

<> cMeuidib c ~bK) defame, 
vilify; besmirch {smb's) name. 

ry6|a [guba] / -bi, pi ry6bi, 
— , -aM lip {of the mouth); 
BepxHHH —a upper lip; hh>k- 
HHH —a lower lip. 

ry6MTejibH|biH [gub^if'il*'- 
nty] a sh f rySHiejieH, -a -o, 
-bi pernicious, ruinous, disas- 
trous, fatal. 

ry6|HTb [gub^'it''] imperf 
-jiv), ry6Hmb, p -hji, imp -h, 



noiry6HTb [pagub^'it^] perf 
ruin, destroy; spoil. 

ry6{Ka [guplo] / -kh, -ok 
sponge {!) an animal; 2) an 

' ryfllcTb [gud^et^] imperf 
-HT, p -eji buzz; drone; hoot. 

ryAloK [gudok, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB 1. hooter; whistle {on an 
engine, etc); horn; 2. hooting; 
whistle {of an engine, etc). 

ryji [gul] m -a rumble, 
rumbling; hum, buzz; roaring 
{of the wind). 

ryjiflHb|e [gul^an^'ya] n -h, 
ryjiHHHH 1. walking {for pleas- 
ure); 2. outdoor fete; merry- 

ryjil«Tb [gul^at^] imperf 
-HK), -Heiub, nojryjiqTb [pa- 
gul^at^] perf 1. walk {for 
pleasure); go for a walk; have 
a walk; be out of doors; 2. 
col have a good time, make 

ryjiflui [guPash, -zh] m -a 

rywaHHlbiH [gumannty] a 

sh f ryManeH, -a, -o, -bi hu- 

ryMHJo [gumno] n -a, pi 
rywHa, ryMen (ryMen), ryM- 
HaM threshing-floor. 

ryceHHuja [gus^m^itss] / 
-bi, ~ zool 8c technol caterpil- 

rycT|eTb [gus^t^et^] imperf 
-eex thicken, become thick 
(-er) / dense(r). 

rycjloH [gustoy] a sh f ~, 
-a, rycTO, rycxbi (-bi) thick, 

ryc|b [gus^, -z^] m -h, pi 
-H, -eft goose; 

<> KaK c ~si BOfla col like 
water off a duck's back. 

ryxajiMH [gutApin] m -a 
shoe polish, blacking. 

ryiu|a [gush^:9] /-h 1. sed- 
iment; the thickness; 2. thick- 
et, thick {of a forest); b 
~e Mace in the midst of 
masses {of the people). 

rSC [ges] abbrev (/)(= tha- 
poajieKTpocTaHUHH) hydroelec- 
tric station. 


Aa I [da] part 1. a word 
of affirmation or consent yes; 
«0h yexaji?» «Aa»- "Has he 
left?" "Yes, he has"; «Pa3Be 
OH He yexaji?» ^JXa, ue yexaji». 
"Hasn't he left?" "No, he 
hasn't"; 2. denoting surprise 
in question form really?, in- 
deed?; «0h yexaji». «ila?» "He 
has left". "Really?" / "Has 
he?"; 3. [in the first pretonic 

position — dA; in the second 
and other pretonic positions 
— da] denoting intensifica- 
tion but, oh but; Aa Hex y 
Hero sxofl KHHrn! but he 
doesn't have the book!; o mcm 
ero HH cnpocH, oh BcerAa 
Mx6-HH6yAb Aa anaex what- 
ever you ask him, he always 
does know something / is sure 
to know something; Aa hxo 


— 90 

c HUM roBopHTb! there's no 
sense in talking to hiim!; Aa 
Hy ero! col oh, bother him!; 
4. used when one suddenly 
recalls smth or changes the 
subject of conversation by the 
way, that reminds me; Aa! 
Bbi BH^eJiH ero? by the way! / 
that reminds me! have you 
seen him?; 5, denoting disbe- 
lief, strong doubt, irony, etc 
not likely; catch him [her, 
etc] doing it; I don't believe 
it;^«OH npHflei 3aBTpa», «Aa, 
npHZieT. SaBTpa oh 6y.AeT sa- 
HHT». "He'll come tomorrow". 
"Not likely! / I don't believe 
it! Tomorrow he'll be busy"; 
6. used with imperative to 
express a wish: Aa sApaBCT- 
Byer..! [dAzdrastvuyat] long 

Aa II [da; in the first pre- 
tonic position — dA\ in the 
second and other pretonic po- 
sitions — d^] cj denoting 1. 
addition and; and besides; 
Mbi Aa Bbi you and we; 2. 
contrast and, but; oh o6emaJi 
npHHTH, Aa He npHiueA he 
promised to come but failed. 

Aaeldrb [dAvat^] imperf 
AaK), Aaeuib, p -an, imp -Aik, 
Aaxb [dat^] perf AaM, Aamb, 
AacT, AaAHM, AaAHie, AaAyx, 
p Aa-^, flaAa, AaJio (AaAo), 
imp Aafi 1. give {1) smth to 
smb; 2) milk, said of a cow; 
fruit, of a tree, etc; 3) a concert, 
lessons, evidence, etc); -~aTb 
TejierpaMMy send a telegram; 
wire; 2. let, allow; CMy He 
--aAH roBopHTb they didn't 
let him speak; 3. {no perf) 

imp col let's, let us; ~aH(Te) 
noHACM TyAa let's go there; 

— aft H noMory leSe come, 
I'll help you; 

<> ~aTb ornop rebuff, re- 
pulse; ~aTb cjioBo 1) prom- 
ise, give one's word; 2) give 
(smb) the floor; Aaxb SHaxb 
let know, let hear; — aib 
ct6a 3HaTb make itself felt; 
~dTb xoA HeMy-ji. advance / 
promote smth; set smth go- 
ing; efi HejibSfl Aatb Sojibuie 
ABaAUaiH JiCT she does not 
look more than twenty; kh 
Aaxb HH B35iTb col = cxactly 
the same, as like as two peas; 

— afl, ~aH! col go ahead!; 
get on!; come on! 

AaelHTb [dAv^it^] imperf 
-Ji\b, AaBHUJb, p -Hji, imp -n 
I. lie heavy (on), weigh (on) 
{also fig); 2. press, hurt {of 
footwear, parts of clothing, 
etc); 3. crush {snakes, etc); 4. 
squeeze, press, crush {a lem- 
on, grapes, etc). 

AaBKJa [dafk9] / -n crush 
{a mass of people). 

AaBJieHHJe [dAvPen^iya] n 
-H, -H pressure {also fig); 
OKasbieaTb --^e na kofo-a. 
exert pressure on smb. 

AaBHiHfi [davn^iy] a old, 
ancient; bygone; of long 
standing; c -^hx nop for a 
very long time, 

AaBHO [dAvno] adv 1. long 
ago; 2. for a long time {of 
waiting, knowing, etc); 
<> ~ nopa it's high time. 

AaAHM [dAd^im], AaAHre 
[dAd^it^'il 1st & 2nd persons 
pi of Aaxb, see Aasaib, 

91 - 


Aame [dazha] part intens 
even (1) though one would 
not expect it; 2) used with 

flafi [day] imp of Aaih; see 

m^ [dal], AaJia [dAla] p 
of iiaxb; see AaeaTb. 

Aajiee [dal^iya] adv 1. fur- 
ther, farther; 2. then, further; 
<> H xaK — - and so on, 
and so forth; et cetera. 

AajieK|HH [dAl^ok^iy] a -eh, 
-oe, -He, sh f -^ , ^ajieKa, 
ABjieKo (-o), flaJieKH (-h) 1. 
remote, distant, far-away; 2. 
long {way, journey, etc); 3. 
fig far (from), far removed 
(from); ~Hfl ot ueJin [ot 
FiCTHHbi] wide of the mark 

AajiCKO [d9Pi*^k6] I adv far 
away, far off, a long way 
off; — nosajxn far behind; 
II impers predic 1. it's a 
long way to...; eme -~? do 
we have to go much farther?; 
Ao SToro eme -~ this is still 
a long way off; 2.: eMy [efi 
u m. d.] ~ Ro Mero-ji. he 
[she, etc] is far from being 
smth; eMy [efl u m. d.] ~ flo 
Koro-Ji. he [she, etc] is much 
inferior to smb; 
<> — 3a nojiHOHb long after 
midnight; (cjihuikom) — sa- 
xoAMTb go too far; '- ne... 
far from being...; ~ HAyiUHH 
far-reaching {plans, etc). 

jxajibH^fiui'HH [dAl^n^ey- 
shty] a -an, -ee, -He further 
{explanations, etc); subse- 
-^ B -^CM later on; in future. 

AajibHjHH [dal^n^iy] a 1. 
distant, remote; ~ee pac- 
CTOHHHe long / great distance; 
— ero AeHCTBHH long-range 
{aircraft, etc); 2. distant {of 

<> flajibHHH BocTOK the Far 

niy] a sh f AajibHOBHAeH, -a, 
-0, -bi prescient, far-sighted, 

AajibHosopKlHH [dal^nAzor- 
k'^iy] a -an, -oe, -He, sh f 
AajibHoaopoK, -a, -o, -h long- 
-sighted, far-sighted {able to 
see far). 

fldjibiue [dal^shl^] I comp 
of jxaJieKnik & corresp adv; 
II adv then, next; mto ~? 
what next?; a mo 6biJio —? 
what happened next /then?; 
MTO 6yAeT ~? what is going 
to happen?, what will happen 
<> — ! go on! 

AaM [dam] 1st person of 
Aaxb; see jtaBaxb. 

AaMJa [dama] / -bi, ~ 1. 
lady; 2. partner {in danc- 
ing) . 

AaMCKlHH [damsk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He ladies'. 

flaHHlbie [danntya] pi -bix 

1. data, facts; uH4)poBbie ~bie 
figures {of production, etc); 
npHBOAHTb ~bie cite data; no 
~biM... according to..., ac- 
cording to the data {of)\ 

2. makings (o/ a person). 
fldHHJbiH [dannly] a given, 

present; b — oe speMfl at pre- 
sent, at the (present) mo- 



AaHlb [dan^] / -h contri- 
bution, tribute {also fig); 
^ OTAaTb —b BpeivieHH take 
cognizance of tJie age / time. 

Aap [dar] m -a, pi -bi, -6b 
1. gift, donation; npHHecTH 
mo-ji. B ~ make a gift of 
smth; 2. gift, talent. 

AaplHTb [dAr^it^] imperf -ib, 
AapHUib, p -HJi, imp -H, noi- 
flapAib [padAF^it^] perf make 
a present of, present; give {as 
a present); imperf also make 
presents; --HTb na naMHTb give 
as a keepsake. 

flapoBaHH|e [darAvan^iya] n 
-H, -H talent, gift. 

AapoM [daram] adv 1. free 
(of charge), for nothing; 2. 
for next to nothing, for a 
trifle {of buying); 3. to no 
purpose, in vain; ~ TpaTHTb 
waste {time, etc); 
«> 5to CMy ~ He npofiAer 
he'll pay for it. 

jiacT [dast, -zd] 3d person 
of A^Tb; see AasaTb. 

AdTJa [d^ta] / -bi, ~ date 
{on a letter, etc). 

AaTCK|Hfl [da^k^iy] a -aH, 
-oe, -He Danish. 

AaTH^H|HH [dAt^ch^^n^in] 
m -HHa, pi -e, ~ Dane. 

Aaxb see Aaeaib 1,2. 

Aanja [dach^a] / -h, ~ 
country cottage; summer 
house; JKHXb na — e live in 
the country; noexarb na ~y 
go to the country. 

AaHHJbiH [dach^niy] a: ~biH 
nocejioK suburban settlement; 
'-biH noesA suburban train; 
'--biii ceaoH summer / holiday 

;iamb [dash, -zh] 2nd per- 
son of A^Tb; see Aaeaxb. 

AaK) [dAyu], Aaeiiib [dA- 
yosh, -zh] see Aaeaxb. 

ABa [dva] nam card m &n, 
ABC [dv^e] / AByx, AsyM, ~ 
(/ ABe) & AByx, ARyMH, (o) 
Asyx two; b ~ paaa 66jibme 
twice as much; twice as many; 
twice the size {of); b ~ paaa 
MCHbiiie half (the...); half the 
size {of); 

<> -~-xpH one or two, a 
couple {of); b AByx cAOBax 
very briefly; b AByx uiarax 
near by; a few steps away; 
B '-' CHexa col in a jiffy, in 
no time. 

ABaAuaxbiH [dvAttsatty] num 
ord twentieth. 

ABaAUaxjb [dvattjat^, -d''] 
nam card -h, -bib twenty. 

ABa}KAbi [dvazhdi] adv 
two times, twice. 

ABe see Asa. 

ABeH^AUaxbiH [dv^i^nattja- 
t*y] num ord twelfth. 

ABeH^Ai^axjb [dv^i^nattsat^, 
-d^] num card -h, -bK) twelve. 

ABep|b [dv^er^] / -h, pi -h, 
-eft door {of a room, etc); 
BXOAH^H ~b front door; en- 
trance {to a house, etc)\ b 
~HX in the doorway; 
<> npH saKpbixbix ~flx be- 
hind closed doors; in private 

ABCcxH [dv^es^t^i] num card 
AByxcox, AByMcxaM, ~, ABy- 
MHCxaMH, (o) AByxcxax two 

AEHraxejiLb [dv^igat^iP] m 
-H, -eft 1. engine, motor; pe- 
aKXHBHUH —b jet engine; — -b 

93 — 


BHyTpeHHcro cropaHHH inter- 
nal-combustion engine; 2. fig 
motive force, 

jiBHr|aTb [dv^'igat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, flBHH|yTb [dv^i- 
nut^] perf -y, -eiub, p -yji, 
imp -b move {cause to change 
place); set going; advance, 
promote; ~aTb pyKofl [najib- 
ufiuum.n.] mo\:e one's hand 
(finger, e^c]. 

ABHrjaTbCJi [dv^'igattja] im- 
perf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, abh- 
H|yTbcji [dv^inuttja] perf -ycb, 
-eiubCH, p -yJiCH, -yjiacb, imp 
-bCH, -bxecb move {change 
position); ~aTbCH Bnepe^ ad- 
vance, move forward. 

ABH«eHHle [dv^izhen^iya] 
n -H, -H 1. motion, move- 
ment; nocTynaxeJibHoe — e on- 
ward movement; npHBO^HTb 
B ^e set in motion, set 
going; npHxoAHTb b ~e 1) 
begin to move; come into 
operation; 2) fig be stirring 
to action; 2. traffic {of ve- 
hicles, etc); 3. fig movement 
{social); —e 3a MHp peace 

ABHHyTb see ABHraxb. 

ABHHyTbCfi see ABHraibCH. 

flB6|e [dvoya] num collect 

-HX, -HM, -HX (-e), -HMH, (o) 
-HX two. 

flBOHKla [dvoylo] / -h, abo- 
eK 1. two (a figure); 2. black 
mark, "poor", "two". 

ABOHHHK [dvAyn^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB double {of a person). 

ABOHHOH [dvAynoy] a dou- 
ble (/) door, etc; 2) share, 
amount, etc; 3) meaning, 
game, etc). 

ABOp I (dvor] m -a, -6b 1. 
yard, courtyard; npoxoAHofl 
^ communicating courtyard; 
2. household, farmstead; 
<> Ha ~e out of doors, out- 
side; nocTOiijibiH ~ inn; mo- 
HCTHbiH ~ mint; hh kojiA hh 
~d neither house, nor home. 

ABOp II [dvor] m -a, -6b 
court {of a sovereign). 

ABOp|eu [dvAr^etj, -d^] m 
-ua, -uoB palace. 

ABopHHK [dv6rn^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB care-taker {of a buildr 
ing); janitor. 

ABy..., AByx... first element 
of compounds denoting 'two' 
{consisting of two, having 
two, etc): AByKpaTHbiH [dvu- 
kratni'y] twofold, double; 
AByxHeAeJibHMH [dvukhn^'i^- 
d^'el^'niy] two-week, bi-week- 
ly; AByxsTa^cHbiH [dvukh- 
etazhniy] two-storey. 

AByjiH4H|biH [dvul^ich^niy] 
a sh f AByJiHHeH, -a, -o, -u 

AByM [dvum] dat of Asa & 
ABe; see Asa. 

AByMcraM [dvumstam] dat 

of ABeCTH. 

AByMq [dvum^a] instr of- 
ABa & ABe; see ABa. 

AByMflCTaMH [dvum^asta- 
m^i] instr of ABecTH. 

ABycMbicjieHH|biH [dvusmis^- 
Pmnty] a sh f ABycMbicJien, 
-a, -o, -bi 1. dubious, equiv- 
ocal; 2. indecent, obscene. 

AByx [dvukh, -gh] gen, ace 
& pr of ABa & ABe; see Asa. 

AByx... see ABy... 

AByxcoT [dvukhs6t, -d] gen 



-- 94 — 

flByxcrax [dvukhstakh, -gh] 
pr of ABecTH. 

fleBJaTb [d^i^vat^] perf & im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, fleib [d^et^] 
perf Aeny, AeHeiub, p a^ji, 
flejia, imp aghb put, do with; 
KyA^ oHa -^ajia pyqKy? where 
has she put the pen?, what 
has she done with the pen?; 
OH He 3HaeT, Ky^a ~aTb CBoe 

BpeMH [CBOH AeHbFH U TU. tl.] 

he does not tcnow what to do 
with his time [money, etc]\ 
<> ~aTb HCKyAa col plenty 
of, lots of. 

ACBlaTbCfl [d^'i^vattja] perf 
& imperf -aKx:b, -aeiubCH, 
flCTbCM [d^ettja] perf Aenycb, 
AeneuibCH, p A^Jicfi, AeJiacb, 
imp AGHbCH, AeHbTecb 1. dis- 
appear, get to; KyAa ~ajicH 
6jiokh6t? where has the pad 
disappeared / got to?; KyA^ 
'-aJiCH MHuia? what has be- 
come of Misha?; where has 
Misha disappeared?; 2.: eMV 
HeKyAa -^-aibCH he has no- 
where to go; OH He 3HaeT, xyAa 
~aTbC5i OT nocexHTejieft he 
does not know how to escape 
from visitors; oh ne snaex, 
KyA^ -—^TbCH OT CTbiAa he 
does not know what to do 
with himself for shame. 

AeBOH|Ka [d^ev9ch'*k9]/ -KH, 
-CK (little) girl. 

AeByui|Ka [d^evushks] / -kh, 
-CK girl, lass. 

;ieBHH6cT|o [d^'iv^i^nosta] 
num card -a ninety. 

ACBHHocTbiJi [d^iv^i^nostty] 
num ord ninetieth. 

AeB^TJKa [d^'i^v^atka] /-KH, 
K)K nine (a figure). 

AeBflTHaAuaTbiH [d^iv^i^t- 
nattsatty] num ord nine- 

AeBHTHaAUarlb [d^iv^i^t- 
ndtt§at^, -d^] num card -h, 
-bK) nineteen. 

AeBMTbiH [d^i^v^atjy] num 
ord ninth. 

AeBflxlb [d^ew^ii^ , -d^] num 
card -h, -bib nine. 

AeBHTbcoT [d^iv''i^tss6t,.-d] 
num card AesHTHcoT, AeeHXH- 
cxaM, — , AeeHTbKDcxaMH, (o) 
AeBHXHCxax nine hundred. 

AerjOTb [d^ogat'', -d^] m -xh 
(-TK)) tar, pitch. 

AeA [d^et, -d] m -a, -ob 1. 
granddad, grandfather; 2. col 
old man; 

<> ~-M0p63 Father Frost; Fa- 
ther Christmas, Santa Glaus. 

AeAyuiJKa [d^edushka] m 
-KH, -CK granddad. 

AewyplHTb [d^'i^zhur^it^] 
imperf -k), -Huib, p -hji, imp 
-b 1. be on duty; 2. watch 
(beside a sick-bed, etc). 

AemypHbiH [d^i^zhurniy] 1 
a on duty; ^ 

11 as a noun AejKypHJbiH 
m -oro, -bix one on duty; -^ 
no cxaHUHH assistant station- 

AcaepTHp [d^'iz^i^rt^'ir] m 
-a, -OB deserter. 

Ae3HH(t)^KUHiji fd**iz''inf''ek- 
tsiya] / -H, -H disinfection. 
^AeHCTBHle [d^'eys^t^v^iya] 
n -H, pi -H, -H 1. action, 
operation; Mecxo -~h scene of 
action; npHBOAHTb b ~e put 
in action; BBOAHXb s ~e put 
into effect, implement (a law, 
etc)\ 2. action, deed; pi also 

- 95 — 


activities, activity; conduct, 
behaviour; 3. effect {of a med- 
icine, etc); 4. act {of a play); 
5. math operation; nexbipe 
-—H apH4)MeTHKH tlic fouT rules 
of arithmetic; 

<> BoeHHbie — H hostilities, 
military operations; CBoSoAa 
--H a free hand. 

flCHCTBHTejibHo [d^i^ys^t^- 
vMt^'iPna] I adv really; 
11 parenth really, indeed, to 
tell the truth. 

fleftcTBHTejibHocTlb [d^i^y- 
s^t'v^it^il^nas^t^, -z^d^] / -h 

fleficTBHTejibHJbiH [d^'i^y- 
s^t^v^it^il^niy] a sh f ach- 
CTBHTejieH, -a, -o -bi 1. real, 
actual, true; 2. valid, avail- 
able {ticket, etc); 
<> -~biH 3aji6r ling active 
voice; ~biH HJien AKaACMHH 
HayK Member of the Academy 
of Sciences; —aa cjiyjKSa mil 
active service. 

fl,eFCTB| 0BaTb[ d^eystyvat*"] 
imperf -yio, -yeiiib, p -oeaJi, 
imp -yft, noifleHCTBOBaTb [pA- 
d^eystyvat^] perf 1. {no perf) 
act; work, function; run {of 
a machine); pa^HonpHeMHHK 
He —yei the radio set is out 
of order; 2. have an effect 
{on); take effect; sto JieKap- 
CTBO xopoiuo -—yex this med- 
icine is efficacious; this med- 
icine has a favourable effect 
{on smb). 

flCHCTByiomlHH [d^eystvuyu- 
sh^riy] a [pa] -an, -ee, -He: 
~HH saKOH law in force; ~aH 
MOA^Jib working model; 
^O' ~ee jiHi;6 character {of a 

play, etc); —aa apMHa army 
in the field. 

AeKa6p|b [d^i^kabr*"] m -ji 

ACKaflla [d^'i^kada] / -bi ^ 
ten-day period. 

flCKaH [d^i^kan] m -a, -ob 
dean {of a faculty). 

ACKaHar [d^ikAnat, -d] m 
-a, -OB dean's office {at a fac- 

AeKopauHJfl [d^ikAratsiya] 
/ -H, -ft theat scenery. ^ 

ACKpex [d^i^kr^et, -d] m 
-a, -OB decree {of the govern- 
ment, etc). 

Acji [d^'el], ACJia [d^ela] p of 
Aexb; see Aesaxb. 

ACJijaxb [d^'elat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiub, clACJiaxb [z'M^e- 
laf*] perf 1. make, produce; 
2. do {act); oh Bce ~aex no- 
-CBoeMy he does everything in 
his own peculiar way; he has 
everything his own way; 3. 
do {one's work, lessons, etc); 
make {an attempt, mistake, 
report, etc); — -axb yxpeHHioio 
THMHacxHKy do morning exer- 
cises; cAeJiaxb bh3hx pay a 
visit /call; — axbSbiroBop re- 
primand, reprove; 
O ~axb necxb KOMy-ji. [ne- 
My-ji.] do credit to smb [smth]; 
— axb BHA pretend, feign; 
--axb Henero it can't be help- 
ed; ox Henero -^axb col to 
while away the time. 

ACJilaxbCfl [d^'elattsa] imperf 
-aiocb, -aeiubCH, c:AeJiaxbca 
[z^d^elattsa] perf 1. become, 
grow, get {also impers); ~aex- 
CH npoxJiaAHo it's getting 
cool; 2. go on, happen; mxo 


96 - 

3Aecb —aexcH? what's going 
on here?, what's up here? 

ACjierar ' [d^iPi^gat, -d] m 
-a, -OB delegate. 

AejierauH(ji [d^il^i^gatstya] 
/ -H, -H delegation (a group);' 
B cocTaee —h on a delega- 

AejieHHJe [d^i^l^en^iya] n 
-H, -H 1. division {the act of); 
2. point {of a scale); ynacib 

[nOAHHTbCH] Ha ipH ~H gO 

down [up] three points. 

flejijeu, [d^i^Petj, -dz] m 
-bua, -buoB business man. 

flejiHKaTH|biH [d^iPikatnty] 
a sh f AeJiHKaieH, -a, -o, -bi 
1. delicate, tactful, consider- 
ate; 2. delicate, ticklish. 

Aeji|HTb [d'^i^Pit'^] imperf 
-K), AejiHUib. p -HJi, imp -h, 
noJAejiHTb [pad'^i'^l'^it^] perf, 
pasJAejiHTb [raz^d*'i*^l^it''] per} 
1. divide {into parts, etc); 
'-HTb Ha... divide by {a cer- 
tain number); ~HTb noposHy 
divide equally, divide into 
equal parts; ~HTb nono.iaM 
divide into halves; 2. (pas^e- 
JiHTb) fig share {with smb); 
-^HTb c KCM-Ji. rope [paAocTb 
u m. n.] share smb's grief 
[joy, etc]. 

Aeji|MTbCJi [d^i^l^ittja] im- 
perf -K)Cb, Ae/lHUibCH, p -HJICH, 

-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb, 
noiAeJiHTbCfl [psd^i^l^ittsa] 
perf, pa3:AejiHTbC5i [raz^dM^- 
Pitts9] perf 1. (pasAeJiHTbCH) 
divide {of a stream, certain 
number); be divided; 2. (no- 
AejiHTbCH) fig share {smth 
with smb); tell {one's impres- 
sions, etc); confide {in smb). 

AejifO [d''ela] n -a, pi -a, 
~, -ajvi 1. work {activity); 
~o cnopHTCH the work is in 
full swing; 2. affair, business; 
concern {of mine, domestic, 
etc); y mchh k eaivi ~o I have 
some business with you; 
y Hero mhofo ~ he has many 
things to do; ne BMGiiiHBaiicH 
He B CBoe —0 mind your own 
business; 3. deed, act; AoSpoe 
~o good deed; c^ejiaxb 6o;ib- 
moe ~o achieve a great feat; 
4. cause {of peace, of the 
working class, etc); 5.: HH>Ke- 
nepHoe —o engineering; cJie- 
capHoe —0 metal working; 
cTOJiapHoe —o joinery; anarb 
CBoe — o know one's job; 6. 
case {in a court); 7. {mostly 
pi) the state of affairs; things; 
KaK ~a? how are you?, how 
are you getting on?, how do 
matters stand?; Kan BaujH 
~a? how are you getting on?; 
ero ~a hjioxh things are bad 
with him; he is rather poor- 
ly; 8. matter {of habit, taste, 
of great importance, etc); b 
MeM ~o? what is the matter?; 
9. file, dossier; Jiri^Hoe — o 
personal file; {smb's) record; 
<0> 3a ~o according to one's/ 
smb's deserts; eMy nonajio 
3a -~o he got his deserts; 
Ha ~e in fact, in reality; in- 
deed; Ha caMOM JKC -^e but 
in fact; but the fact is (that...); 
B caMOM ^e? really?, you 
don't say so!; -~o e tom, hto... 
the point /thing is that...; 
B t6m-to h ~o, hto... the 
whole point is that.,.; He 
B 3T0M --0 that's not the 

97 — 


point; TO H ~-o perpetually, 
incessantly; every now and 
then; He y ^ out of service, 
out of work; nepebiM ~om 
in the first instance, first of 
all, first thing; roBopHTb ~o 
col talk sense; HivieTb -~-o 
c KCM-ji. have to do with smb; 
KaKoe eiviy —gag aTcro! what 
does he care for this!; bot 
810 ~o! (that'-) good!; axo 
--o ero pyK this is his hand- 
iwork; it's his doings; 6jih- 
we K ~y! come to the point!, 
stop beating about the bush! 

flCJioBOH [d'^ilAvoy] a 1. busi- 
ness; ~ paaroBOp talk on 
business matters; 2. busi- 
ness-like, efficient. 

AeJicfl [d^'els^'a], flejiacb 
[d°ebs^, -z^] p of ;teTbCH; 
see fleeaTbc.'i. 

jiejibHlbiH [d^'ePniyj a 1. 
efficient, business-like; 2.: 
--biH paaroBOp serious talk; 
'--biH coBer practical advice; 
'-an MbicJib sensible idea; 
-~oe npeA^OH^eHHe sensible/ 
practical proposal. 

AeMHJiHTapHaauHJH [d^'im^i- 
Pitar'^izatstya] / -h demili- 

AeMo6HJiH3au,H|n [d^imab'^i- 
Pizatslya] / -h demobiliza- 

AeMOKpaTHHecKJHH [d^ima- 
krAt^ich^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, 
-He democratic. 

AeM0KpaTH|5i [d^imAkra- 
t^iya] / -H democracy; crpaHbi 
HapoAHOH ~H People's De- 

ACMOHCTpauHlfl [d^imAnstra- 
^tya] / -H 1. demonstration, 

parade; 2. display, show, 

AeHe}KH|biH [d^en^izhniy] 
a monetary, pecuniary; —bin 
nepeBOA money order; b —om 
Bbipa>KeHHH in terms of mon- 

ACHy [d^enu], Aeneiub [d''e- 
n^ish, -zh] ht & 2nd per- 
sons of AGTb; see Aesaib. 

Aenycb [d^enus^, -z**], Ae- 
HeiubCfl [d^en''ishs''9] 1st & 
2nd persons of Aexbcn; see 

AeHb I [d^'en^] m AHH, ahk), 

— , AHCM, (O) AHe, pi AHH, 

AH eft, AHHM day; b stot — on 
this day; on that day; na 
cJieAywmHH — (the) next day; 
3ar~.-:^~~Ao... a day before...; 
qepe3 ~ every other day; the 
day after tomorrow; e tph 
qaca ahh at 3 p. m., at three 
in the afternoon; ~ po>KAe- 
HHH birthday; 

<> AoSpwH --! good morning!; 
good afternoon!; hbo aha b -^ 
day in, day out; co ahh na 
ACHb 1) from day to day; 2) 
any day {in the future); ~ oto 
AHH with every passing day; 
Ha AHflx 1) the other day, 
recently; 2) one of these days, 
in a day or two; ~ h H04b 
all the time; Tpexbcro ahh 
the day before yesterday; 
fleHb-AeHbCKOH col all day 
long; cHHTaHHwe ahh very 
little time, very few days. 

AeHb II [d^en^] imp o/Aeib; 
see AeeaTb. 

AeHbrJH [d^en^g^i] pi Ae- 
ner, -aM money; Kpynnue -^h 
big bank-notes; 


<> HH 3a KaKHe ~h col not 

for the world, not for any- 

AeHbcsi [d^en^s**8], AeHbxecb 
[d'^en^'t^is'', -z^] imp 0/ Aeib- 
ch; see AesaxbCH. 

jienyxat [d^iputat, -d] m -a, 
-OB deputy {of the Supreme 
Soviet, etc). 

Aeprjaib [d^'orgat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiub, AepHJyxb [d^or- 
nut^] perf -y, -eiub, p -yji, 
imp -H 1. pull, tug; 2. {no 
perf) pull out {teeth);. 3. {no 
perf) fig harass, worry. 

AepeEeHCK|Hfi [d^'ir^i^v^en- 
sk'^iy] a -an, -oe, -He rural; 
— HH >iHreJib villager, coun- 

Aep6BH|H [d^i^r^evn^a] /-h, 
pi -H, AepeR^Hb, -HM village. 

fl^peBJo [d^er^iva] n -a, pi 
;;epeBbH, AepesbeB 1. tree; 
XBOHHoe —o conifer; jiHcxBen- 
Hoe ~o foliage tree; 2. wood 
{as a material). 

flepeBMHHbiH [d^ir'^i^v^an- 
niy] a wooden. 

Aepmaela [d^i^rzhava] / -bi, 
-- power, state (a country). 

jiepwl^xb [d^i^rzhat''] im- 
perf -y, A^ipJKHUib, p -an, imp 
-H hold {]) in the hand, etc; 
2) the head straight, etc; 3) 
in readiness, etc); keep (/) 
hands in the pockets, etc; 2) 
smth in order; 3) a dog, etc); 
<> -^aib 3K3aMeH take an 
examination; — axb nyxb e... / 
Ha... head for..., make for...; 
be bound for...; ~axb nypc 
Ha... 1) head for...; 2) fig 
pursue a course of...; —axb 
ce6fl behave, conduct oneself 

{in some way); —axb asbiK 
sa 3y6aMM col hold one's 

Aep}K|axbCJi [d^i^rzhattsa] 
imperf -ycb, Aep^nmbCH, p 
-ajiCH, -aJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb 1. hold on {to smth); 
2. rest {on), be held {by), be 
supported {by); 3. behave, 
conduct oneself; 4. stand 
firm, hold out; hold one's 

<> —axbcfl B cxopGHe 1) stand 
aside; 2) fig keep aloof; ejie 
--axbcfl Ha Horax be on one's 
last legs. 

liepsKHM [d^ersk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f AepsoK, -a, -o, 
-H 1. impertinent, saucy; 2. 
daring, bold {plan, etc). 

AepMCb [d'^i^r^is'', -z^], ac- 
pHxecb [d'^i^r^it^is^, -z^j see 


Aepnyxb see Aepraxb 1. 

Aepycb [d'^i^rus*', -z^], jxe- 
penjbCH [d^i'^r^oshs^a] see 

AecaHx [d^i^sant, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. landing (0/ troops); 
BbicajKHBaxb — make a land- 
ing, land troops; 2. landing 
force / party. 

Aecepx [d^i^s^ert, -d] m -a 

ACCHla [d^i^sna] / -bi, pi 
AecHbi< AeceH, AecnaM gum 
{around the teeth), 

Aecnox [d^'espat, -d] m -a, 
-oB despot. 

Aec5ixH66pb|e [d^'is^it'^ibd' 
r'^ya] n -h sport decathlon. 

Aecjix|Ka [d^'i^s'^atka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. ten {a figure); 2. col 
ten-rouble note. 



flecnTJOK [d^i^s^atak, -g] m 
'Ka, pi -KH, -KOB 1. ten 
{1) ten similar objects; 2) pi 
the number next to the unit); 
2. pi scores, dozens. 

;;ecflTbiH [d^i^s^'atty] nam 
ord tenth. 

AecjiT|b [d^es^it^, -d^] num 
card -H, -bK) ten. 

;ieTaji|b [d^'i'^tal^] / -h, -efi 
1. detail; 2. technol part, 

AeT'iH [d^et^i] pi -efl, -hm, 
-eft, -bMii, (o) -HX {sing ah- 
Ta n) children. 

AeicKJHH [d^'etjk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He children's, child's, 
childish; infantile; 
<> -~HH ca^ kindergarten; 
-~aji njiom^AKa playground. 

AeTCTBJo [d^'etjtva] n -a 

<> Bna;jaTb b ~o become a 
dotard, be in one's dotage. 

ACTb see Aeeaxb. 

AeTbCH see AeeaTbcn. 

Ae4)eKT [d^i^Pekt, gd] m 
-a, -OB blemish, defect. 

AeuieBJeTbfd^ishf^v^et^] im- 
perf -eei, noJAemeBeTb [pad^i- 
sht^v^'et^'J perf become cheap- 
er, fall in price. 

AeuieBJie [d^i^shevPi] comp 
of AemeBbiH & corresp adv. 

AeineBO [d^'oshava] adv 
cheap {also fig); 3to oqenb 
^ it's very cheap; -- OTAe- 
jiaTbCH get off cheap. 

AeiueBJbiH [d^i^shoviy] a 
sh f AemeB, AemeBa, AemeBo, cheap {also fig); — ^bie 
ueHbi low prices. 

Ae5iTeji|b [d^eyat**!!^] m -h, 
•efl: oSmecTBeHHuft --b public 

figure / worker; noJiHTH^ecKHH 
~b political figure; — b na- 
yKH scholar, man of science; 
--H Kyjibxypbi cultural work- 

AeflTejibHOCTJb [d^eyat^il**- 
nas^t^, -z^d^] / -h activities, 
activity; oSmecToeHHaH ~b 
social work. 

ACflTejibH I MM [d^eyat^il'^nty] 
a sh f AenxeJieH, -a, -o, -bi 
energetic, active; npHHHMaxb 
~oe y^acxHe b... take an 
active part in... 

Awa3 [dzhas, -z] m -a, -ob 

AweMnep [dzhemper] m -a, 
-OB jumper; pull-over. 

AHaroHajijb [d^iagAnal^] / 
-H, -eft diagonal. 

AHarpaMMJa [d^iAgramma] / 
-bi, -- graph, diagram. 

AHajieKx [d^iAl'^ekt, -gd] m 
-a, -OB dialect. 

f -H dialectics. 

AHajicKTHHecKJHH [d^ia- 
l^i^kt^ich^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, 
-He dialectical. 

AHaMexp [d^iam^'itr] m -a, 
-OB diameter. 

AHBaH [d^ivan] m -a, -ob 

AHBCpcaHx [d^iv^i^rsant, -d] 
m -a, -oB wrecker, saboteur. 

ahbh3h6h [d^iv^iz^ion] m 
-a, -OB mil battery; 6^5 
(artillery) battalion. 

AHbh3m|ji [d^iv^iz^iya] / 
-H, ft mil division. 

AHex|a [d^ieta] / -bi diet 
{special food). 

AHseHxepHJfl [d^iz^in'^t^i®- 
r^iya] / -h dysentery. 



AHKap|b [d^ikar''] m-A, -eft 
1. savage; 2. fig very shy 
fellow/ person. 

AHk|hh [d^ik^iy] a -aH, -oe, 
-He, sh f —, -a, -o, -Hwild, 
savage; shy, unsociable; out- 
rageou*^, preposterous; '-aa 
MecTHocTb wilderness; --Hfi 
KpHK yell, scream. 

flHKTaTyp|a [d^'iktAtura] / 
-bi dictatorship. 

AHKTloBaTb [d^'iktAvat''] 
imperf -yio, -yeiiib, p -oeaji, 
imp -yfl, npoJAHKTOBaTb [pra- 
d^iktAvat''] perf dictate. 

AHKTOp [d'^iktar] m -a, -od 
announcer {in broadcasting), 
flHOJioM [d^iplom] m-a, -ob 
diploma; HMexb — o6 okoh- 
qaHHH Bysa be a university 
[college] graduate. 

AHnjioMax [d^'iplAmat, -d] 
m -a, -OB diplomat. 

;iHnjioMaTH4ecK|Hft [d^ipla- 
mAt''ich.^isk*'iy] a -an, -oe, 
-He diplomatic. 

AHpeKTHB|a [d^ir**i^kt**iv9] 
/ -H, ~ directive, instruc- 

AHpcKTOp [d^ir^ektar] m -a, 
pi -a, -OB director, manager. 
AHpeKU,H|fl [d^ir'^ektjiya] / 
-H, -ft management (persons); 
director's / manager's office. 
AHpHHcep [d^'ir^izhor] m -a, 
-OB conductor {of an orches- 

AHpHWHploeaTb [d'*ir'*izht- 
ravat''] imperf -yio, -yeuib, 
p -osaji, imp -yfi conduct {an 

AHCK [d^isk, -zg] m -a, -ob 
disk; discus; dial (o/ a tele- 

AHCKpeAHTHploeaTb [d^isk- 
r^id^if'iravat*^] perf & imperf 
-yro, -yemb, p -osaJi, imp -yft 
discredif, disgrace. 

AHCKpHMHHau,H{$i [d^iskr^'i- 
m^'inatjiya] / -h discrimina- 

AHCKyccHlsi [d^iskus^iya] / 
-H, -ft discussion, debate 
{mostly scientific). 

AHcnaHcep [d^ispAnser] m 
-a, -OB dispensary {for the 
prevention and treatment of 
tuberculosis, veneric diseases, 

flHcncTHep [d^'isp^et^ch^'ir] 
m -a, -OB (traffic) dispatcher. 
AHcnyx [d^'isput, -d] m -a, 
-OB (public) debate. 

AHCceprauH,! « [d^is^i^rta- 
t§iya] / -H, -ft thesis, disser- 

AHCu,HnjiMH|a I [d^'istsipl'^i- 
na] / -bi discipline {military, 
school, etc). 

AHCi;HnjiHH|a II [d^istjip- 
l^ina] / -bi, — subjecT, a 
branch of science. 

AHT« [d^'it^'a] n {pi acth) 
child, baby. 

AHHJb [d^'ich^, -j^] /' -H 
game {wild animals and 

AJiHH|a [dl^ina] / -bi length; 
B -^y lengthwise; ~6ft b ceMb 
MexpoB seven metres long. 

AJiHHHJbiH [dl^innty] a sh f 
AJiHHeH, -a, -o (-6), -bi (-bi) 
long (/) street, hair, e:c; 
2) legs, etc; 3) story, etc). 

AJiHTejibHJbiH [dl'^it^il^'niyj 
a sh f A^HTeJien, -a, -o, u 
lasting, enduring; long, pro* 

— 101 — 


AJiH|Thcsi [dPittsa] imperf 
-TCH, p -JiCH, -Jiacb, npoj- 
AJiHTbCH [pFAdl^ittsa] perf 
last, continue {for some time). 

AJ15I [dl^a; in the first pre- 
tonic position — dPi^; in the 
second and other pretonic po- 
sitions — dl**i] prep with gen 
denoting 1. purpose, aim, or 
intention: npH66p -- H3Mepe- 
HHH TeMneparypbi instrument 
for' measuring temperature; 
Bbi M6>KeTe c;tejiaTb sto — - 
MeHH? can you do it for me?; 
OHa c^eJiajia 9To ~ cbma she 
did it for her son's sake; oh 
npHiueJi — o6cy}KAeHHH sToro 
Bonp6ca he's come to discuss 
this matter; hu;hk --- nHceM 
letter-box; 2. fitness or suita- 
bility: 3T0 Bpe^HO ~ SAOpOBbH 

this is bad for the health; 
§To He nojixoj^m ~ nero this 
won't do for him; 3. the fact 
that certain conditions and 
circumstances are considered: 
oqeHb xojioAHO" — OAeccbi it 
is very cold for Odessa; §to 
THnHHHO ~ Hee this is typi- 
cal of her; 9to HMeex 6oJib- 
moe 3HaMeHHe ~ nac it is of 
great importance to us; 
<> He jiJia Hero... col it's no 
use {doing smth). 

AHa [dna] see flHo. 

flHeBHHK [d'h^i^vn^ik, -^] m 
-a, -6b 1. diary; BecxH — 
keep a diary; 2. pupil's day- 
-book, homework and marks 

AHeBH|6H [d^n^i^vnoy] a 1. 
day {attr); '-aH CMena day- 
-shift; ~6h cneKiaKJib mati- 
nee; ~6h CBex daylight; 

fluorescent lighting; 2. daily 
{quota, earnings, etc). 

AHCM 1 [d^n^om] adt; by d^y, 
in the day-time; in the after- 
noon; ceroAHH '- this after- 
noon; BMepa — yesterday 
afternoon; saBipa -- tomor- 
row afternoon. 

AHCM II [d^n'^om] see ACHb. 

AHO [dno] n ^na 1. bottom 
{of the sea, etc); nycKaxb ko 
AHy sink, send to the bottom; 

2. {pi AOHbH, AOHbCB, AOHbHM) 

bottom {of a container). 

AHfl [d^n^a], AHCH [d^n^'ey] 
see AGHb. 

AC [do; in the first pretonic 
position — dA; in the second 
and other pretonic positions — 
da] prep with gen denoting 
1. distance, extent, limit of 
time, etc: ox MocKBbi j\o Jle- 
HHHrpaAa mecxbcox nnxbAe- 
cflx KHJiOMexpoB it is 650 km 
from Moscow to Leningrad; 
Ao BnyKOBa A^CHXb khjiomcx- 
poB it is ten km to Vnukovo; 
51 6yAy H<AaTb ao hhxh qacoB 
I'll be waiting till five 
(o'clock); H >KAaJi Bac c xpex 
AO nnxH I waited for you from 
three to five; ox ccmh ao ag- 


u m. n.] from seven to ten 
books [kilometres, days,e^c]; 
AO Baiuero BOSBpameHHH until 
you return; noesxc^ftxe ao 
Kp^CHofi nji6maAH go as far 
as the Red Square; i66Ka ao 
KOJien a skirt reaching the 
knees; a^xh ao mecxnaAuaxH 
jiex children under sixteen; 
AO AecHXH KHJiorpaMM up to / 
no more than ten kg;A0K0H- 


— 102 

ua to the end; ao 66jih till 
one feels a pain; 2. precedence 
in .time: ao peBOJiibuHH before 
the revolution; 3a nojinacaAO 
KOHuepxa half an hour before 
the concert. 

flo... pref I of verbs denot- 
ing 1. completion of an action, 
achievement of a goal, result, 
etc: AoroBopHTb [dagavAr^it^j 
finish speaking; AoSejKaib [d9- 
b^i^zhaf*] run as far as, reach 
{runn/ngy, AosBOHHTbCH [da- 
zvAn^ittja] get a call through; 
2. replenishment till smth is 
complete: AonoJiy^HTb [dapa- 
luch^'it^] receive in addition, 
receive the remaining {things, 
etc); 3. negative result: oh 
AonpbiraJiCH! col it serves 
him right!, now he has done 

II of adjectives denoting pre- 
cedence in time: AOpesojiK)- 
UHOHHbiH [dar^'ival^'utjionniy] 

Ao6aBHTb see Ao6aBJiHTb. 

io6aBJieHH|e [dabAvl^e- 
n'^iya] n -h, -h addition 
(/) the act of; 2) the thing 
added); appendix, addendum. 

Ao6aBJi|flTb [dabAvl'^at^] 
imperf -hio, -Heuib, Ao6aBiHTb 
[dAbav^it^] perf -jik), -Huib, 
p -HJi, imp -b add {1) one 
thing to another; 2) say fur- 

Ao6aBOHHbiH [dAbavach^- 
nty] a additional, supplemen- 

Ao6HB|aTbCfl [dab^ivattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, ao- 
6|MTbcji [dAb^ittsa] perf-bKich, 
-beUIbCH, p -HJICH, -HAacb, 

imp -eHCH, -CHTecb achieve, 
obtain, secure, score, get; 
imperf also strive for, seek. 

Ao6Hp|aTbCfl [dab^'irattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, ao- 
6|paTbcsi [dAbrattja] perf -e- 
pycb, -epeujbCH, p -paJicH, -pa- 
Jiacb, -paJiocb (-pajiocb), -pa- 
JiHCb (-paJiHCb), imp -epncb, 
-epHxecb: ---aTbCH ao get to, 
reach, get as far as; ~aTbCH 
AO AOMy get / reach home. 

Ao6HTbCJ! see A66HBaTbCH. 

Ac6paTbCJi see Ao6HpaTbCH. 

Ao6pi6 I [dAbro] n -a 1. 
good {opposite of evil); me- 
jiaTb ^a KOMy-Ji. wish smb 
well; 2. property, goods; 
<> HCT xyAa 663 ~a prov ^ 
every cloud has a silver lin- 

Ao6p6 II [dAbro] adv: ^ 
noH^ajioBaxb! welcome! 

AoSpoBOJilei^ [dabrAv6Pit§, 
-dz] m -bu,a, -bucB volunteer. 

Ao6poB6jibH|biH [dabrAvoP- 
niy] a sh f AoSpoBOJien, -a, 
-0, -bi voluntary. 

Ao6pOAeTeji|b [dabrAd^e- 
f'll*'] / -H, -eft virtue {good- 
ness, moral excellence). 

Ao6pOAyuiHlbiH [dabrAdush- 
nty] a sh f Ao6pOAymeH, -a, 
-0, -bi good-natured. 

Ao6po}KejiaTejibH|biH [dabra- 
zhi^lat^il^niy] a sh f Ao6po- 
jKejiareJieH, -a, -o, -bi benev- 
olent, kind, well-disposed, 
well-wishing; — oe OTHOiue- 
HHe benevolence, goodwill. 

Ao6poKaqecTBeHH|biH [da- 
brAkach^is^t^v^mnty] a sh f 
Ao6poKaHecTBeH, -a, -o, -bi of 
high /good quality. 

-^ 103 — 


Ao6poc6BecTH|HH [d9brAs6- 
v^isnly] a sh f ;i,o6poc6Be- 
CTCH, -a, -o, -bi conscientious. 

AoSpoTHlbiH [dAbrotniy] a 
sh f Ao6p6TeH, -a, -o, -bi of 
high / good quality and du- 

AoSpIbiH [dobriy] a sh /^, 
-a, -0, -bi (-bi) kind, good 
{people, etc); —bie jiioah no- 
MorJiH MHe some kind / nice 
people helped me; 
<> 6yAb(Te) ~(bi) please, be 
so kind as to...; ecero -~-oroI 
good-bye!; no —oft eojie of 
one's own free will. 

Ao6biBiaTb[d9blvat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiub, Ao6|biTb [dAbft''] 
perf -yAy, -yAeuib, p -biJi 
(A66biJi), -biJia, -bijio (A66biJio), 
-h'lJiH (A66biJiH) , imp -yAb 1. get, 
obtain, procure; 2. mine, 
extract (mmera/s, etc). 

AodbiHJa [dAbkh^s] / -h 

1. extraction {of minerals, 
etc); output {of minerals, etc); 

2. booty, loot; plunder; spoils; 
catch {of fish); bag {of game); 
cTaTb — efi... fall a prey to... 

AOBCSTH see AoeosHTb. 

AOBepeHHocT|b [dAv^er^m- 
nas^'t^, -z^d*"] / -h, -efi power 
of attorney; warrant {to get 
money, etc, for smb). 

AOBepHle [dAv^er^iya] n -h 
confidence, faith, trust; a vote 
of confidence; nHTaxb --e k 
KOMy-Ji. have confidence/ faith 
in smb; OKasbieaTb KOMy-ji. 
^e give one's confidence to 
smb; nojibsoeaTbCH qbHM^Ji. 
'-CM enjoy srab's confidence; 
sacjiyscHsaTb ~h be trust- 
worthy; BKpaCTbCH B — 6 K 

KOMy-Ji. worm oneself into 
smb's confidence. 

AOBCpHTb see AoeepHTb 1. 

AOBepHHB|biH [dAv^er^ch^i- 
viy] a sh f --, -a, -o, -bi 
trustful; credulous. 

AOBepjflTb [dav^i^r^at^] im- 
perf -HK), -Hemb, AOB^pJHTb 

[dAV^er^it^] perf -lo, -Hiub, p 
-HJi, imp -b 1. entrust; 2. 
{no perf) trust, place confi- 
dence {in). 

AOBecTH see AoeoAHTb. 

AOBOA [dovat, -d] m -a, -ob 
argument, reason. 

AoBOA|HTb [davAd^it^] im- 

-HJi, imp -H, AOBe|cTH [da- 
^bjCgb^bq p^f.^ .^^^ -Aeuib, p 

AOBeJi, -Ji6, imp -ah 1. lead 
{smb as far as, to); see {smb 
as far as,^ to); 2. bring {to 
perfection, to an end, etc); re- 
duce {to poverty, despair, etc); 
drive {to tears, despair, etc); 


Koro-Ji. inform smb of smth, 
let smb know smth. 

AOBlcsHTb [davAz^it^] im- 
perf -OHCy, -OSHmb, p -03HJ1, 

imp -03H, aobcsIth [dav^i^s^- 
t^i] perf -y, -eiiib, p aobcs, 
-Jia, imp -H take {as far as, 
to; in a vehicle); bring {as 
far as, to; in a vehicle); carry 
{as far as, to; in a vehicle). 

AOBOJibHo [dAvol'nal I adv 
1. rather, quite, fairly; 2. 

II impers predic: --! 1) that 
will do!, it's enough!; 2) stop 
it!; ^ cnopHTb! stop arguing! 

AOBOJibHlbiJf [dAvol^niy] a 
sh f AOBOJieH, -a, -o, -m 


— 104 — 

1. content, satisfied; pleased; 
H oqeHb AOBOJieH I'm very 
glad, I'm highly pleased; 

2. contented, satisfied {look, 

AoraAaxbCJi see AO^a;^b^ 


florafllKa [dAgatlo] / -kh, 
-OK conjecture, guess; 
<> TepflTbCM B '-Kax be lost 
in conjectures. 

floraAJiHB|biH [dAgad^Piviy] 
Or sh f ~-, -a, -0, -bi quick- 
witted; shrewd, quick, bright. 

floraAbiB|aTbcji [dAgadtva- 
ttsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 
AoraAlaxbcsi [dagAdattja] perf 
-aiocb, -aeuibCJi guess, con- 
jecture; suspect, surmise. 

AorHaib see AoroHHTb 2. 

AoroBdpHB|aTbCJi [dagAva- 
r^ivsttja] imperf -aiocb, -a- 
euibCH, floroBoplHTbcsi [daga- 
VAr^ittja] perf -ibcb, -HuibCH, 

p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, p -HCb, 

-HTecb 1. arrange {with smb 
about smth, for smth); 2. {no 
perf) negotiate {about)', 3.; 
AoroBopHTbCH fl,o a6cypAa 
reach the point of uttering 
an absurdity, fall into absurd- 
ity; 4. {no imperf) come to 
an agreement; AoroBOpHJiHCb? 

AoroBop [dagAvor] m -a, pi 
-hi, -OB treaty, pact; agree- 
ment, contract; ^ o Hena- 
naAeHHH non-aggression pact. 

AoroBopeHHocT|b [dagavA- 
r^onnas^t'', -z^d^] / -h agree- 
ment, arrangement, under- 

AorcBopHTbcsi see Aorosa- 
pHsaTbca 1, 3, 4. 

AoroH|flTb [dagAn^at^] im- 
perf -HK), -Heuib, AorJHaTb 
[dAgnat^] perf -ohk), -ohhiul, 
p -HaJi, -Hajia, -najio, -uaJiH, 
imp -OHH 1. {no perf) be aft- 
er, run after; 2. {no imperf) 
overtake, catch up (with) 
{also fig); 

<> AorH^Tb H nepernaTb over- 
take and outstrip. 

AOXAlb [dosh^:, -zh**:] m 
-H, -en rain; hact —b it's 
raining, it rains; hact npo- 
JiHBHOH ~b it's pouring; it 

AoiilTb [dAit^] imperf aok), 
AOHUib (-iiib), p -Ji, imp --, 
nojAOHTb [padAit^] perf milk 
(a cow). 

AofixH see AOXOAHTb. 

AOKasdTejibCTBJo [dakAza- 
t^'il^stva] n -a, -- 1. proof, 
evidence; demonstration {of), 
testimony {of); b --o in wit- 
ness {of); npHBOAHTb —a give 
evidence / proof(s); 2. math 

<> BemecTBeHHbie '■^a mate- 
rial evidence. 

AOKasarb see AOKaauBaTb. 

A0Kd3biB|aTb [dAkazivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, AOKajsaTb 
[dakAzat^] perf -Hcy, AOKa- 
^eiub, p -3aji, imp -thk prove, 
demonstrate; imperf also 
argue {that...); 

<> HTO H Tp660BaJ10Cb AOKE- 

3dTb which was to be proved. 
AOKJiaA [dAklat, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. report, lecture; paper 
{on a scientific subject); ot- 
qeTHbiH ^ (main) report {at 
a conference, congress); 2. re- 
port {to one's chief)] 

— 105 -^ 


-0- -6e3 ^a He exoAHTb no 

admittance without previous 

AOKjiaAHHK [dAkiat^'ch^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob lecturen (main) 

AOKJiaAWBlaxb [dAkladtvat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, A0Ji03K|HTb 
[dalAzhlt^] perf -y, ;ioji6- 
acHiub, p -HJi, imp -ri 1. re- 
port {on smih), make a re- 
port {on smth); 2. report 
{smb or smth to smb), inform 
{of smth); 3. announce (sm6's 
arrival, etc). 

AOKTOp [doktsr] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB 1. doctor, physician; 
2. doctor {a degree). 

AOKyM^HT [dakum'ent, -d] 
m -a, -OB document, paper. 

AOJiSjiiTb [dAlb^'it^] imperf 

-JIK), -HLUb, p -HJI, imp :H 

hollow {a depression in smth); 
gouge, chisel. 

AOJir [dolk, -g] m -a (-y), 
pi -H, -OB 1. duty {to one's 
country, etc); 2. debt; 6paTb 
B '-' borrow {money , etc); 
AaBaTb B -- lend {money, etc); 
<> Bjiesarb e -^ii col run 
into debt; 6biTb e ~y nepCA 
KeM-ji. be in smb's debt; be 
indebted to smb; OTAarb no- 
cjieAHHH — pay the last 

AOJirJHH [dolg^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f AOJior, -a, -o, 
-H long {time, silence, way, 
etc); Ha ^ne roAw for years 
to come; 

<> OTKAaAblBaTbB ^HH aUl^HK 

^ shelve {put off indefinite- 
ly); let {a matter) stand 

AOJiro [dolga] adv long, 
(for) a long time {of writing, 
pondering, etc). 

Aojiroxla [dalgAta] / -fai, 
pi AOJiroTbi, AOJiroT, AOJiroTaM 
geog longitude. 

AOJiiKJeH. [dolzhan] predic 
-Ha, -HO, -Hb'i 1. modal, ex- 
pressing obligation, necessity 
must; should; ought {to); no- 
e3A ~eH npH6biTb b nnrb the 
train is to arrive at five; no- 
e3A -^eH 6biJi npH6biTb b njiTb 
the train was to arrive at 
five; OH —en yiiTH he must 
leave, he has to leave; oh 
~eH 6biJi yiiTH he had to 
leave; 2. modal, expressing 
probability: «rj\e HHHa?» «OHa 
~Ha 6biTb B caAy». "Where's 
Nina?" "She must be in the 
garden"; 3. owe{s) {as a debt); 
oh MHe ~eH 6biJi ABa py6jiH 
he owed me two roubles; 
<> --HO 6biTb parent n prob- 
a>ly, apparently; oh, —ho 
6biTb, norepHJi cboh Kapan- 
Aam probably, he's lost his 
pencil, he must have lost his 

AOJiJKHHK [dAlzhn^ik, -g] m 
-a, -6b debtor. 

A6ji»cH0CT|b [dolzhnas^t^, 
-z^d^] / -h, pi -H, -eft post, 
office, position, job. 

AojikhIwh [dolzhniy] I a 
due, proper; —mm 66pa30M 
properly; na —oft Bbicore up 
to the mark; 

II as a noun AOJUKHJoe n 
-oro: KaK — oe as a matter 
of course; BosAaxb --oe ko- 
My-Ji. do justice to smb, pay 
tribute to smb. 


— 106 — 

AOjiMHJa [dAl^'ina] / -h, ~ 

AOJio)KHTb see AOKJiaAbmaxb. 

AOjioH [dAloy] adv down 
with, away with. . 

flOJibuie [doPsht^] comp of 
AOJirHH & corresp adv. 

AOJIJH [d61^9] / -H, pi -H, 
-eH 1. share, part; 2.: -^h 
ceKyHAbi a fraction of a sec- 
ond; B 3T0M eCTb --H HCTH- 

Hbi there is some truth in it. 

AOM [dom] m -a (-y), pi 

-a, -OB 1. house (a building); 

2, home, house {of a family); 

3. house, home (a special 
establishment); ~ OTAbixa 
rest-home; holiday centre; ~ 
Kyjibiypbi palace / house of 

<> cyMacmeAuiHfl ~ col luna- 
tic asylum; ACcxaBKa Ha aom 
home delivery, delivery to 
smb's address; Ha ~y at 

AOMa [doma] adv at home; 
«0 6biTb KaK ~ feel at 
home; SyAbxe KaK ~ make 
yourself at home. 

AOMauiH|HH [dAmashn^'iy] 
a house (attr), home, do- 
mestic; ~ee X03HHCTB0 house- 
keeping; — jiH xo3HHKa house- 
wife; ~HH pa66THHua house- 
maid; ^HH nxHua poultry; 
no ~HM o6cTOHTejibCTBaM for 
domestic reasons, owing to 
family affairs. 

AOM i Ha [domna] / -hm, -ch 

AOMOH [dAmoy] adv home 
{of coming, going, etc); nopa 
~ it's time to go home. 
AOMoynpaejieHHle [damauprA- 

vren**iya] n -h, -h house- 
-manager's office. 


AOHoc [dAnos, -z] m -a, -ob 
information {against smb). 

AOH 1 ocHTb [danAs^it^] imperf 
-ouiy, -ocHiub, p -ocHJi, imp 
-ocH, AOHec|TM [dan^i^s^'t'^i] 
perf -y, -eiub, p aohcc, -Jia, 
imp -H 1. report, inform 
{of smth); 2. inform {against 

AOHOclHTbCJi [danAs''ittj9] 
imperf aohochtch, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, AOHec|THCb [dan^i^s**- 
f'is^] perf -excH, p aohccch, 
-jiacb be heard, come {of 

AOHbjr [d6n^y9], AOHbCB 
[don^'yaf] see aho. 

Aonjiaxja [dAplata] / -u ad- 
ditional charge / payment. 

AonjiaxMxb se^AonJia^HBaxb. 

AonjiaHHB|axb [dAplach^'i- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, ao- 
njia|xHXb [daplAt^it^] perf 
-qy, AonjiaxHiub, p -xhji, imp 
-XH pay extra, pay the re- 
mainder, make up the differ- 
ence {in money). 

AonojiHeHH|e [dapAln^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. addition 
{the thing added); supplement, 
addendum; 2. ling object. 

AonojiHuxejibH|biH [dapAl- 
n^it^iPniy] a 1. additional, 
extra, supplementary; 2. ling: 
~oe (npHAaxo^Hoe) npeAJio- 
jKCHHe object clause. 

AonojiHHxb see AonoJiHHXb. 

AonojiH|«xb [dapAln^at*"] 

imperf -hio, -Heuib, aohoji- 

. HJaxb [dApoln^it^l perf -w, 

— 107 — 


-Hiiib, p -HJi, imp -H supple- 
ment, add to; 

<> ^flTb Apyr Apyra supple- 
ment each other, be mutual- 
ly complementary. 

flonpaiiiHB|aTb [dAprashi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, ao- 
nplocHTb [daprAS^'it^] per/ 
-omy, -ocHuib, p -ochji, /mp 
-ocH interrogate. 

Aonpoc [dApros, -z] m -a, 
-OB interrogation. 

AonpocHTb see AonpauiHeaTL. 

AonycK|aTb [dapuskat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeujb, Aon|ycTHTb 
[dapus^'t^'it^] perf -ymy, 
-ycTHUib, p -ycTHJi, imp -ycTH 
1. admit (/o); —aib Koro-Ji. 
K 3K3aMeHaM enter smb for 
examinations; 2. permit, 
allow, tolerate; 3. assume 
{that smb is right, etc); oh 
He — aex raKoft mucjih he 
thinks it impossible; 
<> ---aTb 0iUH6KH make mis- 
takes, commit errors; Aonyc- 
THM, HTO... let's assume 

Aoporja [dAFoga] / -h, ~ 1. 
road; way {to a place); rpyn- 
TOBan —a earth / dirt road; 
npoceJioqnaH ~a country 
road; ne cxoHCie) Ha ~e get 
out of the way; 2. journey, 
trip; oxnpaBHTbCH b ~y start 
on a journey / trip, go on a 
journey / trip, take the road; 
Mbi np66biJiH B -^e Asa ahh 
the trip took us two days; 
B — y, Ha ~y for a journey/ 
trip; B -^e on a journey/ 
trip; HanHcaTb (nHCbMo) c ~h 
write a letter while on a 
journey / trip; 

<> no ~e 1) on the way {to); 
2): HaM [hm u m. d.] no ~e 
we [they, etc] are going the 
same way; Aaxb / ycrynHTb 
~y let (smb) pass; make 
way {for) {also fig); cxaxb / 
cxoHXb nonepeK ~h KOMy-ji. 
stand / be in smb's way; 
MAxii cBoeH ~0H go one's 
own way; xyAa CMy h --a 
col it serves him right, he 
got his deserts. 

AOporo [doraga] adv 1. dear 
{of selling, etc); 2. fig 
dearly, dear;/~ MHe 'Aocxaji- 
CH MOH onbix I've paid dear 
for my experience, my ex- 
perience has been dearly 
bought; H 6bi ~ }\aji j aa- 
nJiaxHJi, qx66bi... I'd give 
my ears to... 

AOporcH [dArogay] adv on 
the way. 

AOporloH [darAgoy] a -an, 
-6e, -He, sh f Aopor, -a 
Aoporo, AopoPH 1. expensive, 
dear; costly; 2. dear {friend^ 

AopoKe [dArdzht^] compof 
AOporoH & corresp adv. 

AOpoiKlfixb [darAzhlf*] im- 
perf -y, -Huib, p -HJI, imp -H 

1. value, appreciate, treasure; 

2. take care {of). 
AopOKHbiH [dArozhniy] a 

road {attr)\ travelling (dress, 
expenses, etc). 

AocaAJa [dAsada] / -bi: Ka- 
KaH -^a! what a nuisance!; 
what a pity! 

AocaAHo [dAsadna] impers 
predic: -~, mxo... it's a pity 
that...; cMy ~ he is vexed 
{to hear that, etc). 


— 108 — 

AOcaAH|uH [dAsadniy] a 
sh f AocaAeH, -a, -o, -bi: ~oe 
HeAopaayMeHHe regrettable 
misunderstanding; —an one- 
qaTKa unfortunate misprint. 

AocK|a [dAska] / -h, ace 

flOCKy, pi AOCKH, AOCOK, -aM 

board [l) used in building, 
etc; 2) for ironing on, etc); 
rpH4)eJibHaH ~^ slate (for 
writing on); ~a aJih oe-bHB- 
jieHHH notice-board; 
<> KJiaccHafl ~a black-board; 
~a noHera honour roll; board 
of honour; ox ~h ao ~h 
col from cover to cover; 
cxaBHTb Ha OAHy AOCKy put 
on the same level. 

AocjioBHbiH [dAslovniy] a 
word for word, literal. 

AocpoHHbiA [dAsroch^niy] 
a ahead of time / schedule 
(output, fulfilment, etc). 

Accra learb [dsstAvat^] im- 
perf -K), -eiiib, p -eaji, imp 
-Bafi, AOCTaJTb [dAstat^l perf 
-Hy, -Heuib, p -ji, imp -Hb 
1. take out, get out; take, 
get {out of, from); 2. get 
{tickets, etc); 3. reach {the 
ceiling, etc). 

AocTa|BaTbCJi [dastAvattsa] 
imperf -ctch, p -eajicH, -ea- 
jiacb, AocTalTbCfl [dAstattja] 
perf -HexcH, p -jich, -Jiacb 1. 
fall to smb's lot; sxo Aocxa- 
Jiocb eMy [eft u m. d.] this 
fell to his [her, etc] lot; it 
was he [slie, eta] who won 
it; it was he [she, etc] who 
received it; 2. impers col: 
CMy [eft u m. d.] Aocxanexcn 
he'll [she'll, etc] catch it; 
CMy [efl u m. d.\ AocTaneTCH 

3a onosAaHwe he [she, etc] is 
late, and he'll [she'll, etc] 
catch it; he'll [she'll, etc] 
be punished / scolded for 
being late. 

AocxaBHXb see AOCxaBJiHTb. 

AOcxaB.ji|flxb [dastAvPat^l 
imperf -hk), -neuib, Aocxa- 
BJHxb [dAstav^if*] perf -jik), 
-Huib, p -nji, imp -b 1. deliv- 
erer parcel, etc); 2. give {smb 
pleasure, trouble, etc). 

AocxaxOHHO [dAstatach^na] 

I adv enough, sufficiently; 

II impers predic it is enough; 
suffice, be enough; ~ AByx 
pyfijieft two roubles is enough; 
sxoro ~ that will do. 

AOCxaxoHH|biH [dAstat9ch^- 
niyl a sh f Aocxaxo^en, -a, 
-o, -bi sufficient {enough). 

Aocx^xb see AocxaBaxb. 

AocxaxbCH see AocxaBaxbCH. 

AocxHrlaxb [das^t^igat^l im,- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, AOCXH|rHyxb 
[dAs^t^ignut^] & AocxHiHb[dA- 
s^t^ich^] perf -Tuy, -rnemb, 
p -r, -rjia, imp -fhh 1. reach 
{the summit of a mountain, 
etc); 2. reach, achieve, ajt- 

AocxHKeHHie [das^t^izhe- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. reaching; 
achievement, attainment; 2. 
achievement, progress. 

AocxHMb see AocxHraxb. 

AOcxoBepH|MH [dastAv^'er- 
nly] a sh f AocxoBepeH, -a, 
-o, -w reliable {information^ 
source, etc). 

AOCxohhcxbIo [dAstoinstva] 
n -a, ~ 1. merit, quality; 
2. dignity {of mind or char- 
acter); qyscxBO c66cTBeHHoro 

- 109 


^a self-respect; proper pride; 

3. value {of bank-notes and 


<0> oueHHTb no ~y estimate 

at {smb's, its) true worth. 

AOCTOMHlbifi [dAstoyniy] a 
sh f jiocTOHH; -a, -o, -bi 1. 
worthy {of), deserving; 6biTfa 
-^biM be worthy {of), deserve; 
'-biH Jiy^uiero npHMeneRHH 
worthy of a better cause; 
2. merited, deserved; fitting, 
adequate; 3.; --bm qeJioBCK 
worthy man / person. 

;tocTonpHMeHaTejibH o c t | b 

-z^d^] / 

-eft place of 

interest, sight 

flocTonHHJe [dastAyan'iya] 
n -H property {of the masses, 
etc); BceHap6AHoe ~e nation- 
al property. 

fl6cTyn [dostup, -b] m -a 
access {to the archives, etc). 

AOCTynH|biJi [dAstupniy] a 
sh f ;iocTyneH, -a, -o, -u 1. 
accessible, available; attaina- 
ble, within (the) reach; 2. sim- 
ple, easy to understand; 3. 
moderate, reasonable {price). 

Aocyr [dAsuk, -g] m -a 
leisure, spare time; 
<► Ha ~e at (one's) leisure, 
in one*s spare time. 

Aocbira [ddsita] ac?:; 1.: na- 
ecTbCH ^ eat one's fill, be 
satisfied; 2. fig col to one's 
heart's content. 

AOTparHB|aTbCfl [dAtrag^i- 
vattsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 
AOTpoHlyrbCfl [dAtronuttss] 
perf -ycb, -eiubCH, p -yjiCH, 
-yjiacb, imp -bca, -biecb 
touch {with a finger , etc). 

AoxoA [dAkhot, -d] m -a, 
-OB income, revenue, profit. 

AoxoA|HTb [dakhAd^it^] im- 
perf Aoxo^y, AOXOAHUib, p 
-Hji, imp -H, AOHTH [dAytM] 
perf AOHAy, AOHAeuib, p ao- 
meji, AomJia, imp aohah 1. 
reach, come {to); xeJierpaM- 
Ma He AoiUJia ao MeHH the 
wire did not reach me; xe- 
JierpaMMa He Aoui-^a the wire 
was lost; xeJierpaMMa Aouijia 
the wire was ^ received; ne 
^9L... just before you reach...; 
2. reach, amount {to); 3.: 
AOHTH AO cJiea end in tears; 
AOHTH AO 6euieHCTBa fly into 
a rage; 

<> pyKH He Aox6;iJiT col = no 
time for it. 

AoxoahIwh [dAkhodnty] a 
sh /AoxoAeH, -a, -o, -u prof- 
itable, paying. 

Aou^HT [dAtsent, -d] m -a^ 
-OB lecturer lat a universi- 
ty, etc). 

AOHJb [doch^, -]^] f gen, 
dat & pr AOMepH, ace -b, instr 
AOHepbK), pi Ao^epH, -epefi, 
-epHM, -epefi, -epbMH (-epH- 
mh), (o) -epnx daughter. 

Aouieji [dAshol], Aomjia|dA- 
shla] p of aohth; see aoxo- 


AOK) [dAyu] see AOHTb. 

AOflp|Ka [dAyarka] / -kh, 
-OK dairymaid, milkmaid. 

Aparou^HHOcT | b [dragAtsen- 
nas^t^, -z^d^] / -h, -efl jewel; 
treasure; -^h jewelry. 

AparoueHHluH [dragAt^en- 
niy] a sh f Aparouenen, -a, 
-0, -h\ precious {stone^ etc, also 


— 110 — 

Apa3H|HTb [drAz^'n^it*'] im- 
perf -K)^ ApasHimib, p -hji, 
imp -H tease {smb with jests); 
excite (a rfo^, e/c). 

flpaKJa [draka] / h, -- 
fight, fighting; scuffle. 

ApaMJa [drama] f -u, ~ 

ApaMaTHHecK|Mft [dramAf*!- 
ch**isk'*iy] a -an, -oe, -He 

ApaMaxypr [dramAturk, -g) 
m -a, -OB playwright, dram- 

ApaJTbCM [drattja] imperf 
flepycb, AepeiubCH, p -jich, 

-JiaCb -JlOCb (-JlOCb), -JIHCb 

(-JiHCb), imp AepHCb, AepH- 
Tecb, nOjflpaTbcsi [pAdrattsa] 
perf 1. fight {with), beat 
\smb), knock {smb) about; 
struggle {with); 2. {no perf) 
fight (/or), struggle {for). 

ApeBHJHft [dr^'evn^'iy] a sh 
f ApeseH, -H, -e, -h 1. an- 
cient; antique; 2. very old; 
<► ~He sisbiKH classical 

ApeM|aTb [dr^i^mat^] imperf 
-JiK), ApeMJieuib, p -aji doze; 
nod {when sleepy). 

ApeccHp|oBaTb [dr''is'*irA- 
vat^] imperf -yio, -yeuib, p 
-OB^Ji, imp -yfi, BMApeccHplo- 
earb [vldr'^is^'iravat'*] perf 
-yio, -yeuib, p -osaji, imp -yft 
train {animals). 

Apo6|HTb (drAb^'it^'j imperf 

-JIIO, ~-HUIb, p -HJI, f>ip -H, 

pa3;Apo6MTb [razdrAb^'it'^] perf 
1. Crush {into fine pieces); 
splinter; 2. fig divide up, 
split up. 
Apo61b [drop^ -b**] / -h 1. j 

small shot; 2. (p/ -h, -efl) 
math fraction; AecHXHMHaH 
~b decimal fraction; npo- 
CTaH ~b vulgar fraction; 
npasHJibHaji ~b proper frac- 

ApoBJa [drAva] pi ^, -m 

Apo)K|aTb [drAzhat^] imperf 
-y, -Huib, p -aJi, imp -h 1. 
tremble, shiver, shake, quiv- 
er; quaver; --aTb or CTpaxa 
[xojiOAa u m. n.] tremble 
with fear [cold, etc]; ^axb 
BceM TeJioM shake / tremble 
all over; 2. fig tremble {for 
smb, smth). 

AP6«)k|h [drozh^'ii] pi -eft 

Apowlb [drosh, -zh] / -h 
trembling, shiver(ing), shak- 
ing, quivering; tremor; qua- 
ver; thrill {vibration). 

Apyr I [druk, -g] m -a, pi 
Apy3bH, Apysefl, ApysbHM 
friend; dear friend; 6jih3khh 
~ close friend; aaKaAbmnwH 
~ bosom-friend. 

Apyr II [druk, -g]: ^ ~a 
each other, one another; — 
3a ~0M one after another; 
— npoTHB —a face to face; 
against each other; ~ c -^om 
with each other. 

Apyrjofl [drugoy] I a -an, 
-6e, -He other, the other, 
another; different; kt6-to / 
KT6-HH6yAb ~6h somebody 
else; na —oHAenb (the) next 
day; b — -oe speMH some other 
time; b ~6h paa another 
time, some other time; e 
'-OM MecTe somewhere else, 
in / at some other place; 

— Ill — 


II as a noun 1. Apyrjoft 
m -oro somebody else, an- 
other person; 2. a P y rJH e pi 
-Hx others, other people; 
the others, the rest; 
<> 3T0 ~6e ACJio it's differ- 
ent, that's another matter; 
c -~6h cTOpoHM on the other 
hand; hhkto ~6h nobody 

ApyjK6|a [druzhba] / -bi 
friendship; HepymHMaH~a un- 
breakable / inviolable friend- 

<> He B cjiy)K6y, a b -~y as a 
favour, for friendship's sake. 

Apy)KejiK)6Hlbifi [druzhi^- 
l^'ubniy] a sh f APy^e;iK)6eH, 
-a, -0, -fai friendly, amicable. 

ApywecKlHH [druzhask'^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He friendly {serv- 
ice, etc)\ ~HH mapn^ friendly 
jest . 

flpyMcecTeeHH'ibiH [druzha- 
s^t'^v^'mniy] ash /Apy^KecxBeH, 
-a, -o, -bi friendly, amicable. 

r^pyac'iHTb [druzlut^] imperf 
-y, -Huib (Apyn^Huib), p -hji, 
imp -H be friends {with), be 
on friendly terms {with). 

Apy%H|biH [druzhnty] a sh 
f Apy>KeH, -a, -0, -bi (-bi) 1. 
close-knit, united {family, 
etc); 2. unanimous; ~bie 
anji -^HCMCHTbi a burst of 
applause; — bift CMex a burst 
of laughter. 

ApMHHOH [dr^i^nnoy] a col 
bad, rotten, wretched, worth- 
less, good-for-nothing. 

ApflxjilbiH [dr^akhlty] a sh f 
'-, -a, -o, -bi decrepit. 

ny6 [dup, -b] m -a, pi -h, 
-6e oak- 

imperf -yio, -yeiiib, p -oeaji, 
imp -yii 1. duplicate; double 
(a par^); 2. dub (a ///m). 

Ayr I a (dugaj /-h, p/ Ayrn, 
•~ , AyraM arc {of a circle, etc). 

Aj/H [duy] see AyTb. 

Ayficji [duys^a], Ayfixecb 
[duyt'^is^, -z^] see AyTbca. 

Ayji [dul], Ayjia [dub] see 

Ayji|o [dub] n -a, ~ muz- 
zle {of a gun). 

Ayjicfl [duls'^a], Ay>'iacb 


■z°j see AyTbCH. 

AyMJaTb [dumat^j imperf 
-aK), -aeuib, nolAyMaTb [pA- 
dumat^j perf 1. think (o/, 
about, over)', think {that...), 
believe {that...); 2. {no perf) 
intend, think {of doing 

<> MHoro —axb o ce6e be 
conceited, think no small 
beer of oneself; He AOJiro 
~aji v/ithout a moment's 

Aynji|6 [duplo] n -a, pi 
AynAa, AyneJi, AynJiaM hollow 
{in a tree, tooth, etc). 

AypaK [durak, -g] m -a, 
-OB fool, idiot; 
<> HaSHTWH ^ col perfect 
fool;BajiHTb —a co/ play the 
fool; ocTaoHTb B —ax col 
fool/dupe smb; ocTaxbCJi b 
~ax col be fooled / duped. 

AVpHo [durna] I adv badly, 

11 impers predic: mhc [eMy 
w m. ^.] ~ I feel [he, etc, 
feels] bad / faint. . 

AypHJoH [durnoy] a sh f 
AypeH. -a, Aypno.AypHbi (-bi) 


112 — 

1. bad {opposite of good); 
^6h MeJiOBeK wicked man; 
■~bie MbicJiH evil tlioughts; 
'-an cJiaea ill fame, noto- 
riety; 2.: /typeH co66h ugly 
{of a person's looks). 

Ayib [dut^I imperf flyio, 
fl,yeiiib, p Ay-^, Ay-^a, irnp 
AyH, noUyTb [pAdut^] perf 
blow (a^ or into smth)\ (sAecb) 
AyeT there is a draught 

jiyxbcfl [dut^sa] imperf 
Ayiocb, AyeiubCH, p Ay«nc5i, 
AV^acb, /mp AyHCH, AyHiecb, 
HajAyxbCH [nAdutts9] perf col 
be sulky {with stub). 

flyx [dukh, -gh] m -a 1. 
philos spirit; 2. courage, 
spirit; npHcyicTBHe —a pres- 
ence of mind; 3. spirit {of 
the times, etc); 4.: y Hero -~ 
saxBaTHJio it took his breath 

<^ BO eecb ~ at full speed; 
OAHHM —CM at one go; ne 
B ~e in a bad mood; nacxb 
^OM lose one's courage; be 
despondent; HcnycTHTb ~ 
breathe one's last; hh cjiy- 
xy HH ~y o... col nothing is 
heard of ...; ht6-to b 3tom 

— e something of the kind. 
AyxJH [dukh'i] pi -6b per- 
fume, scent. 

flyxoBeHCTB|o [dukhAv^enst- 
V9] n -a clergy. 

flyxoBHbift [dukhdvnly] a 
1. spiritual; 2. spiritual, ec- 

AyxoBloH [dukhAVoy] a: 

— OH opKecip brass band; 

— bie HHCTpyMCHTbi wind-in- 

flyxorla [dukhAta] / -bi 
closeness, stuffiness; oppress- 
ive heat. 

Ayui [dush, -zh] m -a show- 

flyuil^ [dush^] / -H, ace 
Aymy, pi flyuiH, ^, ^ymaM 
1. soul; 2.: Ha Ayuiy nacejie- 
HHH per capita, per head; 
<C> no -~6 to {smb's) liking; 
OT (Bcefl) --H with all one's 
heart; b ~6 at heart; roBo- 
pHTb [Hrp^TbJ c ~6h speak 
[play / act] with feeling; no 
— dM frankly, candidly; bcch 
~6ft OTAaTbCH HeMy-ji. go 
heart and soul into smth; 
KpHBHTb — 6fi play the hyp- 
ocrite; be insincere; act 
against one's conscience; 
cKOJibKo ~e yr6AHo to one's 
heart's content; y nero ~a 
yuiJid b n^TKH he has his 
heart in his boots, his heart 
failed him. 

flyuiHcxIbift [dushtstiy] a 
sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi fragrant, 

jiyiii|HTb [dushlt^] imperf 
-y, AyuiHuib, p -HJi, imp -h, 
saiAyuiHTb [zadushlt^] perf 
1. suffocate, stifle; strangle, 
choke; 2. choke, suffocate 
{of coughing, etc; also fig); 
3. fig stifle, suppress. 

flymlHTbCH [dushlttja] im- 
perf -ycb, p^yuiuuibca, p -hji- 
CH, -HJiacb, imp -ikb, -uiecb, 
HaUyuiHTbcM [nadushfttja] 
perf use scent; scent oneself, 
perfume oneself. 

flyuiHO [dushna] impers 
predic: sjxech oneHb ~ it's 
very close /stuffy in here; b 

- 113 - 


KOMHaxe ~ it's close /stuffy 
in the room; eMy ~ he is 

AyuiHJbiH [dushniy] a sh f 
;^ymeH, -a, -o, -bi stuffy, 

AyK)[duyu], Ayeuib [duyash, 
-zh] see AYTb. 

Aywcb [duyus^, -z^], ^yeuib- 
CJi [duyashs^af see AyTbCH. 

flbiM [dim] m -a (-y), pi 
-bi, -OB smoke {from a burn- 
ing substance). 

AWMOxoA [dimAkhot, -d] m 
-a -OB flue {for smoke). 

Abffllfl [dfn^a] / -H, -b 
melon, musk melon. 

Abipja [dira] / -u, ~ hole 
{in a piece of cloth, in the 
roof, etc; also fig). 

AbipflB|biH [dir^'avtyj a sh f 

--, -a, -o, -bi full of holes 
having a hole/ holes. 

AbixaHMJe [dikhan^'iya] n 
-H breathing, breath, respira- 

<> saraHB -~e with bated 

Abiiu|dTb [dish^t^] imperf 
-y , AbiiiiHiiib, p -an, imp -h 
breathe; TH^eJio ~aTb pant; 
<>,ejie —dxb be at one's last 

Aib>KHH|a [d^uzhtna] / -bi, 
~- dozen; 
<> HepTOBa ~-a baker's dozen. 

AK)H|a [d^una] f -bi, ^ 
dune, down. 

A«A|H [d^ad^9] m -h, -efl 
uncle {a relative). 

flflTJeji [d'^at^il] m -Jia, 
-jioB woodpecker. 

eepejii [yi^vr'^ey] m -h, -eB 

eBpeHCK|HH [yi^vr^eysk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Jewish. 

eBpone|eu, [yivrAp^eyatj, dz] 
m -Hua, -HueB European. 

eBpon6HCK|HH fyivrAp^^y- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Euro- 

erHnexcKlHH [yi^g^ip^itj- 
k^iy] a -an, -oe' -He Egyp- 

erHnrflHJHH [yig^ipt^an^in] 
m -HHa, pi -e, ^ Egyptian. 

ero [yi^'vo] I gen & ace of 
OH & oho; see oh; 
II pron poss corresp to oh 
& OHO his; its. 

e^a [yi^da] / e;^bi food; 
meal {food or an act of tak- 
ing food); 3a caoh during 
a meal. 

CABa [yi^dva] I adv 1. hard- 
ly, with difficulty; 2. hard- 
ly, scarcely; 3. just, bare- 


II cf: ^..., KaK... scarcely/ 
hardly... when..., no soon- 
er... than...; 

<> — jiH hardly, it's doubt- 
ful whether...; — He nearly; 
~ jiH He almost, nearly. 

CA^M [yi^d'^im], cahtc 
[yi^d^'it^i] see ecxb I. 

eAHHHi^ja fyid^in^itja] / -bi, 
~ 1. one; math unity; 2. unit 



(standard quantity or amount); 

3. black mark, "poor", "one"; 

4. individual; tojibko ~bi,.. 
only a few... 

cAHHHHHlbiH [yid''in''ich''- 
niyl a sh f eAHHriqen, -a, -o, 
-bT 1. single, only one; 2. iso- 
lated, rare. 

e;iHHorjiacHO [yid^inAglas- 
nal adv unanimously {with 
the support of all). 

eAHHOAyu]H|biH [yid^inA- 
dushnty] a sh f eAHHOAymeH, 
-a, -0, -bi unanimous {having 
the agreement of all). 

e;iHHCTBeHHlbiH [yi^d^in''- 
s^t*'v**mniyl a sh f eAHHCi- 
BeH, -a, -0, -bi only, sole; 
OAHH-eAHHCTBeHHbiH Only one; 
~biH B CBoeM pojie unique; 
<> -~oe HHCjio ling singular 

eAHHCTB|o [yi^d^instval n 
-a unity {harmony, agreement; 
solidarity) . 

e;iHHlbiH [yi*-'d^inty] a sh f 
~, -a, -0, -bi 1. indivisible; 
united {front, etc); single, 
common; — -oe ueJioe a single 
whole; 2.: hh '-oro not a 
single; Bce ao ~oro one and 

cflKlHft [yetk^iy] a -an, -oe, 
-He, sh f CAOK, -a, -o, -h 1. 
caustic {also fig); 2. acrid, 
pungent {also fig). 

ejyy [yedu], CAeuib [yed'^ish, 
-zh] see exaxb. 

ee [yi^yo] I gen & ace of 
OH a; see oh; 

II pron poss corresp to oHa 
her; hers; its. 

e}K [yosh, -zh] m e>Ka, 
eHceft hedgehog {an animal). 

tme... first element of com- 
pounds denoting 'every' ejKe- 
roAHo [yizhi^godna] every 
year, annually. 

e)Ker6;iHbiH [yizht^godnty] 
a annual, yearly. 

ejKeAHeBHbiH [yizhf^d^n'^ev- 
nty] a daily; everyday {com- 
mon, usual). 

CMieMecsiHHbiH [yizhi^m^e- 
s^'ach^niy] a monthly. 

ejKeneAejibHbift [yizhan^i^- 
d^el^'niy] a weekly. 

ejKHTbcvi [ydzhtttja] imperf 
e>Kycb, e>KHmbCH, p cjkhjich, 
e>KHJiacb huddle oneself up 
{with cold, etc). 

e3A|a [yi^zda] / -b'l driving, 
riding; b Asyx qacax —b'l 
OT... two-hour journey from... 

eaAl.HTb [yez'^d'^it''] imperf 
e3>Ky, -Huib, p -HJi, imp h 
[cf exaxb 1] drive, ride {in 
a car, etc); go {by train, 
sea, etc); travel, journey. 

CH [yey] dat & instr of 
OHa; see oh. 

eH-66ry [yi^ybogu] int col 
really!, really and truly!; 
I swear! 

eji [yel], ejia [yeb] see 
ecTb I. 

eJie [yel^'i] adv 1. hardly, 
with difficulty; 2. hardly, 

O 6jie-6Jie hardly, with dif- 
ficulty; — JKHBoft more dead 
than alive. 

ejiKJa [yolka] / -h, e.noK 
1. fir-tree; HOBoroAHHH ~a 
New Year's tree; 2. New 
Year's party. 

ejib [yel**] / eJiH, ejieii fir- 

— 115 


CM [yem], euib [yesh, -zh] 
see ecTb I . 

eMKOCTJb [ydmlos''t^, -z^d''] 
/ -H, -eft capacity {of a con- 
tainer, etc). 

eMy [yi^mu] dat of oh & 
oho; see oh. 

epyHfl|a [yirunda] / -bi col 

1. nonsense, rot, rubbish; 

2. trifle, nothing; very easy 
thing, child's play. 

ecjiH [yes^'l^i] cj if (/) on 
the condition or supposition 
that', 2) even though; grant- 
ing that; 3) whenever); — 6bi 
if {with hypothetical condi- 
tions); — 6bi He but for; 
— HATH TyAa, to tojibko 
ceftqac if we [you] are to go 
there, we {you] must do it 
now; -- noexaib k neiviy 
ceflqac, to m6>kho aacTaxb 
ero if you [we, I] go to his 
place now you [we, I] will 
find him at home. 

ecT [yest, -zd] see ecTb 1. 

ecT^CTBeHH I biH [yi^s^t^es'^t''- 
v^mniy] a sh f ecTecTBen, 
-a, -o, -bi natural {1) science, 
etc; 2) death, etc; 3) state, 
gesture, etc); — bie fioraTCTsa 
natural resources / wealth. 

ecTecTB03HdHHie [yis^'t^ist- 
VAznan^'iya] n -a natural 
science; natural history. 

ecTb I [yes^t^] imperf cm, 
euib, ecT, eAHM, eAHTe caht, 
p eJi, eJia, imp euib, cbiecib 
[s^yes^t*"] perf 1. Q2i\{l)chew 
and swallow; 2) take food); 
2. {no perf) make smart {of 
smoke, etc). 

ecTb II [yes'^t^] pres of 
6biTb I 1. as a link-verb: xh- 

mhh -- HayKa chemistry is 
a science; 2. there is, there 
are; h3 3Toro noJioJKeuHn 
— BbixoA there is a way out 
of this situation; 
II impers 1.: y mghh [y Hero 
u m. d.] — 3Ta KHHra I have 
[he, etc, has] this book; 

3Ta KHHPa -- B 6H6jIHOTeKe 

they have this book at the 

e(})peHTop [yi^fr^eytar] m 
-a, -OB lance-corporal; US 
private 1st class. 

exarb [yekhat*'] imperf eAy, 
eAeuib, p exetJi a concrete move-, 
ment in a definite direction 
[cf e3AHTb] 1. drive, ride {in 
a car, etc); go {by train, sea, 
etc); 2. go, leave {for) {in a ve- 
hicle) H eAyaaBipa I'm leav- 
ing tomorrow. 

exHAH|biH [yi^kh^idniy] a 
sh f exHACH, -a, -o, -bi mali- 
cious, spiteful; caustic, ven- 

eiu,e [yi^sh'':6] adv 1. some 
more; ~ pas once more; 
^ TpH AHH three more days; 
~ OAHH one more, another; 
another one; hto ^? what 
else?; — MT6-HH6yAb some- 
thing else; -- h -~ again and 
again; more and more; — - 
cTOJibKo >Ke as much again; 
as many again; 2. {with comp) 
still, even; 3. still {up to 
the present time or time in 
question); yet {with negations); 
~ hqt not yet; Bce — still 
{up to the present time or 
time in question); noKa •— so 
far, for the present; mh -^ 
, ycnecM we've got enough time, 


116 -^ 

we still have time; there's 
no hurry (about it); 4. as 
far back as, only {yesterday, 

<> ~ 6bil col I should think 
so!, you bet! 

eio [yeyu] instr of ona; 
see OH. 


}K \ see me I. 

m II see me II. 

3Ka6|a [zhaba] / -u, ~ toad. 

}Ka6p|bi [zhabril pi ^, 
-au {sing iKa6p|a / -u) gills 
{of fish, etc). 

«aBopoH|oK [zhavarsnak, 
-g] m -Ka, -kob (sky)lark. 

>KaAH|biH [zhadniyl a sh f 
TKP.jxeH, -a, -0, -bi (-bi) greedy; 
covetous {avaricious). 

msi7Kjx\a. [zhazhda] / -u 
thirst {also fig); HcnbiTbiBaxb 
~y be thirsty; yroJiHib — y 
quench one's thirst; ~-a ana- 
HHH thirst for knowledge. 

waji I [zhall, wajia [zhala] 
see JKaxb I. 

mdJi II [zhal], JKBJia [zhala] 
see ^aib II. 

JKajijCTb [zhi^i'^et^] imperf 
-eio, -eeiiib, noj^KajieTb [pa- 
zhi'-'Pet^] perf 1. feel sorry 
for, pity; 2. be sorry {that), 
regret {that); 3. spare (ef- 
forts, etc); grudge (wS y, 

>Kaji|HTb [zhal**it^] imperf 
-K), -Huib, p -HJi, imp -b, 
ylJKajiHTb [uzhal^it^] perf 
sting {of bees, etc); bite {of 

>KajiK|HH [zhalk'^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f H<ajioK, -a, -o. 
-H 1, pitiful, pitiable; 2. 

wretched, poor, shabby; HMeTb 
— HH bh;i cut a poor figure; 
3. miserable {coward, etc). 
}KajiKO [zhalka] impers pre- 

die =:7KaJlh. 

)Kajilo [zhala] n -a, ^ 
sting (of a bee, etc). 

)Kajio6|a [zhalaba] / -bi, ^ 

>Kajio6H|biM [zhabbniy] a 
sh f >Kajio6eH, -a, -o, -bi sor- 
rowful, mournful; sad, plain- 
tive, doleful; 

<> ~aji KHHra complaints 

>KajiOBaHb|e [zhabvan^ya] n 
-H salary. 

wa^njOBaTbCji [zhabvattja] 
imperf -yKXih, -yeuibCH, p 
-OBajiCH, -OBaJiacb, imp -yft- 
CH, -yHxecb, no|>KajiOBaTbC{i 
[pAzhabvattja] per/ complain, 
make complaints; —OBaxbCH 
B cyA go to law. 

wajiocTib [zhabs^t^, -z^'d^j 
/ -H pity {for smb, etc); hc- 
obixbisaxb qyBCXBo — h feel 


Majib [zhaP] impers pred- 
ic 1.: MHe ~ xe6H [ero 
u m. d.] I feel sorry for you 
[him, etc]; ^ ero! poor beg- 
gar!, he is much to be piti- 
ed!; 2. it is a pity; — xepHxb 
BpewH it's a pity /shame 

~ 117 


to waste tirrie; 3.: eMy [eft 
u m. d.] ^ AeHer he [she, 
etc] grudges the money; eiviy 
[efl u m. 5.] — 3T0 naJibTo 
he [she, etc] spares this coat; 
4.: --, mo... f^cjiH...] it is 
a pity that... [if...]. 

)Kap [zhar] m -a 1. heat 
(warmth); 2. high tempera- 
ture, fever; y pe6eHKa ^ the 
child has a high tempera- 
ture; 3. fig heat, ardour; 
<> HyjKHMH pyKaMH ^ sarpe- 
6aTb = make a cat's-paw of 
other people. 

wapji [zhAra] / -bi heat 
{warmth); cTOHjia CHJibHan 
'-a there was a great heat, 
the days were very hot. 

jKdpeHbifl [zhar^iniy] a 
fried; roast(ed) {meat, etc). 

jKapJHTb [zhar^it^] imperf 
-K), -Hiub, p Hji, imp -b, 
aajiKjlpHTb [zAzhar^it^] perf, 
HSJHiapHTb [izh:ar^it^] per} 
fry; roast {meat, etc). 

jKapKiMH [zhark^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f s^apoK. -a, -o 
-H 1. hot {day, weather, etc); 
tropical {countries, etc); 2. 
fig hot; heated. 

jKapKJoe [zhArkoya] n -oro 
roast (meat). 

jKaxBJa [zhatva] / -bi, ~ 
reaping; harvest. 

jKaxb I [zhat^] imperf 
jKMy, H^Meuib, p H<aji, :a^ajia, 
imp >KMH 1. press, saueeze; 
squeeze out {juice, etc); 2. 
pinch, hurt {of foot-wear); be 
too tight {of clothes). 

jKarb II [zhat^] imperf 
>KHy, jKHeuib, p jKaJi, xcajia, 
imp JKHH, ciKaJTb [zh:at^j 

perf coH^Hy, coJKHeuib, p -Ji, 
-jia, imp co>KHH reap, cut. 

mm [zhg^i] see menb. 

mrjia. [zhgla] see me^b. 

jKry [zhgu] see meHh. 

mjidTb [zhdat^] imperf mjiy, 
JKAeuib, p TKjxaji, yKjiajia, mjxk- 
Jio, 7Kji,aJiii, imp ^AH 1. wait, 
wait for; await; aacTasHTb 
Koro-Ji. — ' make smb wait; 
keep smb waiting; 2. expect 
{look forward to); 
<> Bp^MH He )KfleT time 
presses; ~ He jxomjiaTbcn 
wait impatiently; xoro h 
7Km at any moment; on the 
point of... 

me I [zha], m [zh, sh] cj 
denoting 1. contrast: Tbi ocxa- 
eaficH, H me yfi^y you stay 
here and I'll leave; ecjiH >Ke 
Tbi He ocTaneuibCH... but if 
you're not going to stay...; 
H >K He BoapajKaK) but I have 
no objections; 2. addition: 
Korjia OH npHiiieJi, npHuieji 
>Ke OH paHO, Mbi HaMajiH 3a- 
HHMaTbCH when he came, and 
he came early, we began to 

me II [zha], m [zh, sh] 
part denoting 1. intensifica- 
tion: KOFAa 7K Tbi jxauib mhc 
KHHry? when will you give 
me the book, after all?, 
whenever will you give me 
the book?; hah ^e cKOpee 
be quick; roBOpHTe >Ke will 
you speak, after all?; h. cAe- 
Jiaio 9T0 ceftqac me I'll do 
it right now, I'll do it now 
without fail; nosBOHHie eMy, 
OH me AOKTOp ring him up, 
he is a doctor, isn't he?^ 


118 — 

ring him up, after all he is 
a doctor; 2. sameness: stot 
>Ke, TOT >Ke, TaKOH me the 
same; TaM me, sAecb >Ke at 
the same place, in the same 
place; TaK >Ke in the same 
way; b to me BpeMH, Tor^a 
me at the same time; Ty^a 
>Ke to the same place. 

^eeaxb [zht^vat^] imperf 
myio, H<yemb, p jKeeaji, imp 
jKyii chew {with the teeth); 
ruminate (of animals). 

mer [zhok, -g] see me^h. 

)KejiaHH|e [zhi'^lan^'iya] n 
-H, -H 1. wish, desire; npH 
BceM '-H no matter how 
much I want to; no ero [ee 
u m. d.] ~-K) in accordance 
with his fher, etc] desire; at 
his [her, etc] request; no --kd 
by request; 2. lust {a sensual 

xejijaTb [zhi^lat^l imperf 
-aio, -aeiiib, nolwejiaTb [pa- 
zht^lat^] perf 1. wish, want, 
desire; — aTb, qT66bi kto-ji. 
CAeJiaji qTO-Ji. wish / want smb 
to do smth; 2. wish {smb 
smth); ^aio cqacTbn! good 
luck!; ~aK) y^aqH / ycnexa! 
good luck!; 

<> ocTaejiHeT —arb Jiymuero 
leaves much to be desired. 

}Kejie3|a [zhaPi^za] / -bi, 
pi meJieshi, meJiea, -m anat 
gland; noj^meJiyAOHuaa ^a 

wejiesHOAopojKHHK [zhal^'iz- 
nadArozhn^ik, -g] m -a, -ob 

}Kejie3HOjiop6)KHlbiH [zha- 
TiznadArozhniy] a railway 
iattr); US railroad {attr)\ 

~biH nyTb (railway) track; 
~oe nojioTHo permanent 
way; US right of way {for 
railroad tracks); —-uh yaeji 
(railway) junction. 

«e.ie3H|biH [zht^l'^eznty] a 
iron {also fig); 

<> — asi Aopora railway; 6^5 
railroad; no --oh Aopore by 

)Kejie3|o [zhi^I'^eza] n -a 
iron {a 'metal). 

HtejiesoCeroH [zhi^Pezab^i®- 
ton] m -a ferro-concrete, re- 
infprced concrete. 

mejio6 [zholap, -b] m -a,' 
pi meJio6a, mejio66B gutter, 

jKejiTJoK [zhi^ltok, -g] m 
-Ka, -KbB yolk. 

3KejiT|biH [zholtiy] a sh f 
~, jKejiTa, -o (jKeJiTo), -u 
(jKejiTfai) yellow {colour). 

jKejiyAloK [zhi'^ludak, -g]m 
-Ka, -KOB stomach; necBape- 
HHe --Ka indigestion. 

jKejiyAOHHbiH [zhi^ludach^- 
nty] a stomachic; gastric. 

»ejiyA|b [zholut*', -d**] m 
-H, pi -H, jKejiy^eH, HceJiyflHM 

»ejmH|biH [zholch^'niy] a 
sh f s<eJiMeH, -a, -o, -u 1. 
bilious {pertaining to bile); 
~biH nySbipb gall-bladder; 
2. fig bitter, bilious; ~biH 
HeJiOBeK acrimonious man. 

)KejiH|b [zholch'', -j^] / -H 
gall, bile {also fig). 

iKCMHyr [zhemch^uk, -g] m. 
-a, pi -a, -OB pearl(s) {gems). 

>KeMHy}KHH|a [zht^mch^'u- 
zhina] / -bi, ~ pearl (/) a 
gem; 2) the finest example). 


)KeH|a [zhi^na] / -bi, pi 
5KeHbi, ^eH, jKCHaM wife {a 
married woman). 

>KeHaT|biH [zhi^natty] a sh 
f ~, [no /, n), -bi married 
{of a man). 

>KeHH b6|a [zhi^n^id^ba] / 
-bi, ~ marriage. 

weK HTbCM [zht^'n^itts9] perf 
& imperf -ibcb, JKeHHUibCH, p 
-HJicH, imp -HCb, -Hxecb mar- 
ry, get married {of a man). 

iKCHMx [zht'^n^ikh, -gh] m 
-a, -6b bridegroom; fiance; 
OHH ~ H HCBecTa they are 

jkchckIhh [zhensk^iy] a 
-aa, -oe, -He 1. female; wom- 
an's, women's; ladies'; girls' 
{school, etc)', womanlike; 2. 
ling feminine. 

^teHCTBCHHbiH [zhenstv^m- 
niy] a feminine, womanlike. 

weHmHHJa [zhen''sh*':in9] / 
-bi, ~ 1. woman; 2. married 

jKepji'ib [zhert'', d^] / -h, pi 
-w, -efi pole, perch. 

mepeSeHJOK [zhar^i^b^'dnak, 
-cj] m -Ka, pi >Kepe6HTa, ;Ke- 
pe6HT foal. 

wepTBJa [zhertva] / -bi, -- 
1. sacrifice; victim {to a 
deity, etc); npHHocHTb ~y 
make a sacrifice, offer a 
sacrifice {to smb); npHHOCHTb 
HTO-ji. B ~y sacrifice smth. 
make a sacrifice of smth; 2. 
victim {of an accident, etc); 
ciaTb ~0H qero-Ji. [kopo-ji.] 
fall a prey to smth [smb], 
fall a victim to smth [smb]. 

>KepTB|oBaTb [zhertyvat^] 
imperf -yio, -yeiub, p -OBaJi, 

imp -yfl, noijKepTBOBaTb [pA- 
zhertyvat^] perf 1, sacrifice, 
offer (up), give (up); 2. make 
a donation of, endow. 

HcecT [zhest, -zd] m -a, 
-OB gesture {also fig). 

»ecTK|HH [zhosk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f hccctok, jKecTKa, 
-o, -H 1. hard, stiff; —oe 
MHco tough meat; ~oe Kpecjio 
unupholstered chair; ~He 
BOJiocbi coarse hair; 2. fig 
tough {policy, etc); 3. fig rig- 
id, strict {terms, etc). 

wecTOKJHH [zht^^stok^'iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He, sh f jKecxoK, 
-a, -o, -H 1. cruel; brutal; 
2. fig severe {frost, pain, 
etc); savage {resistance, etc); 
hard {fighting, etc); brutal 
{exploitation, etc). 

jKecTOKocTlb [zhi^stokas^t**, 
-z^d^] / -H, -efi cruelty; bru- 

Hcecrlb [zhes't^, -z^d^] / 
-H tin(-plate). 

jKeHb [zhech''] imperf jKry, 
JKJKemb, »<}KeT, jkhccm, mme- 
re, mryj, p mer, jKPJia, imp 
JKFH, c>Ke4b [zhrech^j perf 
cojKry, cojKmeuib, p cJKer, co- 
TKFjia, imp cojKFH 1. burn (coa/, 
etc); perf also burn up; 2. 
{no perf) burn, be very hot 

WHBH [zhtv'i] see >KHTb. 

)KHB|6ft [zhJvoy] a sh f -^y 
-a, 5KHB0, JKHBbi 1, alive, 
living; 2. lively, vivid; 3. 
lively, animated, brisk; ~6h 
oTKJiHK ready response; -~6e 
Aejio live work; ~6e yqac- 
THe active part; 
<> — bie uBCTbi natural (low- 
ers; '^ H SAOpoB $afe and 


— 120 — 

sound; ocTaibCJi b ~bix sur- 
vive, escape with one's life; 
saflCTb sa -~6e sting to tlie 
quick; Ha — yio HMTKy col = 

anyhow, hastily. 

MHBOnHCHJblft [zhiVAp^is- 

niy] a sh f H^HBonHcen, -a, -o, 
-bi picturesque. 

»HBonHc|b [zhivap^is^. -z^] 
/ -H 1. painting {an art); 2. 
paintings, pictures. 

iKHBOT [zhivot, -d] m -a, 
-OB stomach, belly. 

)khbothob6actb|o [zhWat- 
HAVotstva] n -a animal" hus- 
bandry, cattle-breeding. 

wHBOTHloe [zhivotnays] n 
-oro, -faix animal. 

)KHBy [zhivu], }KHBeuib [zW- 
v'osh, -zh] see mmh. 

»HAKJHH [zhltk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f jkh^ok, -a, -o, 
-H 1. liquid {soap, air, etc); 
2. thin, weak, watery {milk, 
coffee, porridge, etc); 3. thin, 
scanty, thinning {hair, etc). 

wHAKocTlb [zh+tkas^t'', 

-z^'d^] / -H, -efl liquid (a sub- 

)KH>Ke [zhfzht^] comp of >kha- 
KHH & corresp adv. 

iKH3HeHHlbiH [zhiz^n^mniy] 
a sh f >KH3HeH, -a, -o, -bi 
1.: ~biH onbiT life experience; 
knowledge of life; —bifl nyxb 
life {of a person); ~bie chjim 
vitality; ~biH ypOBeHb stand- 
ard of life; 2. fig vital, 
fundamental, of vital impor- 

>KH3H|b [zhiz'^n^] / -11, -eft 
life; 3apa6aTbiBaTb na ~b 
make one's living; 
<^ He Ha ^b, a Ha cMepTb 

to the death; --b Sber kjiio- 

HOM life is in full swing. 

iKHJi [zhil], mnjia. [zhila] 
see mmb. 

)KHji|a [zhfb] / -bi, ~ 1, 
tendon, sinew; 2. vein {a 
blood vessel); 3. mining vein;^ 

HiHJier [zhiPet, -d] m -a, 
-OB waistcoat, vest. 

iKHJijeu [zhil^et§, -dz] m 
-bua, -buoB lodger, tenant. 

iKHjiHm|e [zhiPish'ia] n -a, 
~ dwelling. 

}KHji|Ka [zhflka] / -kh, -ok 
vein {J) a small blood vessel; 
2) a particular character or 

mHJijOH [zhiloyj a inhabit- 
ed; habitable, fit to live in; 
~6ft ;i,0M apartment house, 
block of flats; ~6h KBapiaji 
residential quarter. 

jKHJinjiomaKJb [zhilplo- 

sh^iat^, -d^] / -H (= jKHJiaH 
njiomajlb) dwelling space; 
floorspace; dwelling, flat. 

mHJible [zhil^yo] n -h dwell- 
ing; lodging(s); habitation. 

map [zhir] m -a (-y), pi 
-hi, -6b fat, grease, oil; pbi- 
6hh — cod- liver oil. 

»MpH|biM [zhi'rniy] a sh f 
>KHpeH, -a, -0, -bi 1. fat {cov- 
ered with or having much 
fat); rich {food); 2. greasy 
{covered with grease); 3.: —biH 
uipHcJ)! bold type. 

>KHTeji|b [zhft^il^] m -fl, 
-eft inhabitant, resident; ro- 
pOACKoft --b townsman; cejib- 
CKHH ~b countryman, villag- 
er; KopeHHoft -~b native {ol 
a town, etc). 

— 121 — 


)KHTejibCTB|o [zhlt^il^stva] 
n -a: mccto ~a (place of) 
residence, domicile. 

«HTb [zhit''] imperf >KHBy, 

5KHBeiIIb, p JKHJl, HCHJia, >KHJIO, 

»HJiH, imp >KHBH 1. live; 
2.: OH }KHBeT paSoTOH his 
work is meat and drink to 
him; 3.: mm c hhm jkhbcm 
ApyJKHO we are oil friendly 
terms, my relations with him 
are friendly. 

JKMH [zhm^i] see >KaTb I. 

)KMy [zhmu], jKMeiub 
[zhm^osh, -zh] see Hcaxb I. 

»HH [zhn^i] see >KaTb II. 

jKHy [zhnu], >KHemb 

[zhn^osh, -zh] see JKaxb II. 

jKOHFJiep [zhAngPor] m -a, 
-OB juggler. 

wpe6H|H [zhr^eb^iy] m -h, 
-eB 1.: Spocaxb --ft cast/throw 
lots; THHVTb ~ft draw lots; 
2. fig fate, destiny lot; 
<> ~H 6p6iiieH thedie is cast. 

wyHOKJdTb [zhuzh^raf] im- 
perf -y, -Hmb, p -aji, imp -li 
hum {lik2 a bee); buzz, drone. 

jKyfi [zhuy] see ^esaTb. 

HcyK [zhuk -g] m -a, -6b 
beetle {an insect). 

jKyjibHHHlaib [zhuPn^i- 
ch^at^] imperf -aw, -aeuib 
col swindle, cheat. 

)KypaBJi|b [zhuravP] m -h, 
-eft crane (a 6/rd). 

xtypHaji [zhurnal] m -a, -ob 
1, magazine, journal; 2. reg- 
ister, diary, journal. 

jKypHajiHCT [zhurnAl^ist, 
-zd] m -a, -OB news-man, 

3KyTK|HH [zhutk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f »:yTOK, -a, -o, 
-H terrible, uncanny, sinister. 

jKyK) [zhuyu], jKyeiiib [zhu- 
yosh, -zh] see JKCBaib. 

>KK)pM [zhur'^i] n indecl ju- 
ry {a committee of examin- 

3a [za; in the first pretonic 
position — za; in the second 
and other pretonic positions — 
za; in a stressed position — za] 
prep I with instr denoting 1. 
position, location behind, be- 
yond, or across smth: 3a Ase- 
pbK) behind the door; 3a Aepe- 
BOM behind a tree; 3a to66h 
behind you; 3a toh ropKofl 
beyond that hill; 3a peKofi 
across / beyond the river; 3a 
yrjioM round the corner; 3a 
66pTOM overboard; 2. position 

close to smth for the sake of 
some action; the state of be- 
ing engaged in some action: 
3a cTOjioM at the table; at 
table; CH^eib 3a khhfoh be 
reading a book, read a book; 
be at one's books; 3a pa66- 
Toft at work; 3a maxMaxaMH 
at chess; npoBOAHTb BpeMH 
3a meHHeM spend one's time 
reading; 3. succession, se- 
quence, pursuit, etc: nepBbiM 
BbicTynnJi OeTpoB, 3a hhm 
CasoHOB the first speaker was 

122 — 

Petrov, then spoke Sazonov; 
Pfinb 3a AHCM day after day; 
6e>KaTb 3a kcm-ji. run after 
smb; CJiejioBaTb sa kcm-ji. 
[sa^eM-ji.] follow smb [smth]; 
oxoTHTbCH 3a MCM-ji. 1) hunt 
smth; 2) fig hunt after/ for 
smth; 4. purposp or aim: cxo- 

AHTb 3a MCM-Jl. [3a KeM-Jl.] 

fetch smth [smb]; nocJiaib sa 
AOKTopoM send for the doctor; 
OH npHuieji 3a khhfoh he came 
to take /get the book; hohth 
3a xjie6oM go to buy some 
bread; go {to the kitchen, etc) 
to fetch some bread; 5. di- 
rection of an action: npHCMai- 
pHBaTb 3a... take care of..., 
look after...; keep one's eye 
on...; cjieAHTb / Ha6jiioAaTb 3a 
qeM-ji. [3a kcm-ji.] watch 
smth [smb]; cjieAHTb 3a mh- 
CTOTOH see that it is clean; 
CJieAHTb / Ha6;iK)AaTb 3a no- 
pHAKOM keep order; yxa>KH- 
BaTb 3a KCM-ji. 1) nurse smb, 
tend smb; 2) pay court to 
smb; 6. cause or reason: 3a 
HeHMeHHCM for want of; 3a 
HeAOCTaTKOM for want of; 3a 
OTcyTCTBHeM in the absence 
of; for want of; 
II with ace denoting: 1. move- 
ment farther than or to the 
back of smth: bmhth 3a Asepb 
leave the room [house, etc]; 
nocxaBHTb 3a 6y4)eT put be- 
hind the sideboard; yexaTb 
sa peKy go beyond the river; 
saBepHyib 3^ yroji turn a 
corner; Bb'iKHHyTb 3^ 6opT 
throw overboard {also fig) ; 2. 
movement to the close vicinity 
of smth for the sake of some 

action; the beginning of some 
activity: cecTb 3a ctoji sit 
down at a table; cecTb 3a 
KHHpy start reading a book; 
start working at a book; 
BSHTbCH 3a padoxy 1) under- 
take to do a job; 2) set about 
some work; 3. purpose or aim: 
6opb6a 3a Mnp struggle for 
peace; rojiocoBaxb 3a mto-.i. 
vote for / in favour of smth; 

4. the exceeding of some 
quantity, limit, etc: euy aa 
HHTbAecHT he is over / past 
fifty; 3a nojiACHb afternoon; 
aa nojiHOMb past midnight; 

5. distance from: sa jxecHib kh- 
jiOMCTpoBOT... ten kilometres 
away from..., at a distance 
of ten kilometres from,..; 

6. time separating one action, 
event, etc, from another: aa 
ABa AHH AO SToro two days 
before this; 7. duration of an 
action: OTAOXHyxh aa oxnycK 
have a good rest during one's 
holiday; 3To m6>kho CAejiaTb 
3a ABa Maca this can be done 
in /within two hours; aa no- 
cjieAHHe ipH roAa for the last 
three years; aa nocjicAHee 
BpeMH of late; 8. the object 
of a feeling, emotion, etc: 
ApoHcaib 3a Koro-Ji. tremble 
for smb; paAOBaxbCH aa ko- 
ro-Ji. be glad for smb; 9. a 
taking, grasping, etc, move- 
ment; a touching or hold- 
ing contact: B3HTb kofo-ji. aa 
uJie^d take smb by the shoul- 
der; Aep>KaTb Koro-ji. aa, 
pyKy hold smb by the hand J 
arm; ymHOHyTh Koro-Ji. aa 
pyKy pinch smb's hand / arm; 



flepjKaibCH 3a mo-ji. hold on 
to smth; 10. cause or reason: 
HarpaAHTb Koro-ji. sa mto-ji. 
decorate smb for smth; reward 
smb for smth; naKasaxb 
Koro-Ji. sa HTo-ji. punish smb 
for smth; sa mto? for what?; 
why?; 11. exchange, compen- 
sation, payment, etc: oiAaxb 
[nojiyHHTb] MTO-Ji. sa mo-ji. 
give [receive / take] smth 
for smth; KynHib sa nnib 
py6jieH buy for five roubles; 
sa nojiueHbi at half-price; 12. 
substitution, performance of 
smb else's functions: h CAejiaio 
3T0 sa Te6H I'll do it instead 
of /for you; 13. equation of 
smb's activity, work, etc, with 
the usual quota: pa66TaTb sa 
TpoHX work enough for three, 
do the work of three; 
III as an adv predic: h uejin- 
KOM sa 3T0 I 'm all for it; h — 
sa col I don't mind, I agree, 
I'm for it; 

<> sa ropofl to the country, 
out of town; sa ropo;ioM in 
the country, out of town; sa 
py6e»(6M abroad {in foreign 

3a... pref J of verbs denot- 
ing t. beginning of an ac- 
tion: saneTb [zAp^et^j begin 
to sing; 2. completion of an 
action: sanbijiHibCH [zap U^i- 
ttja] become dusty; 3. an in- 
tensive and vigorous action; 
an action overdone: saKopMHTb 
[zakArm^it^j overfeed; sapa- 
CoxaTbCH [zarAbotattja] over- 
work oneself; 4. the fact that 
an action is directed behind 
or beyond smth: saexaib sa 

AOM ride behind a house; saHiH 
sa yroji turn a corner; saro- 
HHTb [zagAn^at^j drive in 
{cattle; a nail, etc), 5. an action 
done in passing: saflxH sa 
KCM-Ji. call for smb {to take 
him away)', 

1 1 of nouns & adjectives denot- 
ing position, location behind^ 
beyond, or across smth: sape^be 
[zAr^ech^ya] part of a town, 
etc, on the other side of the 
river; sanncxbe [zAp^as^t^ya] 
wrist; saropoAHbiH [zagarad- 
niy] out-of-town {attr), coun- 
try {attr). 

3a6aBji|aTbCH [zabAvPattja] 
imperf -HKXib, -HeiubCH amuse 
oneself; make merry. 

3a6aBH|biH [zAbavnty] ashf 
sa6aBeH, -a, -o, -bi amusing; 

saCacTloBaxb [zabastAvat^] 
perf -yio, -yemb, p -oeaji, imp 
-VH go on strike, down tools, 
come out. 

3a5acT6B|Ka [zabAstofka] / 
-KH, -OK strike {of work- 

3a6HB|axb [zab^ivat^j im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, 3a6|HTb 
[zAb^if^] perf -bib, -beuib, p 
-Hji, imp -eft 1. drive in 
{nails, etc)', drive {nails, etc, 
into smth)', 2. stop up, nail 
up {a window, etc)', nail down; 
3. sport drive {the ball into 
the goal)', score (a goal); 4. 
{no imperf) gush {of oil). 

3a6HHTOBaxb see 6HHX0Baxb. 

3a6HTb see 3a6HBaxb. 

3a6jiaroBpeMeHHo [zablagA- 
vr^em^mna] adv in good time, 
in advance; ahead of time. 


— 124 — 

3a6ji|y;i,HTbC5i [zablud^ittsa] 
perf -yH<ycb, -y;iHiiibCH, p -y- 
;iHjiCH, -yAHJiacb, imp -yAHCb, 
-yflHiecb .lose one's way,- get 

3a6jiy7Kji\aTbca [zabluzhda- 
ttja] imperf -anxF, -aeiufcCH be 
mistaken, err. 

3a6jiy«fleHH|e [zabluzhd'^e- 
n**iy9] 11 -H, -H error, mistake, 

3a6ojieBaHH|e [zabaPi^va- 
n^'iya] n -h, -h disease. 

3a6ojieB|aTb [zabal^i^vat^] 
imperf -k\o, -aeuib, 3a6ojie|Tb 
[zabAl^et^] perf -lo -emb, p 
-j\, imp -H fall ill. 

3a6ojieTb I see sadojieeaTb. 

3a6ojie|Tb II [zabA^et^] 
perf -K), -eiiib, p -ji, imp -ft 
begin to hurt, begin to ache. 

3a66p [zAbor] m -a, -ob 
fence (a barrier). 

3a66T|a [zAbota] / -bi, ~ 1. 
concern {for), care {for, of); 
6biTb 0Kpy>KeHHbiM ~oS be 
given every support / encour- 
agement; 2. anxiety, con- 
cern; ~bi no xosHHCTsy house- 
keeping duties. 

3a66jTHTbc» [zAbot^itt^a] 
imperf -Mycb, -THmbCH, p -thji- 

CH, -THJiaCb, imp -TbCH, 

-Tbiecb, noi3a66THTbCJi [pazA- 
bof'ittja] perf 1. take care 
{of), show concern {for), look 
{after); 2. trouble {about). 

3a66TjiHB|biH [zAbotl'^iviy] 
a sh f --, -a, -0, -bi solicitous 
considerate, thoughtful. 

3a6pacbiB|aTb I [zAbrasi- 
vat''] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 3a- 
6poc|aTb [zabrAsaf"] perf -aio, 
-aeuib: saSpocaxb Koro-Ji. 

KaMHHMH stone smb; 3a6po- 
caTb ueexaMH pelt smb with 
flowers; 3a6pocaTb BonpocaMH 
ply with questions. 

3a6pacbiB|aTb II [zAbrasi- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, sa- 
6p6c|HTb [zAbros^it^] perf 
3a6p6uiy, -Huib, p -hji, imp 
-b 1. throw / hurl / cast far 
away; cyAt.6a 3a6p6cHJia er6 
B 9T0T ropoA fate has brought 
him to this town; 2. neglect, 
abandon; give up, drop. 

3a6pocaTb see 3a6pacbi- 
Baib I. 

3a6p6cHTb see 3a6pacbi- 
Baxb II. 

3a6biB|aTb[zabivat^] imperf 
-aio, -aemb, 3a6|biTb [zAbtt^] 
perf y^y, -yAeiiib, p -biJi, 
imp -yAb 1. forget; neglect 
{to do smth); ne. 3a6biTb 6bi 
(MHe)... I must remember 
to...; 2. leave behind, leave. 

3a6bIBHHB|bIH [zAbifch^i- 
viy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 
forgetful {easily forgetting); 

saSbiTb see 3a6biBaTb. 

3aBdpHB|aTb [zAvar^ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, 3aBap|iiTb 
[zavAr'^it^] perf -ib,3aBapHiiib, 
p HJi, imp -H make, brew 
{tea, etc); 

<> saBapHTb Kdmy col ^ stir 
up trouble, start trouble, 
make a mess. 

3aBe;ieHH|e [zav^i^d^'en^lya] 
n a, -H institution, estab- 
lishment; Bbicmee yqe6Hoe 
~e higher educational insti- 
tution. ' 

3aBeA|oBaTb [zAv^edovat*"] 
imperf -yp, -yeuib, p -oBaji, 

— 125 — 


imp -yH be in charge of, 
manage, be at the head of. 

saBCflyiomlMH [zAv^eduyu- 
sh^:iy] m -ero, -hx manager, 
chief, head. 

saeesTH see aasosHTb. 

saBepSoB^Tb see Bep6oBaTb. 

saBepHTb see BasepflTb. 

saBepHyxb see saBepTbiBaib. 

saBepTbiBJaxb [zAv^orti- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, sa- 
BepnlyTb [z9v^i^rnut^] perf 
-y, -eiub, p -yji, imp -h 1. 
wrap up, wrap; 2. screw up 
(a nut, etc); ^axb Kpan turn 
off a tap; 3. roll up, tuck 
up; 4. turn (to the left, etc); 
saBepnyTb aa yroJi turn a corn- 

3aBepui|aTb [zav^i^rshat^] 
imperf -^lo, -^euib, saBcp- 
uj|HTb [zav^i^rshit^] perf -y, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -H complete, 

saBCpl^Tb [zav^i^r^at^] im- 
perf -HK), -Heiub, saBeplHTb 
[zAv^er^it^] perf -lo, -uuih, p 
-HJI, imp -b 1. assure (smb); 
2. witness, certify. 

saBecHTfa see saBeiUHBaTb. 

saBCCTH see saBOAHTb. 

saBeuiUB I arb [zAv^esh ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, saBeclHXb 
[zAV^es^it^] perf saBemy, 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -b curtain 
off, curtain; veil, cover {a 
portrait, etc). 

3aBemaHH|e [z9v^i^sh^:a- 
n'iys] n -h, -h will {at 
death); will and testament. 

saBemiaxb [zav^i^sh^iat^] 
perf & imperf -aio, -aeiub be- 
queath; devise, leave by 

3aBHB|aTbC5I [z9v^ivatts9] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubcn, sa- 

B|HTbCfl [ZAV^lttj9] perf -bVJCh, 

-bembCH, p-HjicH, -HJiacb, -h- 
Jiocb, -HJiHCb, imp -eficH, 
-eiiTecb 1. curl /frizzle one's 
hair; have one's hair curled/ 
frizzled; 2. curl, wave {of 
hair) . 

3aBHB|Ka [ZAV^ifk9] / -KH, 

-OK 1. curling, frizzling {the 
act of); 2. wave {hair-do). 

SaEHAlOBaXb [ZAV^id9V9t^] 

imperf -yio, -yeuib, p -OBaji, 
imp -yfl, noisacHAOBaTb [p9- 
ZAV^id9V9t^] perf envy, be 
envious of; (h) ne ~yio efl 
[cMy u m. d.] I wouldn't be 
in her [his, etc] place. 

3aBHc|eTb [zAv^is^it^] im- 
perf saBHuiy, -Hiub, p -eJi de- 
pend {he caused or controlled 
by); H c^eJiaio Bce, hto ot 
MeHH ~HT I'll do all in my 

3aBHCHM0CTlb [ZAV^lS^l- 

m9s^t^, -z^d^] / -H depend- 
ence {on circumstances, etc); 
<> B ~H OT... depending 
on..., subject to... 


viy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 

3aBHCT|b [zav^is^t^, -z^'d^] 
/ -H envy {a feeling). 

3aB6Tbcfl see saBHBaTbCH. 

3aB6i^ I [zAv6t, -d] m -a, -ob 
factory, mill, works; refinery; 
KHpnHHHbiH ^ brick-field; 
caxapHbiH — sugar refinery; 
nocJie ujKOJibi oh nomeJi na 
~ when he had finished 
school he became a (factory) 


126 — 

SEBOA II [zAVot, -d] m -a 

1. winding mechanism; 2. 
winding up {of a timepiece). 

saBOflJMrb [zavAd^it^] im- 
perf 3aB0}Ky, aaBOAHUib, p 
-H.n, imp -H, saBejcTH [z9- 
^bjegbj-bjj pg^^ .^^^ -Aeuib, p 

aaeeJi, -Jia, /mp -ah 1. bring, 
lead [smb somewhere); take, 
lead {smb somewhere) {both 
on foot, to the wrong place or 
very far); 2. acquire, buy; 3. 
establish, introduce {a rule, 
etc); 4. start (a business, con- 
versation, etc); 5. wind up 
{a timepiece); start {an en- 

saBocBarb see saBoeBbieaTb. 

saBoeBUBJaTb [zavAyovt- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib sa- 
BojeBaTb [zavayi^vat^] perf 
-K)io, -ibeiiib, p -CBaji, imp 
-K)H J. conquer {a country, 
etc); 2. fig win {freedom, a 
victory, etc); imperf also try 
to win, struggle for. 

3aB03|HTb[z9VAz*'ft^] imperf 
3aB0>Ky, 3aB63Hmb, p -hji, 
imp -H, 3aBe3|TH [zav^i^s^t^i] 
perf -y, -eiub, p 3aBe3, -jia, 
imp -H 1. bring; take {both 
by vehicle, on one's way, very 
far, or to the wrong place); 

2. supply, deliver; bring {sup- 

3aB0paHHB|aTb [zavArach^'i- 
vat**] imperf -aio, -aeiiib=3a- 

saBxpa [zaftra] adv tomor- 
row; ~yTpOM tomorrow morn- 
ing; ~ HOMbK) tomorrow 
night {after midnight); ao — 
till tomorrow [also see <>]; 
<^ AO ^ see you tomorrow, 

saBTpaK [zaftrak, -g] m -a, 
-OB breakfast; lunch; luncheon. 

sasTpaKlaTb [zaftrakat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, noisaBTpa- 
Kaxb [pAzdftrakat^] perf have 

3aBTpauiHHH [zaftrashn^iy] 
a tomorrow's. 

3aBsi3aTb see 3aBfl3biBaTb. 

3aB^3|Ka [zAV^aska] / -kh, 
-OK 1. string, lace; 2. begin- 
ning of the plot {of a novel, 

3aB^3biBlaTb [zAv^'azlvat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, 3aB$i;3aTb 
[zav^'i^zat^] perf -my, saBH- 
jKeiub, p -3aJi, imp ->kh 1. 
tie up; tie {smth with a 
string, etc); knot; —atb 6o- 
THHKH lace up one's shoes; 
2. start {a conversation, etc); 
set up {an acquaintance, etc). 

3aBflHyTb see BHHyib. 

saraAJKa [zAgatka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. riddle, puzzle; 2. mys- 
tery, enigma. 

saraAOHHlbifl [zAg^dach^- 
niy] a sh f saraAoqen, -a, 
-0, -bi mysterious, enigmatic. 

sarap [zAgar] m -a sun- 
burn, tan. 

3arjiaBHie [zAglav'iya] n 
-H, -H title, heading. 

sarjiaAHTb see 3arAa}KH- 

3arjid}KHB|aTb [zAgl^zht- 
vat*'] imperf -aro, -aeuib, sa- 
rjiaA|HTb [zAglad^it''] perf 3a- 
rAa>Ky, -Hiub, p -hji, imp -b 
1. iron down, press; smooth 
down; 2. fig make amends 
for; expiate; 3arJiaAHTb BHHy 
redress one's wrong act, re- 
deem one's fault. 

— 127 — 


sarjiyuilaib [zaglushat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, aarjiy- 
lu'iHTb [zaglushlt^] perf -y, 
-Hiufa, p -HJi, imp -H 1. muf- 
fle, deaden {a sound); drown 
(a sound); 2. //g still, soothe 
(a pam, e^c); suppress {one's 
feelings); 3. //^ choke, sup- 
press, stifle (a protest, etc); 
4. jam {broadcasts). 

sarjiMflbiBJaTb [zAgl^adi- 
vat*'] imperf -aio, -aeuib, sa- 
rjiJiH|yTb [zagl^i^nut^] per/ -y, 
aarJiHHeiub, p -yji, /mp -h 
1. peep in; peep {into); glance 
in, look in; glance {into), 
look {into); 2. col call, drop 
in {at a place, at smb's place); 
call {on smb); 

<> ^aib enepcA anticipate, 
look forward. 

aaroBop [zagavar] m -a, 
-OB plot, conspiracy; 6biTb b 
—e plot {against). 

sarojiOBlcK [zagAlovak, -g] 
m -Ka, -KOB headline; title, 

3aropa}KHB{aTb [zagArazht- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, sa- 
ropofl|HTb [zagarAd'^it^] perf 
3aropo>Ky , 3arop6;iHmb (-riuib), 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. fence in; 
enclose (a garden, etc); 2. 
block up, bar {the entrance, 
etc); stand {in smb's light); 

aaropjaTb [zagArat^] imperf 
-aK), -aeiiib, aaropl^xb [zagA- 
r''et^l perf -ib, -Hiub, p -eji, 
imp -H get sunburnt; imperf 
also bask in the sun. 

saropojiHTb see saropajKH- 

3aroTaBJiHB|aTb [zagAtavl^i- 

vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, sa- 
roTOBiHTb [zagAtov^it*"] perf 
-jiio, -Hiiib, p -HJI, imp -b 1. 
lay in, store up, stock up; 
2. prepare {in good time). 

3aroT6BlKa [zagAtofka] / 
-KH, -OK storage; rocy^apcT- 
BeHHbie' ~KH state purchases 
{of agricultural produce). 

3arpaHHHHbiH [zagrAn^ich''- 
nty] a foreign {goods, etc); 
foreign-made; ~ nacnopx 
passport (/or going abroad). 

3arrfl5r;HTb see rpHSHHTb. 

sarc [zaks, -gz] m -a, -ob 
registry office, registrar's 

sajiaJBaTb [zadAvat^] imperf 
-K), -eiiib, p -Baji, imp -Baft, 
saAJaTb [zAdat''] perf -aM, 
-aiiib, -acT, -aAHM, -a^HTe, 
-aAyi, p saAaji, -ajia, aa^ajio, 
saAaJiH, imp -aft: —BaibypoK 
Ha AOM give / assign a home- 
task / home-work; mo aaAaHO 
Ha ceroAHH? what is the 
home-work for today?; aa^axb 
aara^Ky set a riddle; 
<> aa^axb Bonpoc ask a 
question; --BaTb toh set the 
tone / fashion; a reoe aa^aiwl 
col I'll give you what-for!, 
you'll catch it! 

aaflaHHJe [zAdan^iya] n -h, 
-H task, job; no -— lo kofo-ji. 
on smb's instructions. 

saAaTJoK [zAdatak, -g] m 
-Ka, pi -KH, -KOB 1. advance, 
deposit, earnest; 2. pi in- 
clinations {for), makings {of), 

aa^arb see saAasaTb. 

saAanja [zAdach^a] / -h, ^ 
1. problem {a difficult ques- 
tion); sum (a problem in 



arithmetic); 2. task, aim, 
object; oMepeAHan ~-a imme- 
diate task; nocxaBHTb ~y 
nepeA KeM-Ji. set smb a task; 
ueJiH H — H aims and purposes. 

saAeBJaTb [zad^i^vat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, saAJeTb 
[zAd^et^] perf -eny, -eHeiiib, 
p -en, imp -enb 1. touch, in- 
jure slightly (said of a mov- 
ing object); come (against), 
brush (against); be caught 
(in); knock (against); 2. fig 
hurt, offend. 

saACpataTb see 3aAep}KH- 

3aAep)KHB|aTb [zAd^erzhi- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 3a- 
Aep>K|aTb [zad^'i^rzhat^] perf 
-y, 3aAep>KHmb, p -aJi, imp 
-H 1. delay, detain, keep off; 
keep back, retard; — axbpas- 
BHXHe hamper the develop- 
ment (of); 2. arrest, detain. 

3aAeTb see 3aAeBaxb. 

saAHJHH [zad^n^iy] a back, 
hinder, rear; hind; 
<> ~flji Mbicjib secret pur- 
pose, ulterior motive; noMe- 
THTb -^HM HHCjiOM antedate. 

3aA6ji2KeHHOCT|b [zAdolzhan- 
nas^'t*', -z^d''] / -h, -efl debts, 
liabilities, arrears. 

saAoxHyTbCJi see saAHxaxb- 


saAyMaxb see saAyMbmaxb. 
saAyMaxbCfl see 3aAyMbi- 


3aAyMMHB|biH [zAdumch^i- 
viy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 
thoughtful, pensive; melan- 

saAyMbielaxb [zAdumivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, saAyMJaxb 

[zAdumat^] perf -aio, -aeuib 
1. plan, conceive; 2. intend, 
have the intention (to do 

saAyMbiBJaxbCJi [zAdumiva- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeiiib- 
CH, 3aAyM|axbcji [zAdumattsa] 
perf -aiocb, -aeuibCH fall to 
thinking, become thoughtful; 
be thoughtful; be lost in 
thoughts; muse, ponder, med- 
itate; o MeM xbi aaAyMaJiCH? 
what are you thinking of?; 
<> He ~ajicb without a mo- 
ment's hesitation. 

saAyuiHTb see AyuiHXb. 

saAbixjaxbcsi [zadtkhattsg] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 3a' 
AOXHlyibca [zsdAkhnuttja] 
perf -ycb, -euibCH, p -yJiCH, 
-yjiacb, imp -iicb, -Hxecb 
choke, suffocate (also fig); 
pant (breathe hard); gasp lor 
breath; --axbCH ox rneBa [ox 
CM^xa u m. n.] choke with 
anger [laughter, etc]. 

3ae3Klaxb [zayi^zh^iaf*] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, saexjaxb 
[zAyekhat^] perf 3aeAy, sa- 
eAeuib, p -aji 1. come (by 
vehicle) and stay (with smb 
or at a place for a short time); 
call on the way (by vehicle, 
on smb or at a place); visit 
(smb or some place); 2. get 
(somewhere, into), reach (some 
place) (by vehicle, very far or 
the wrong place); 3. fetch 
(smb), call (for smb) (by ve- 
hicle, on one's way); 4. go; 
come (both round, from the 
left or the right, or from be- 
hind); 3aexaxb 3a yroJi turn 
a corner (in a vehicle). 

— 129 


sacM [zAyom] m aaftMa, pi 
saHMbi, saHMOB loan {of mon- 

aaexaxb see saesKaxb. 

samapHTb see H^apHTb. 

saataxb see sajKHMaib. 

3a%e4b see aajKHraxb. 

3a}KHB|aTb [z9zhtv^t^] im- 
perf -aex, sajKJ^Tb [zAzhtt^] 
perf -HBCT, p 3a>KHJi, -HJia, sa- 
yKHJio, saMCHJiH heal, close, be- 
come well {of wounds, etc). 

3aasHraji|Ka [zazhigalka] / 
-KH, -OK (cigarette-)lighter. 

sajKHrjaTb [z9zhtgat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, 3a3K|eHb 
[zAzhech^] perf -ry, -}Kemb, 
-mo-T, -H^exe, -rvT, p -er, -rjia, 
imp -FH light {a candle, a fire, 
etc); — axb sJieKXpHHecTBO / 
CBex turn on the light; sa- 
HiCHb cnH^Ky strike a match. 

3a»HM|axb [zazhimat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, saacjaxb [za- 
zhat^] perf -My, -Meiub, p -aji, 
imp -MH 1. clutch, squeeze; 
sajKaxb B pyKe grip close 
one's hand over; 2.: '-axb 
Koc hold one's nose; ^axb 
yiuH stop up one's ears; 3. 
fig suppress {criticism, etc); 
keep down {initiative, etc); 
<> 3a»axb pox KOMy-ji. col 
stop /shut smb's mouth. 

3a3KHXOHH|bIH [ZAZhltsCh^- 

nly] a sh f sa^KHxoHeH, -a, -o, 
-bi well-to-do, prosperous. 

3a%HXb see sajKHsaxb. 

sasHaJBaxbcsi [zaznAvattja] 
imperf -locb, -euibCH, p -Baji- 
C5I, -BaJiacb, imp -BaftcH, 
-Baftxecb, 3a3H|axbC5i [zAzna- 
ttsa] perf -aiocb, -aeuibcn col 
be too proud of oneself, think 

no small beer of oneself; put 
on airs, give oneself airs. 

3aHK|axbC5i [zaikattsa] im- 
perf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, sa- 
HKH|yxbCfl [zaiknuttsa] perf 
-ycb, -embCH, p -yjicH, -yjiacb 
1. {mostly imperf) stutter; 
stammer, hesitate in speak- 
ing; 2. mention, touch {upon). 

sai^McxBJOBaxb [zAimst- 

yvat^] imperf -yio, -yeuib, p 
-OBa Ji, imp -yft, nojsaHMCXBo- 
Baxb [pazAimstyvat^] perf 
adopt, borrow. 

3aHHxepec|oBaxb [zain^t^ir^i- 
sAvat^] perf -yio, -yeiiib, p 
-OBaji, imp -yft cause to take 
interest, interest; excite 
{smb's) curiosity; mchh -^OBa- 
Jia axa KHHra I took an in- 
terest in that book. 

3aMHxepec|oBaxbcji [zain^t^i- 
r^isAva-ttja] perf -yiocb, -yeiiib- 
CH, p -OBaJicH, -OBaJiacb, imp 
-yflcH, -yuxecb get inter- 
ested {in), take an interest 
{in). ^ 

saHCKHBJaxb [zAisk^ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib: --axb ne- 
pe^ KCM-ji. fawn upon smb, 
curry favour with smb. 

3aHMa [zayma], 3aHM0B 
[zaymaf, -v] see aaeu. 

saHMH I [zAym^i] imp of 
saHHXb; see 3aHHMaxb I. 

3aHMH II [zAym^i] imp of 
3aHHXb; see 3aHHMaxb II. 

3aKMHCb [zAym^'is^, -z^], 
safiMHxecb [zAym^it^is^, -z^j 
imp of saH^xbCH; see saHH- 


3aHMy I [zAymu], 3aJiMeuib 
[zAym^osh, -zh] 1st & 2nd per- 
sons of 3aHflTb; see saHHMaxb I, 


130 — 

saHMy II [zAymu], safiMeuib 
[zAym^osh, -zh] 1st & 2 nd 
persons of saHHTb; see saHH- 
Maxb II. 

safiMycb [zAymus'', -z^j, 
saMMeuibca [zAym^oshs^a] 1st 
& 2nd persons of saHHTbcn; 
see aaHHMaxbCH. 

safiTH see aaxoAHXb. 

saftua [zaytsa], safiueB [zay- 
tsaf, -v] see aanu. 

Sanaa [zAkas, -z] m -a, -ob 
order {made at a store, etc); 
Ha ~ (made) to order; (made) 
to measure; ctoji -~ob order 
counter; order department. 

sakasaib see aaKaabisaxb. 

saKasHHK [zAkash^:ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB customer, client. 

saKasbiBlaxb [zAkazivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, saKaajaxb 
[zakAzat^] perf 3aKa>Ky, 3a- 
KajKeiub, p -aji, imp aaKajKH 
order {dinner, etc); saKasaxb 
6HJiex book a ticket. 

saKajieHHbiH [zakAl^onniy] 
a {pa\ sh f saKaJicH, saKaJiena, 
saKajiCHO, saKajieHb'i hardened 
{also fig); tempered {steel). 

saKaHHHBiaxb [zAkan^ch^i- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, sa- 
KOHHJHXb [zAkon^ch^it''] perf 
-y, -Hiiib, p -HJi, imp -H fin- 
ish, end, complete; conclude 
(a speech, etc). 

3aKaHHHB|axbC5i [zAkan''- 
ch^ivattja] imperf -aexca, sa- 
KOHwlHxbCH [zAkon^'ch^itlsa] 
perf -HXCH, p -h;ich, -HJiacb 
come to an end, finish; end 
{in, with). 

3aKax [zAkat, -d] m -a, -ob 

1. sunset; Ha -^e at sunset; 

2. fig decline. 

3aKJiaAbiB|axb [zAkladivat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, 3aji03K|Hxb 
[zalAzhit^] perf -y, aaJio- 
jKHiub, p -HJI, imp -H 1. put, 
lay {mostly behind smth. or 
deep into smth); put in, push 
in; put {into), push {into); 
2. mislay, put {in the wrong 
place making it difficult to 
find); 3. place /put a (book-) 
mark at a page; mark (a 
page); 4. stop up, fill up {a 
void or an opening); 5. heap, 
pile {with smth); 6. lay the 
foundation of {a house, etc); 
lay the foundation-stone of; 
7. pawn; mortgage; 8. impers 
col: ewiy [une u m. d.] sajio- 
>kh;io hoc [vuih] his [my, 
etc] nose is [ears are] stuffed. 

3aKjieHB|axb [zAkPeivat*"] 
imperf -aK), -aeuib, 3aKji6|HXfa 
[zAkPeit^] perf -lo, -Huib 
glue up; seal up {a window, 
envelope, etc). 

saKjiefiMHXb see KJieflMHXb. 

saKjnoHJaxb [zakl'^uch^at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, 3aKJiH)H|iiTb 
[zakl^uch^it''] perf -y -Huib, 
p -HJI, imp -H 1.: ~axb b 
xiopbMy imprison, put into 
prison; —axb noA cxpan^y 
take into custody; 2. close 
(down), wind up {a speech, 
etc); 3. conclude, infer, gath- 
er; 4. conclude {peace, a 
treaty, etc); contract {a loan, 
etc); ~axb napH bet, make a 
bet; 5. {no perf) contain 
{meaning, words, etc); — axb 
B ce6e contain {meaning, 
words, etc). 

3aKjiK)H|aTbCJi [zakPuch^'a- 
ttja] imperf -aexcfl consist (m), 

— 131 — 


be; m,€jio — aeicn, b tom, hto... 
the thing /point is that... 

3aK.iM)HeHM|e [zakl^'uch^e- 
n^iys] n -h, -h 1. imprison- 
ment; confinement, detention, 
commitment; iiojKHSHeHHoe 
~e life imprisonment; 2. con- 
clusion {of a treaty, etc); 
3. conclusion, inference; find- 
ings, resolution; 
<> B — e in conclusion. 

3aKJiK)HeHHlbiH [zakl^'u- 

chMnniy] m [pa] -oro, -bix 
prisoner, convict. 

3aKJiK)HUTejibH|biH [zakPu- 
ch'^it^il'^niy] a final {concert, 
etc); concluding {remarks, etc). 

saKjiioHHTb see saKJiioHaTb 
1. 2, 3. 4. 

saKOH [zAk6n] m -a, -ob 
law {1) of a state; 2) of na- 
ture, etc; 3) of honour, etc); 
act, statute; cboa ~ob stat- 
ute-book, code; no -~y ac- 
cording to the law; 
O o6-b5iBHTb BHC -~a outlaw, 

saKOHHibiH [zAkonniy] a sh 
f saKOHCH, -a, -o, -bi legal 
{actions, etc); legitimate, 
lawful {also fig). 

saKOHOAaTejibHibiH [zakanA- 
dat^il^nly] a legislative. 

3aK0H0MepH|biH [zakanA- 
m^ernty] a sh f saKOHOMepeH, 
-a, -o, -bi natural, regular, 

saKOHonpoeKT [zAkonaprA- 
ekt, -gd] m -a, -ob bill {a 
proposed law). 

saKOHHHTb See saKaH^HBaxb. 

saKOHMHTbCJi see saKaHHH- 


saKpeniiTb see aaKpenjiSTb. 

3aKpenji|HTb [zakr^i^pPat^] 
imperf -hk), -neuib, saKpenJHTb 
[zakr^i^p^it''] perf -jik>, -riiiib, 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. fix, fasten, 
secure; 2. consolidate {success, 
positions, etc). 

3aKpbiB|aTb jzakrivat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aemb, 3aKp|biTb 
[zAkrit^] perf -oio, -oeuib, p 
-hiji, imp -OH 1. shut, close; 
~aTb Ha saMOK lock (up) 
{the door, etc); ~aTb Ha sa- 
coB [Ha ?.ajiBH>KKy] bolt {the 
door, etc); — ajb Ha KpioqoK 
hook {the door, etc); saKpb'iTb 
KpbiuiKy close the lid; aa- 
Kpb'iTb KpbiujKofl put the lid 
on (a stew-pan, jar, etc); 

2. cover (up) {thoroughly); 

3. shut off, turn off {the gas, 
etc); 4. lock in, lock up {smb 
in a room, etc); 5. close, break 
up / off (a meeting, etc); 6. 
shut down, close down {an 
enterprise, etc); suppress (a 

O —aib rjia3a na hto-ji. shut 
one's eyes to smth; — arb 
pOT KOMy-ji. shut smb up, si- 
lence smb. 

3aKpbiT|bifl [zAkritiy] a [pa] 
sh f -~, -a, -o, -bi closed; 
--oe saceAaHHe closed meet- 
ing; private / secret session; 
<> B —CM noMemeHMH in- 

saKpbiTb see saKpbmaTb. 

saKycHTb see saKycbisaTb. 

3aKyc|Ka [zAkuska] / -kh, 
-OK hors d'oeuvre, appetizer; 
snack, bite; refreshments; 
xoJiOAHan -~Ka cold dish, 
hors d'oeuvre; ropaqaH --Ka 
hot appetizer; na --Ky for an 


132 — 

hors d'oeuvre [also see <>]; 
<> Ha ~Ky for a titbit. 

3aKycoHH|aH [zAkusach^- 
naya] / -oh, -lix snack bar. 

3aKycbiB|aTb [zAkusivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, saKycjMTb 
[zakus^if^] perf saKyiuy, 3a- 
kycHiub, p -HJi, imp -h 1. have 
a snack; 2.: ~aTb pbi6oH 
have some fish {with one's 
brandy, etc). 

aaji [zal] m -a, -ob hall (a 
large room or building); ~ 
o^HAaHHH waiting-room; 


sajiHB [zAl^if, -v] m -a, -ob 
bay, gulf. 

3ajiHB|aTb [zal^ivat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiub, saji'iMTb [zAl^it^] 
perf -bK), -beuib, p sajiHJi (-hji), 
-HJia, saJiHJio (-HJio), saJiHJiH 
(-hjih), /mp -eft 1. flood, inun- 
date; 2. fig fill with [fresh air, 
sun, etc); 3.: saJiHXb ctoji qep- 
HHJiaMH spill ink on the table; 
4.: ~aTb ac4)aJibT0M lay as- 
phalt {over a road). 

sajior 1 [zAlok, -g] m -a, 
-OB 1. deposit, guarantee; se- 
curity, caution money; ocxaB- 
jiHTb B ~ leave as a deposit; 
noA — on a deposit; on the 
security (o/); 2. //g guarantee, 

sajior II [zAlok, -g] m -a, 
-OB ling voice; cipa^aTejib- 
Hbifl ~' passive voice. 

3aJiOH(MTb see saKJiaAbiBaib. 

3aji6)KHHK [zAlozhn^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB hostage. 

sajin [zalp, -b] m -a, -ob 
volley, salvo; ^aTb ~ fire a 
volley/ salvo. 

3aMaHHB|aTb [zAman^'ivat^J 

imperf -aio, -aeuib, 3aMaH!HTb 
[zamAn^it''] perf -lo, 3aMa- 
HHUib, p -HJi, imp -H decoy 
[into), entrap; entice Jure, 

3aMaHHHB'jbiH [zAman^ch^i- 
vty] a sh f --, -a, -o, -bi 
tempting, alluring. 

3aMacKHpoBaTb see MacKH- 

3aMeAJiHTb see saMeA^iHib. 

3aMeAJi|flTb [zam^i^dPat^] 
imperf -iv), -nemb, 3aMeflJi|HTb 
[zAm^edPit^] perf -k), -Huib, 
-HJI, imp -H slow down; retard, 

3aMeH|a [zAm^'ena] / -bi, ~ 

1. replacement, substitution; 

2. substitute. 
saMeHHTb see saivieHHTb. 
3aMeH|flTb [zam^i^n^at^] 

imperf -hk), -Heuib, 3aMeH!HTb 
[zam^i^n^it''] perf -ib, saMe- 
HHiub, p -HJi, imp -H 1. re- 
place, substitute; 2. take the 
place of; oh saMeHHJi pe6eHKy 
OTua he was a father to the 

3aMep3|aTb [zam^i^rzat**] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, 3aMep3l- 
Hyxb [zAm^orznut^j perf -ny, 
-Heuib, p ~, -Jia, imp -hh 
freeze up, become frozen; be 
frozen; die of cold. 

3aMecTMTejilb [zam^i^s^t^i- 
t^iP] m -H, -eft deputy {act- 
ing for another). 

saivieTHTb see aaMenaTb. 

3aMeT|Ka [zAm^etka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. paragraph, short item 
{in a paper); 2. note {a short 

3aMeTH|biH [zAm^etniy] a 
sh / aaMeren, -a, -o, -ti vis- 

— 133 — 


ible, noticeable; appreciable, 

saMeHaHHJe [zam^i^ch^a- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. remark, 
observation; 2. reprimand, 
reproof; cAeJiaxb --e KOMy-ji. 
rebuke / reprimand / reprove 

aaMeHaTejibHJbiH [zam^i^- 
ch^'at^iPniy] a sh f saMe^a- 
TeJieH, ra, -o, -bi wonderful, 
remarkable, splendid. 

saMeHJaxb [zam^i^ch^at^] 
intperf -aio, -aeuib, saMeilHTb 
[zAm^et^it^] perf saivieqy, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -b 1. notice, 
see, get siglit of; 2. take no- 
tice of, mark; 3. remark, ob- 

3aMemaTejibCTB|o [zam^i^- 
shat^il^'stva] n -a confusion, 
embarrassment; npHBecra b 
~o throw into confusion; 
npHHTH B —o become embar- 
rassed / confused. 

saMcmldib [zam^i^sh^:at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib 1. replace, 
substitute; 2. .act for {smh). 

3aMKHyT|biH [zamknutiy] a 
[pa] sh f ^, -a, -o,- -u 1.: 
— bifl Kpyr exclusive circle; 
2. reserved {disposition, etc); 
^biH 66pa3 JKH3HH a secluded 

3aMloK [zamak, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB castle (a fortress; resi- 
dence) . 

3aM|6K [zAmok, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB lock {to fasten doors^ 
etc); padlock. 

3aM0JiKlaTb [zamAlkat^] im- 
perf -aro, -aeuib, saMOjiKJHyTb 
[zAmolknut^] perf -Hy, -neuib, 
p --, -Jia, imp -HH, 3aM0JiH|aTb 

[zamAlch^at^] perf -y, -rimb, 
p -aji, imp -H become silent; 
stop speaking [singing, read- 
ing, etc]; break off, cease {of 
a conversation, etc). 

saMOposKlH [zamarask^i] pi 
-OB slight frosts. 

3aMy}K [zamush, -zh] adv. 
BbiHTH -^ 3a Koro-Ji. marry 
smb {of a woman); BbiAaib ~ 
marry off {a woman). 

3aMy>KeM [zamuzham] adv. 
oHa ~ she Is married; 6biTb 
~ 3a KeM-Ji. be married to 
smb {of a woman). 

saMyHHTb see My^HTb. 

saMbicjeji [zamis^d] m -Jia 
-JiOB intention, plan; scheme, 
conception; npecxynHbift -~eJi 
criminal design. 

saMbicjiHTb see saMbiuiJiHTb. 

3aMb]uiJi|flTb [zamishl^at^] 
imperf -iio, -Hemb, saMbicji'iHTb 
[zAmis^l^it^] perf -k>, -Huib, 
p -HJI, imp -H contemplate, 
intend, plan; hto bh — nexe? 
what are you up to? 

saHaeec [zanav^is, -z] m -a, 
-OB curtain {a cloth); ony- 
cTHTb — drop the curtain. 

3aHaBec|Ka [zanAv^eska] / 
-KH, -OK curtain(s) {at a win- 
dow or door); saAepnyib — Ky 
draw the curtain(s). 


3aHHM|aTb I [zan^imat**] 
imperf -an), -aeuib, 3aH|flTb 
[zAn^at^] perf 3aiiMy, aaft- 

MeUlb, p SaUHJI, -HJI^, 3aH5IJI0, 

aauHJiH, imp aaPiuE borrow 
{money, etc). 

3aHHMlaTb II [zan^imat^] 
imperf -aro, -aeuib, sanj^Tb 
[zAH^at^] perf saiiMy, aaH- 

- 134 

Meiub, p aaHHJi, -HJia, saHHJio, 
saHHJiH, imp safiMH 1. occupy; 

KapTHHbl ~aJlH BCK) CTCHy 

the pictures took up the 
whole wall; ~aTb A6Ji>KH0CTb 
hold an office/ a post; 2. en- 
gage, keep, secure (a seat, 
etc); 3.: sto aafiMeT HCMHoro 
BpeMeHH it won't take much 

3aHHM|aTbCfl [zan^imattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 3a- 
HlflTbCH [zAn^attja] perf saft- 
Mycb, saHMeiiibCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp saiiMHCb, saHMH- 
xecb 1. be engaged {in), en- 
gage {in), be occupied {with); 
indulge {in); devote oneself 
{to); go in {for); 2. do, be 
busy {with); be busy {doing 
smth); study {medicine, etc); 
perf also take up {a question, 
etc); neM bm ^aexecb? what 
are you doing?; what do you 
do?; 3. {no perf) study {at 
school, etc). 

saHOBO [zanava] adv anew. 

saHOBJa [zAnoza] / -u, ^ 
splinter {a sharp piece of 
wood, etc). 

aaHocJHTb [zanAs^it^] /mpe/-/ 
saHOuiy, saHocHuib, p -hji, 
imp -H, aaHcclTH [zan^'i^s^t^i] 
perf -y, -euib, p saHec, -Jia, 
imp -H 1. bring {1) smth 
somewhere or to smb, mostly 
on one's way; 2) smb to a 
remote or strange place); 
2. register, enter {in the 
minutes, etc); 3.: bck) Aopo- 
ry sanecjio chcfom the road 
is snow-bound. 

3aH6cHHB|biH [zAnosh^'-.ivly] 
a sh J; '^, -a, -o, -bi arrogant, 

insolent; overbearing, haugh- I 
ty. 1 

3aHflTH|e [zAn'^at^iya] n -h, 
pi -n, -H 1. seizure, occupa- 
tion; 2. occupation, business, 
work, pursuit; 3. pi studies, 
lessons; qacu ~h school hours. 

3aHnTH|biH [zAn'^atniy] a 
sh f saHHTeH, -a, -o, -u amus- 
ing, entertaining. 

aaHHTOH [zan^i^toy] a busy 

saHHxIbiH [zan^at+y] a [pa] 
sh f — , -a, -0, -bi: xbi — ? 
are you busy?; Mecxo —o the 
seat is occupied; ~o! en- 
gaged!, the line is busy! {in a 
telephone call); na sxom saBo- 
Ae ~o ABe xbicHMH pa66qHX 
two thousand workers are em- 
ployed in this factory. 

saHMxb I see saHHMaxb I. 

3aHflXb II see sauHMaxb II. 

3aHnTbCH see saHHMaxbCH 
1. 2. 

saoAHo [zAAdno] adv 1. in 
concert {with), together, at 
one {with smb); 2. col at the 
same time, while one is about 
it; KynH xjie6a, a ~ saftAH 
sa KHHFOH go and buy some 
bread, and fetch the book, too. 

saocxpHxb see saocxpnxb. 

3aocxp|Hxb [zAAstr^at^] /m« 
perf -HK), -Heiub, 3aocxp|Hxb 
[zAAstr^it^] perf -ib, -Huib, p 
-HJi, imp -H 1. sharpen (a 
pencil, etc); 2. fig stress, 
emphasize; ~HXb BHHMaHHe 
Ha qeM-ji. direct one's [smb's] 
attention to smth. 

3a6HH|biH [ZAoch^nty] a 
correspondence {attr) {teach- 
ing, courses, etc). 

— 135 — 


Sanaa [zapat, -d] m -a 
west; Ha ~e in the west; na 
^ OT... to the west of...; 
exaTb Ha -— go to the west. 

sanaAHbiH [zapadniy] a 
west, western; occidental. 

3anaflH|H [zapAd^n^a] / -i5, 
-eft trap, snare, pitfall {also 

aanac [zApas, -z] m -a, -ob 

1. stock, supply, reserve; ne- 
npHKocHOBeHHbiH -^ emergen- 
cy store; emergency ration; 

2. mil reserve; yeojiHTb s -^ 
discharge; dismiss; transfer 
to the reserve. 

sanacjdTb [zapAsat^] irnperf 
-aio, -aeiub, 3anac|TH [zapAs^- 
t^i] perf -y, -euib, p aanac, 
-jia, imp -H lay in a stock, 
stock up, store (up), hoard. 

3anac|aTbCfl [zapAsattja] 
imperf -^locb, -aembCH, aa- 
naclxHCb [zapAs^'t^is^] perf 
-ycb, -eiiibCH, p aanaccH, 
-jiacb, imp -HCb, -iiTecb lay 
in {for the winter, etc); pro- 
vide oneself with (cer/Z/Zra/es, 

<> ~aTbcii repn^HHCM be pa- 
tient, arm oneself with pa- 

sanacHJofl [zapAsn6y] & 3a- 
nacHbifl [zApasnIy] a spare 
{parts, etc); ~6h HrpoK sub- 
stitute {in games); sanacHbifl 
BbixoA emergency exit. 

3anacTH see sanacaxb. 

aanacTHCb see aanacaibCH. 

3anax [zapakh, -gh] m -a, 
-OB smell, odour. 

sanaHKaTb see na^KaTb. 

aanepexb see sanHpaxb. 

sanepexbCfl seesanHpaxbCH. 

3anHp|axb [zap^irat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, 3anep|eTb 
[zap^i^r^et^] perf sanpy, sa- 
npeiub, p sanep, -jia, sanep- 
jio, sanepjiH, imp sanpH 1. 
lock {the door, etc); ~axb na 
sacoB [na sa^BiiJKKy] bolt 
{the door, etc); ~a.xb na Kpio- 
^6k hook {the door, etc); 2, 
lock in, lock up. 

3anHp|axbCH [zap^irattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, sa- 
nep |eTbc$i [zap^i^^r^'ettja] perf 
sanpycb, sanpeiubcn, p -ch, 
-jiacb, -jiocb, -JiHCb, imp sa- 
npHCb, sanpHxecb lock oneself 

sanHcaxb see sanHCbmaxb. 

sanHcJKa [zAp^'iska] / -kh', 
pi -KH, -OK 1. note {a very 
short letter); 2.: AOKJiaAHaK 
~Ka memorandum, written 
report {to one's chief, etc); 

3. pi notes {for a speech, etc); 

4. pi memoirs; 5. pi: yqenbie 
~KH transactions. 

sanHCbiBJaxb [zAp^islvat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, sanHcjaxb 
[zap^isat^] perf sanHiuy, sa- 
HHmeiub, p -&Ji, imp sanHuiH 
1. put down, take down, 
write down; jot down; put on 
record; 2.: ~axb na nJieHKy 
record (on tape), make a 
recording {of smth); 3. enter 
{on a list); register {in the 
minutes, etc). 

sanHcjb [zap^is^, -z^] / -h, 
-eft 1. writing down; 2. re- 
cording {on tape, etc); 3. en- 
try {in a book, etc). 

aanjiaxja [zAplata] / -bi, -^ 
patch {on a hole); b ~ax all 


— 186 ^ 

san.iaTHTb see njiaxHTb. 

3anoBe;;HHK fzapAV^'ed^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob preserve; reserve, 

sanosflajiwH [zapAzdaliy] a 
belated, delayed. 

sanoJiHHTb see aanojiHHTb. 

3anojiH|nTb [zapAln^'at''] 
imperf -hio, -neiiib, sanoji- 
HlHTb [zApoln^it^] perf -k), 
-Hiiib, p -HJi, imp -H fill (up, 
in); pack {a hall, etc). 

sanoMHHJaTb [z9p9m^inat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, sanoM- 
HjHTb [zApomn^it^] perf -lo, 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -H memo- 
rize, remember. 

3anoH|Ka [zapanka] / -kh, 
-OK cuff-link. 

sanpCTHTb see sanpeinaib. 

sanpeii^jaTb [z9pr^i^sh^:at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, sanpe- 
TJMTb [zapr^i^t^it^] perf sa- 
npemy, -Hiub, p -hji, imp 
-H forbid; prohibit, ban; 
sanpexHTb raseTy suppress a 

sanpoc [zApros, -z] m -a, 
pi -bi, -OB 1. inquiry {an 
official question); CAeJiaxb -- 
ask [write] for information; 
make an inquiry {about)', 2. 
pi requirements, needs; in- 
terests {spiritual, etc). 

sanpyflja [zApruda] / -bi, 
-- 1. dam, weir; 2. pond 
{formed by a z£;e/r); mill-pond. 

sanpflrjaTb [z3pr^i^gat^]/m- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, sanpfllwb 
[zApr^ach^] perf -ry, ->Keiiib, 
-ryx, p -r, -rJia, imp -fh 
harness {a horse). 

sanycKJaTb I [zapuskat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, aany- 

crlHTb [zapus^t^it^] perf 3a- 
nymy, sanycTHiub, p -hji, 
imp -H \. col fling, throw, 
shy {a stone, etc); 2. start 
{an engine); 3. launch (a 
rocket, etc). 

3anycK|aTb II [zapuskat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, 3any- 
CT|HTb [zapus^t'^it^] perf sa- 
nymy, sanycTHiub, p -hji, imp 
-H neglect {one's household 
duties, etc). 

sanycTHTblsee sanycKaib I. 

sanycTHTb II see sany- 
CKaxb II. 

3anyTaTbcji see sanyibi- 


3anyTbiB|aTbCJi [zAputtva- 
ttsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 
3anyT|aTbcn [zAputattsa] per/ 
-aiocb, -aeuibCH 1. ^tangle, 
get entangled; entangle one- 
self {in a net, etc); 2. fig 
entangle oneself {in debt, etc); 
get into a difficult position; 
3. fig confuse everything 
[things], get everything 
[things] mixed up. 

3ansiT|afl [zap^i^taya] / -68, 
-b'lx comma. 

3apa6aTbiBlaTb [zarAbati- 
vat^j imperf -aio, -aeuib, sapa- 
66T|aTb [zarAbotat^] per/-aK), 
-aemb earn, make {money). 

3apa6oT|oK [zarabatak, -g] 
m -Ka, -KOB earnings; jicfkhh 
•~0K easy money. 

3apam\dLTb [zarAzhat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, 3apa3|HTb 
[zarAZ^ft^] perf 3apaH<y, -rimb, 
p -HJI, imp -H infect {also 
fig); contaminate; pollute' 
{the atmosphere, etc). 

sapajKJaTbCfl [zarAzhattsa] 

— 137 — 


imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, sapa- 
sJHTbcs! [zarAz^itbsa] perf 
8apa>Kycb, -HuibCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 
catch [a disease); be infected 
by (a/so fig). 

3apajKeHH|e [zarAzhen'^iya] 
n -H, -H infection {the act or 
state o/); contamination; pol- 
lution [of the atmosphere, 
etc); ~e KposH blood-poison- 

aapasja [zAraza] / -bi in- 
fection, contagion {a disease). 

sapasHTCJibHlbiH [zarAz^i- 
t^iPnly] a sh '/ sapasHTCJieH, 
-a, -o, -bi infectious. 

sapasHTb see aapa^Kaib. 

sapasMTbcfl see aapajKaxbCH. 

3apa3H|biH [zArazniy] a 
sh f aapascH, -a, -o, -bi in- 
fectious, contagious {disease, 

sapanee [zAran^iya] adv 
beforehand, in advance; in 
good time. 

3apeB|o [zar^iva] n -a glow 
(0/ a fire, etc). 

3aperHCTpHpOBaTb see pe- 


saperHCTpHpoBaxbcsi see pe- 


3ape3axb see pesaxb 2. 

3apHHu|a [zArn^itsa] / -bi, 
— summer lightning; US 

3ap6Abiiii [zArodish, -zh] m 
-a, -eft embryo {also fig); 
noAasHXb B ~e nip in the 

3apocji|b [zaras^l^] / -h, 
-eii brush, thicket, under- 

3apnjiaT[a [zArplate] / -u 

col (= 3apa6oxHaH njiaxa) 
wages; pay, salary. 

3apy6e»HbiH [zarub^ezhnly] 
a foreign {country, etc). 

3apbiB|axb [zarivat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiijb, 3ap|bixb [zArtt^] 
perf -OK), -oeiub, p -biJi, imp 
-OH bury {a treasure, etc). 

3SLp\a [zAr^a] / -h, pi sopH, 
3opb, -HM (aopHM) 1. dawn, 
daybreak; sunset, evening 
glo\v; Ha -~e at dawn; 2. fig 
outset, start; 

<> ox ~M Ao --H 1) all day 
long; 2) all night long; hh 
cBex HH —fl before dawn, 
very early. 

3apflA [zAr^at, -d] m -a, 
-OB charge, load. 

3apsiAHxb see sapHjKaxb. 

3apH;i|Ka [zAr^atka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. loading, charging; 2. 
sport setting-up exercises; 
morning exercises. 

3apfl>Klaxb [zar^i^zhat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, sapHAlHxb 
[zar^i^d^if"] perf sapHJKy, 
-Huib (sapHAHUJb), p -HJi, imp 
-H load, charge. 

3acafl|a [zAsada] / -bi,,'-' 
ambush; ycxpOHXb --y make 
an ambush. '•• 

3aceAaHHle [zas^i^dan^iya] 
n -H, -H sitting, session, 
conference, meeting. 

3acjiyr|a [zAsluga] / -h, — 
service {to one's country, etc); 
«C> no —aM according to smb's 
deserts; cxaBHxb KOMy-ji. b 
— y put down to smb's credit. 

sacjiyiKCHH I biH [z/vsluzhaniy ] 
a [pa] 1. well-deserved, mer- 
ited; 2. honoured, merito- 
rious {as part of a title). 

3a c 

— 138 — 

3acjiy}KHB|aTb [zAsluzht- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib 
sacjiymJHTb [zasluzhtt^] perf 
-y, sacjiyjKHiub, p -hji, imp 
-H deserve, be worthy of. 

aacMelHTbCfl [zasm^i^yattsa] 
perf -K)Cb, -embCH, p -h;ich, 
-Hjiacb, imp aacMeflcjl, sacMeft- 
Tecb begin laughing; burst 
out laughing. 

aacHyib see aacbinaxb I. 

sacopHTb see aacopHTb. 

3acop|flTb [zasAr^at''] im- 
perf -HK), -Heiub, sacoplHTb 
[zasAr^'it^] perf -ib, -riiub, p 
-HJi, imp -H 1. litter (up); 
2. obstruct, jam {the passage 
of a tube, etc); ~HTb meJiy- 
ji,OK constipate the bowels; 
cause constipation; h ~hji 
^ejiy^oK I have constipation. 

sacrdBJa [zAstavs] / -bi, — 
1. (town) gate; 2.: norpaHHM- 
Han ~a frontier post; frontier 

sacral Barb [zastAvat^] im- 
perf -K), -eiiib, p -saJi, imp 
-safl, 3acT|aTb [zAstat^j perf 
-any, -anemb, p -aji,- imp 
-aHb 1. find, catch (smb in, 
at home, etc); 2. catch {smb 
doing smth). 

sacraBHTb see sacraBJiHTb. 

sacTaBJijiiTb [zastAvl^at**] 
imperf -aio, -Heuib, sacra- 
B|HTb [zAstav^it*"] perf -jik), 
-HUJb, p -HJi, imp -b make, 
force, compel; aaciaeHTb aa- 
AyMaibCH set thinking; oh hc 
aacxaBHJi ceSa npocHTb we 
[they, etc] didn't have to 
persuade him; he was will- 
ing enough. 

sacraTb see sacTaeaTb. 

3acTerHB|aTb [zAs^t^og^i- 
V9t^] imperf -avD, -aeuib, sa- 
CTerHJyTb [zas^'t^i^gnut'^] perf 
-y, -euib, p -yji, imp -h do 
up (a button, etc); button 
(up); hook (a dress, etc). 

3acTe3K|Ka [zAs^t^oshka] / 
-KH, -eK fastening {mostly a 
hook or button); clasp, hasp. 

3acTeH4HB|bih [zA$'*t''en^- 
ch^iviy] a sh f ^, -a, -o, 
-bi shy, coy, bashful. 

sacTolfi [zAstoy] m -h, -es 
stagnation {the state of); de- 
pression, slack. 

sacTpejilHTb [z8str^i^l''it*'] 
perf -K), sacTpejiHiiib, p -hji, 
imp -H shoot (down), kill by 

sacTpejijiiTbCJi [z9str^i^l''i- 
tts9] perf -K)Cb, aacTpeJiHiub- 

CH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, imp -HCb, 

-Hxecb shoot oneself. 

sacTpejibmHK [zAstr^el''- 
sh^rik, -g] m -a, -ob pioneer, 

sacTynjaTbcq [z9stupatts9] 
imperf -arocb, -aembCH, sa- 
CTyn|HTbCfl [z9stup''ittS9] perf 
-jiiccb, aaciynHuibCH, p-HJiCH, 
-HJiacb, imp HCb, -Hiecb 
stand up {for smb), take 
{someone's) part; intercede 
{with smb for smb). 

sacyxja [zasukhg] / -h, ~ 
drought {want of rain). 

sacb'maTb see aacbmaib II. 

sacwnjaTb I [Z9sipat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, sacHlyxb 
[zAsnut''] perf -y, -emb, p 
-yji, imp -H fall asleep. 

3acbin|aTb II [z^sipai^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeujb, 3acbm|aTb 
[zAStpaf*] perf -Jiio, -Jieuib, 

— 139 — 


p -aji, imp -b 1. fill up 
{jsDith sand, earth, etc); 2. cov- 
er {with sand, leaves, etc); 
3.: ~aTb BonpocaMH ply with 
questions; sacbinaTb noAap- 
KaMH load with presents. 

aaxcM [zAt^em] adv 1. then, 
after that; 2.: -^, HT66bi... 
in order that... 

aareMHeHHle [zat^i^mn^e- 
n^iya] n -«, -ii mil black-out. 

saTHxjaxb [zat^ikhat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuib, saTHXHJyTb 
[zAt^'ikhnut''] perf -y, -euib, 
p saTHx, saxHxjia, imp -ii 
calm down, lull; die away. 

aaxKHyTb see saTbiKaxb. 

3aTMeHH|e [zAtm^en^'iya] n 
-H> -H 1. as/ron eclipse; 2. col: 
Ha Hero namjio -~-e his mind 
has gone [went] blank. 

3aT6 [zAt6] cj denoting 
compensatory comparison or 
consequence', sia KOMHara Ma- 
jieHbKaa, — yibxHaH this 
room is small, but cosy. 

sarop [zAtor] m -a, -ob jam, 
obstruction; (traffic) jam, 


sarpaeliTb see xpaBHTb 2, 3. 

3aTpdrHB|aTb [zAtrag^ivat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, sarpo- 
H|yTb [zAtronut^] perf -y, 
-euib, p -yji, imp -b 1. affect 
{smb's interests, etc); 2. touch 
on (a subject, etc). 

saTpyflHeHHJe [zatrud^n^e- 
n^'iya] n -h, -h difficulty; 
embarrassment; b ~h at a 
IpSS; BblHTH H3 ~H get Out 
of trouble / a difficulty; Hcnw- 
TbiBaxb —51 be in a diffi- 
cult position. 

saipyAHHTb see saTpy^HHTb. 
sarpyAHHTbCH see saxpy^- 


saTpyAHJflTb [zatrud^n^at^] 
imperf -hk), -neuib, sarpyA- 
H|HTb [zatrud^n^it^j perf -k), 
-Huib, p -HJi 1. give trouble, 
trouble; embarrass {of a 
question, etc); Bac He —ht 
npHHTH saBxpa? col would 
you mind coming tomorrow?; 

2. hamper, impede; make 

3axpyAH|flxbCfl [zatrud^n^a- 
ttsa] imperf -Hiocb, -Heuib- 
CH, 3axpyAH|HxbC5i [zatrud^- 
n^'ittsa] perf -wcb, -HuibCH, p 
-HjicH, -HAacb find it difficult, 

saxxjijbiH [zatkhliy] a sh f 
~, -a, -o, -bi stuffy, close 
{air); musty {room, etc). 

3axbiK|dxb [?attkat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, saxKHJyxb 
[zAtknut^] perf -y, -euib, p 
-yji, imp -H 1. stop up, plug 
(up); cork up (a bottle); 2. 
thrust {into), push {into), 
shove {into); 

<> 3axKHyxb Koro-Ji. sa none 
col ^ be one too many for 
smb, outdo smb. 

3axbijiloK [zAtllak, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB back of the head; 
<> B ~0K in file, one behind 

saxflrHBJaxb [zAt^ag^ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, 3axnH|yxb 
[zat^i^nut^] perf -y, saxH- 
Heuib, p -yji, imp -h 1. tight- 
en {a knot, etc); 2. drag in, 
suck in {of a swamp, etc); 

3. cover, close {the sky, said 
of clouds)^ 4. delay, drag out. 


^ 140 -^ 

saTii^KHOH [z9t^i^zhn6y] a 
long, protracted, delayed. 

saxflHyTb see sax^rHBaxb. 

3aypnAH|biH [zaur^adniy] a 
sh / 'SaypHAeH, -a, -o, -u 
ordinary, commonplace; — lih 
qeJiOBCK mediocrity, 

aaxeaxHxb see saxsaxbiBaxb. 

3axBaxbiB|axb [zAkhvati- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
3axBax|Mxb [z9khvAt^it^] per/ 
saxBa^y, saxBaxHiub, p -hji,. 
imp -H 1. take along, take 
{with oneself); bring {with 
oneself); 2. seize, capture; 3. 
col', ero saxBaxHJi ao^a^ he 
was caught in the rain; 4. 
carry away, captivate, thrill, 

<> aaxBaxHXb epacnjiox take 
by surprise, take unawares. 

saxjieSHyxbCfl see 3ax;ie6bi- 


3axjie6biB|axbCJi [zAkhPobi- 
V9tts"9] imperf -aiocb,- -aeiiib- 
CH, 3axjie5H|yxbCfl [z9khl''i^b- 
nutts9] perf -ycb, -eiubCH, 
p -yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb choke {with water, etc); 
swallow {water, etc) the 
wrong way. 

saxjionHyxb see saxJionbi- 

saxjionbiBJaxb [zAkhlopt- 
V9t''] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
3axji6nHlyxb [zAkhlopnut^] 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp -h 
slam, ijang {the door, etc). 

saxoA [zAkhot, -d] m -a, 
-ob: — coJiHua sunset. 

saxoAlHxb [z9khAd^it^] im- 
perf 3axo>Ky, saxoAHLUb, p 
-H.T, imp -H, 3aH|xH [zAyf^i]. 
perl -Ay, -Aeiiib, p aauieji, 

3am jia, imp -ah 1. drop in 
{at some or smb's place), 
call {on smb or at some place); 
~HXb 3a KeM-Ji. fetch smb, 
call for smb {on one's way); 

2. get, come {very far or to 
the wrong place); find oneself 
{in a strange place, etc); 

3. go; come {both mostly 
behind smth or from some 
side); saftxH 3a yro;i turn a 
corner; 4. set {of the sun); 
5. turn {on smth, of a con- 

3axoxexb see xoxexb. 

3aHaxHyxb see waxnyxb. 

3aHeM [zAch^'em] adv inter & 
rel what for; why {do it, etc). 

aaneM-xo [zAch''emt9] adv 
for some reason or other, for 
some purpose or other. 

3aHepKHB|axb [zAch^ork^i- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
saHepKHJyxb [z9ch^i^rknut^J 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp -h 
cross out, strike out. 

3aHex [zAch^'ot, -d] m -a, 
-OB (course) credit test; -- 
no pyccKOMy HSbiKy credit 
test in Russian; cAaxb — - 
pass a credit test; nojiymixb 
— get credit for a course. 

3a4HCJlHXb see 3aHHCJlHXb. 

3aHHc;i|«xb [z9ch^is''Pat^] 
imperf -hk>, -neuib, 3aHHC- 
jiJHXb [zAch^is^Pit''] perf -k), 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -H take on 
(the staff); put on the list. 

sameji [zAshol], sauijia 
[zAshla] p of saftxH; see aaxo- 


3aiuHB|axb [z9shivat''] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, 3am|Hxb 
[zAshtt^] perf -bib, -beiiib, p 

— 141 


-HJi, imp -efl sew (up); mend 
{smth made of fabric). 

aaiuTonarb see uiTonaTb. 

3aii;HT|a [zAsh^n'ta] / -u 
protection, defence {also sport 
& law); safeguard. 

saujHTHTb see 3am.HmaTb 
1. 2. 

samMTHHK [zAsh^^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob 1. protector, 
defender; 2. law counsel for 
the defence; 3. sport (full-) 

samHmjaTb [z8sh^:ish^:at^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, samH- 
T|HTb [zash^^it^] perf sa- 
iUHmy, -HiKb, p -HJI, imp -h 

1. defend {one's country, a 
child, etc); protect {smb,etc); 

2. defend, stand up for, 
speak in support of; 3. {no 
perf) law plead for. 

sasiBHTb see sansJiHTb. 

saHBJKa [zAyafka] / -kh, 
-OK demand {for), claim (/or); 
KOHuepT no ~KaM listeners' 
choice concert. 

aaflBJieHHJe [zayi^vPen^'iys] 
n -H, -H 1. statement, decla- 
ration; 2. application {a writ- 
ten request). 

saflBJilnxb [zayi^vl'at^] im- 
perf -HK), -Heuib, SaflBJilTb 
[zayi^v^it^] perf -jiib, sa- 
HBHUib, p -H.i, imp -H declare, 
state; announce, let know; 
saHBHTb npoxecT make a pro- 
test; ~^Tb npasa na mo-Ji. 
claim smth, claim one's 
right to smth. 

saau [zayats, -dz] m 3aH^a, 
pi 'saflubi, 3aHu,eB 1. hare; 
2. col stowaway {one who 
wants to get a free passage); 

exaxb saftueM stow away 
{without a ticket); 
<> norHaTbCJi 3a AByMfl 3aH- 
UaMH ^ want to kill two 
birds with one stone; sa ARy- 
Mfl 3aHi^aMH noroHHuibcsi, hh 
oflHoro He noHMaeiub prov ^ 
grasp all, lose all. 

SBaHHJe [zvan^iya] n -h, 
-H rank, title. 

3Ba|Tb [zvat^] imperf soey, 
soBeuib, p -Ji, -jia, ssajio, 

3BajIH, imp 30BH, nO':3BaTb 

[pAzvat^] perf 1. call {to 
make smb hear or come); ~Tb 
Ha noMomb cry for help; sac 
soBVT you are wanted; 2. 
invite, ask; no3BaTb b Tearp 
[b khho u m. n.\ invite to 
the theatre [cinema, etc]; 3. 
{no perf): KaK sac soByT? 
what's your name?; Menn 30- 
Byr... my name is... 

3Be3flla [zv^i^zda] / -b'l, pi 
3Be3Abi, 3Be3;^, 3Be3AaM star 
{also fig); 

<> OH 3Be3A c He6a He xBa- 
raer col ^ he's no genius; 
he won't set the Thames on 

SBenlexb [zv^i^n^et^] im- 
perf -K), -Huib, p -eJi, imp 
-H ring, clang; clank, jangle, 
clink, jingle. 

3BeH|6 [zv^i^no] n -a, pi 
3BeHbH, 3BeHbeB 1. link (of a 
chain); 2. team, group {in 

3BeHbeB|6H [zv^m^'yi^voy] 
m -oro, -bix field-team leader 
{in farming). 

3BepHHbiH [zv^i^r^inty] a 
1. of a beast; 2. fig savage, 


142 — 

SBepCKJHH [zv^ersk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He brutal, savage, 

3Bepib [zv^er^] m -h, pi 
'H, -eft, -HM (wild) beast. 

3B0H [zvon] m -a ringing, 
clanging, clang; clank, tin- 
kling; chime {of bells). 

sBOHiHTb [zvAn^it^] ittiperf 
-K), -Hiiib. p -HJi, imp -H, 
nojSBOHMTb [p9zvAn^it^] perf 
1. ring {at the door, of the 
telephone, etc); — HTb e sbo- 
HOK [b kojiokoji] ring the 
bell; ~HT there's a ring, 
somebody is ringing; 2. 
phone, ring up; bh He xy^a 
~HTe you've got the wrong 
number {said over the tele- 

SBOHKJHH [zvonk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f bbohok, -a, -o, 
■-H ringing, clear {voice, etc); 
<> ~HH cor,iacHbiH ling 
voiced consonant; ~aji mo- 
Heia hard cash. 

3bqh|6k [zvAnok^ -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB 1. bell {at the door, 
etc); 2. ring {of a bell); flaxb 
—OK ring, ring the bell; 
pa3AaJiCH ~6k a bell rang; 
the telephone rang; —ok no 
Tejie^ony / Tejie4)6HHbiH —ok 
telephone call. 

3ByK [zvuk, -g] m -a, -ob 
1. sound; 2. ling: rjiacHbift 
— vowel; corJiacHbiH — con- 
<> nycTOH — merely a sound. 

sByHJaTb [zvuch^'at^] im- 
perf -HT, p -aji, npo;3ByHaTb 
[pr9zvuch^at^] perf sound 
{of music, smb's voice, etc); 
be heard. 

3AaHHie [zdan^'iya] n h, 
-H building, edifice. 

3Aecb [z^d^es^, -z^] adv 
here (/) in this place; 2) at 
this point). 

3AeujKHH [z^d^'eshn^iy] a 
local, of this place; — >kh- 
TCJib resident of this place; 
H He — I'm a stranger here. 

3Aop6B|aTbC5i [zdArovattsa] 
imperf -awcb, -aeuibcn, no:- 

3AOp6BaTbCfl [p9ZdAr6V9ttS8] 

perf greet, say "how do you 
do"; — aibCH c KeM-Ji. 3a pyKy 
shake hands with smb. 

3Aop6B|biH [zdAroviy] a sh 
/ — , -a, -o, -bi 1, healthy 
{person, etc); strong, robust; 
2. healthy, wholesome; sa- 
lubrious {air); 3. fig sound 
{idea, etc); 4. col huge, big; 
strong, hard; 

<> Synbie — bi! 1) good-bye!; 
good luck!; 2) keep well!; 
bless you! {said when a per- 
son sneezes). 

3A0p6Bb|e [zdArov^ya] n -h 
health; KaK Bame — e? how 
are you?; no coctohhhk) ~5I 
for reasons of health; 
<> 3a Bame —el (to) your 
health!; na —el to your pleas- 
ure!; you're welcome! 

3jipaBHHu|a [zdravn^itsa] / 
-bi, — health resort. 

3flpaBooxpaHeHM|e [zdravA- 
AkhrAn^'en^iya] n -h public 
health; health service. 

3flpaBCTByfi(Te) [zdrastvuy 
{-i^i)] int how do you do! 

3eB|aTb [z^'i^vat'"] imperf 
-aK), -aeuib, seeHlyrb [z'^i^V- 
nut''] perf -y, -euib, p -yji, 
imp -H, npoiseBaxb [pr9z^i^- 

— 143 — 


vat^] perf 1. (seBHyTb) yawn 
{in sleepiness); 2. {no perf) 
col gape {at)\ be idle {not 
busy); 3. (npoaesaTb) col miss, 
let slip; He ~aft! look sharp! 
*3ejieHbiH [z''i^l''6niy] a shf 
sejieH, aejiena, aejieno, ae- 
jieHbi green {also fig). 

seJieHJb [z^'ePin^] / -h 1. 
verdure; 2. greens, vegetables. 

3eMeJibH|biH [z^i^m^el^'niy] 
a ~aH pe(i)6pMa land reform; 
--biH yqacTOK plot of land. 

d*'el''its, -d?] m -bua, -bues 

seMJieACJiMJe [z^iml^i^d^'e- 
Piya] n -h agriculture, farm- 

seMJiCTpflceHHle [z^iml*'i- 
tr^'i^s^en^iya] n -h, h earth- 

3eMJi|fl [z^i^ml^a] / -h, ace 
SCMJIK), pi SCMJIH, seMejib, 
seMJiHM 1. earth {our planet); 
2. earth, world; 3. ground, 
earth; 4. land {1) property; 
2) opposite of sea); 5. soil 
{mould) ; 

"^ cpoBHflTb c — efi raze to 
the ground. 

scMJiflK [z^i^mPak, -g] m 
-a, -OB (fellow-)countryman; 
fellow-lownsman; fellow-vil- 

3eMJiflHHK|a [z^iml^'i^n^ika] 
/ -H wild strawberry. 

seMJiflHJKa [z^i*^mPank9j / 
-KH, -OK mud-hut; dug-out. 

scMHOH [z^i^mnoy] a earth- 
ly; ~ map the globe. 

3epKaji|o [z^erkab] n -a, 
pi -a, 3epKaji, -au looking- 
-glass, mirror {also fig); 

<0> KpHBoe ~o crooked/ dis- 
torting mirror. 

3epH|6 [z^i^rno] n -a, pi 
aepna, sepeH.sepHaM 1. grain, 
seed; K6(|)e b sepnax coffee- 
-beans; 2. corn, food grains, 
cereals; 3. fig kernel, core; 
~6 HCTHHbi grain of truth. 

3HM|a [z^ima] / -bi, ace 

BHMy, pi SHMbl, — , SHMaM 


3HMHHM fz^imn^'iy] a winter. 

3HM|oBaTb [z^'imAvat''] im- 
perf -yio, -yemb, p -osaji, 
imp -yft, nepej3HM0BaTb (p^i- 
r^iz^imAvat^] perf, npojaHMo- 
Baxb [praz^imAvat^j perf 
winter, pass the winter; hi- 

<> noKasarb KOMy-ji., rAepaKH 
-^yiOT ^ give it hot to smb. 

3hm6h [z^imoy] adv in win- 
ter; npomjioH ~ last winter; 
6yflymeH ~ next winter. 

3jia I [zla] see 3jio. 

3Jia II [zla] see -djiou. 

3JiaK|H [zlak^i] pi -ob ce- 

3JIH|Tb [Z^l^it^] /mp^A/ 3JIIO, 
-lUb, p -Jl, imp ~, pa30|3JlMTb 

[razAz'^Pit^] perf vex, anger; 
tease, irritate. 

3.iM]Tbcn [z^l^ittja] imoerf 

SJUOCb, -lUbCH, p -JICH, -jiacb, 

imp -Cb, -Tecb, pa^o;3jiHTbcfl 
[razAz^l^ittja] perf be angry 
{with), be cross {with); be 
in a bad temper, be irri- 

3JI0 I [zlo] n sjia, pi only 
gen 30JI evil; harm; npHMH- 
HHTb ~ do harm, injure; co 
3Jia with anger; ero fee 
u m. d.] -^ 6epeT col he [she,^ 


— 144 — 

etc] feels vexed, it makes 
him [her, etc] wild. 

3J10 II [zlo] see 3jioh. 

3Ji66|a [zlobaj / -bi spite 
{ill-will)', anger; no ~e out 
of spite; 6eccHJibHaH ~a im- 
potent rage; 

<> ~a Ana the evil of the 
day; Ha ~y akh concerning 
the news of the day. 

3Jio6oAHeBHlbiH [zlabA- 

d^'n^'evniyl a sh f 3jio6oAHe- 
BeH, -a, -0, -bi: -~biH Bonpoc 
burning question / problem; 
~aH TCMa burning topic. 

3Jiofle|H [zlAd^ey] m -h, -ee 
villain, scoundrel, rascal. 

3J10H fzloy] a sh f 3oji, 3Jia, 
3;io, 3Jibi wicked, malicious; 
vicious {look, etc)', bad-tem- 
pered; ~ yMbiceji evil intent; 
— H3biK bitter tongue; h 3o;i 
Ha Hero I'm angry / cross with 

3JionaM$iTH|biH [zlApam^it- 
nty] a sh f sjionaMHxeH, -a, 
-o, -bi vindictive and ran- 

sjiocTH'ibiH [zlosniyj a sh f 
sjiocxeH, -a, -o, -u 1. mali- 
cious-, ill-natured; 2. invet- 
erate, persistent. 

3JiocT|b [zlos^t^, -z^'d^] / 
-H malice; fury, anger. 

3JioynoTpe6HTb see sjioyno- 

3JioynoTpe6ji|flTb [zlaupa- 
tr'^i^bl^'at''] imperf -hk), -h- 
eiub, 3JioynoTpe6|HTb [zlaupa- 
tr^'i^b^it^] perf -jiib, -HUJb, 
p -Hji, imp -H abuse {one's 
power, position, smh's confi 
dence, etc). 

3J1K) [z^'Pu] see 3JIHTb. 

3JiK)cb [z^l^us^, -z^] see 


sMe'i^ [z'^m^i^ya] / -h, pi 
SMEH, -H snake {also fig)', ser- 

3HaK [znak, -g] m ra, -ob 
I. sign, mark; symbol; 4)a6- 
pHqHbiH -- trade mark; 2. 
omen; 3. signal {given by 

<> ~H OTjiHHHJi decorations, 
orders and medals; — h pas- 
jihhhh mil insignia; ~h npe- 
nHHaHHfl punctuation marks; 
B ~ flpyjKSbi in token of 
friendship; noA —cm... in an 
atmosphere of... 

3HaK6M|HTb [znAkom^it^] 
imperf -jiio, -Hiub, p -hji, imp 
-b, no;3HaK6MHTb [paznAko- 
m^it^] perf I. introduce {smb 
to smb); 2. acquaint, let 
know; —HTb Koro-ji. c ropo- 
AOM show smb round the 
town; ~HTb c nporpaMMOH 
show the programme. 

3HaK6M|HTbCJi [znAkom^'i- 
ttja] imperf -JiKDCb, -HUJbCH, 
p -HJica, -Hjiacb, imp -bcH, 
-bTecb, nobnaKOMHTbCfl [pa- 
znAkom^'itt^aj perf 1. get 
acquainted {with), make the 
acquaintance {of), meet; 2. 
acquaint oneself {with), get 
to know; visit, see {museums, 

SHaKOMCTBlo fznAk6mstv9] 
n -a, ~ acquaintance {with); 
knowledge (o/); noAAep^cH- 
Baib -~o c KeM-ji. keep up 
friendly relations with smb. 

3HaK6M|biH fznAkomty] I a 
sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 1. famil- 
iar {word, etc); 2. familiar, 

145 — 


acquainted (with); h xopouio 
'- c HHM I know him well; 
II as a noun sHaKOMibifl 
m -oro, -bix acquaintance 
{a person). 

3HaMeH^TejibH|biiH [znam^i^- 
nat^il^niy] a sh f SHaMena- 
TejieH, -a, -o, -bi significant, 

3HaMeHHTlbiH [znam^i^n^i- 
tiy] a sh f -~, -a, -o, -bi fa- 
mous, celebrated. 

3HaM|ji [znam^9] n -enH, 
pi SHaMena, SHaMen, anaMe- 
HaM banner {also fig); colours, 
standard; nepexoAnmee ~5i 
prize banner. 

3HaHHie [znan^iya] n -h, 
-H knowledge; co ~eM jxejia 
skilfully, with expert knowl- 

3HaTH|biH [znatniy] a sh f 
SHaTCH, -a, -0, -bi 1. well- 
-known, renowned, distin- 
guished; 2. noble {birth, etc). 

SHaxoK [znAtok, -g] m -a, 
-OB expert, connoisseur; 6biTb 
-—OM CBoero /^ejia know one's 

3HaTb [znat^] imperf SHaio, 
SHaeuib 1. know {1) some facts, 
etc, about smth; 2) a lan- 
guage, one's lesson, etc; 3) life, 
etc); 2. know; be acquainted 

<> ~ ce6e ueny know one's 
own value; have a high opin- 
ion of oneself; ^ tojik b 
HCM-Ji. be an expert in smth, 
be a good judge of smth; ^ 
Mepy know when to stop; 
SHaere (jih) you know; na- 
cKOJibKo H sHaio as far as I 
know; kto ero SHaer col I 

don't know; KaK ^ col who 
knows; Kan sHaeuib (it's) 
up to you. 

3HaHeHHle [znAch^en'iya] n 
-H, -H 1. meaning, sense; 
2. significance, importance; 
HMeib 6ojibm6e '-e be of great 
importance / significance. 

3HaHHT [znach^it] parenth 
col so, then, well then. 

3HaHHTejibH|biH [znAch^'f- 
t^iPniy] a sh f SHaMHTejien, 
-a, -o, -bi 1. considerable, 
substantial; 2. important, sig- 

sHaHlHTb [znach^it^] imperf 
-y, -Huib, p -HJi mean, signify. 

3HaH|6K [znAch^ok, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB 1. badge {that is 
worn); 2. small mark / sign. 

3Ho6|HTb [znAb^it''] impers: 
MeHH -~HT 1 feel chilly, I'm 

3ho|h [znoy] m -h (exces- 
sive) heat. 

30BH [zAV^i[ see SBaxb. 

aoey [zavu], soeeuib [za- 
v^osh, -zh] see SBaxb. 

30J1 I [zol] see sjio. 

30J1 II Jzol] see sjiou. 

30ji|a [zAla] / -bi ashes 

sojiotIg [zobta] n -a gold. 

3ojiot|6h [zalAtoy] a 1. 
gold; 2. fig golden; 
<> ^an MOJiofleKb gilded 
youth; -~a5i cepeflHHa the 
golden mean. 

aoHJa [zona] / -bi, — zone. 

30HT [zont, -d] m -a, -6b 
umbrella; parasol, sunshade. 

36hthk [zon^t^ik, -g] m -a, 
-OB umbrella; parasol, sun- 


— 146 — 

300JiorHMecK|HH [zaaIaq^'i- 
rh^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He zo- 
ological; -~hh can/ napKZoo, 
zoological gardens. 

30onapK [zAApark, -g] m 
-a, -OB Zoo. 

sopH [zor^i], 30pb [zor''] 
see 3apH. 

sopKlHfl [zork^'iy] a -an, -oe, 
-He 1. sharp-sighted; 2. fig 

3paM|6K [zFAch^ok, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB pupil (of the eye). 

3p6jiHm|e [zT^e\^[sh^:d]n -a, 
— sight, spectacle; perform- 
ance, show; jKajiKoe ~e a 
sorry spectacle. 

3peJi|biH [zr^eliy] a sh f ^ , 
-a, -0, -bi ripe, mature {also 

3peHHle [zr^en^iya] n -h 

4^ nojie ~fl field of vision; 
B nojie ~fl in sight; roHKa ~« 
point of view; noA yrjioM ~fl 
from the standpoint {of). 

3pe|Tb [zr^et**] imperf -kd, 
-enib, p -Ji, co!3pfTb [sAzr^et^j 
perf ripen, mature {also fig). 

3pHTeji!b [zr^it^iP] m -h, 
pi -H, -eft'spectator, onlooker; 
pi also audience. 

3pHTejibHbifl [zr^it^iPnty] a 

1. visual, optic; 2.: ~ saji 
hall {in a cinema, etc). 

3p5i [zr^a] adv col in vain; 
for nothing; ~ tbi xoahji 
Tyaa you shouldn't have gone 
there; you needn't have gone 

3y6 [zup, -b] m -a, pi sydbi, 
-OB {technol -bH, -bes) tooth; 
BCTaBHbie ~bi artificial/ false 

<> cKB03b — bi through clench- 
ed teeth; — w 3aroBdpHBaTb 
col fool smb by fine words. 

3y6H|6ft [zubn6y] a: ~aH 
6ojib toothache; — 6h mexKa 
tooth-brush; --an nacra tooth- 
-paste; ~6h nopomoK tooth- 

3yA [zut, -d] m -a itch {al- 
so fig) 

3H6HlyTb [z^abnut^] imperf 
-y, -euib, p 3h6, 3H6;ia, imp 
-H, oJ3H6HyTb [Az^'abnut*'] perf 
feel chilly, shiver. 

3fl6|b [z*'ap*', -b^l / -H, -eft 
agric plough-land. 

3siT|b [z^at*", -d^] m -h, pi 
-bH, -beB, -bHM 1. son-in-law; 

2. brother-in-law {the hus- 
band of one's sister). 

H, H 

H I \\] c] denoting 1. con- 
nexion, addition and; and 
then; h h oh he and I; mbi 
CHflejiH H MHxajiH we sat and 
read; see sto snajiH, h Bce 
6bi;in paAbi everybody knew 
it and everybody was glad; 

OH no;iajT CHrnaji, h pa3;iajicH 
Bbicxpeji he gave the signal 
and then a shot was heard; 
OH co6HpajicH yexaxb h yexaji 
he was going to leave and so, 
he did; 6bijio hos/^ho, h oh 
yuieji it was late and he left; 

— 147 — 


it was late and so he left; 2. 
enumeration: h khhph, h xex- 
pa/lH, H cJioeapH books, note- 
books, and dictionaries; h... 
H... both... and...; 3. empha- 
sis, sometimes also connexion 
with the preceding statement 
{mostly used at the beginning 
of exclamatory and interroga- 
tive sentences): h KaK tu cm6- 
euib Tax roBopHTb!? how dare 
you say such a thing!; h bh 
corjiacHbi?! and you agree?; 
4. emphatic surprise, emphatic 
disapproval coupled with the 
idea of connexion even, and 
even; see ono3Aa;iH, h tu (t6- 
jKe) everybody was [is] late, 
(and) even you; oh ymeji h 
He npocTH^iCH he left without 
even saying good-bye; 5. con- 
cession {in sentences with the 
other clause having a, ;ia, xaK 
or HO at the beginning): w 
Hy)KHo MHe noflTH TyA^, Aa 
HeKor;ia though I should go 
there, I haven't the time; 
(h) h noexaji 6bi, ]\^ speMeHH 
Hex I'd like to go, but I 
haven't the time; 6. the idea 
of 'too', 'likewise': h b stom 
caynae oh 6biJi npas in ,that 
case too he was right; Anna 
He 3HaJia SToro, TorAa uu 


He anaji Anna didn't know 
it, and so we asked Victor, 
but he didn't know either; 
7.: TaK... H... that's (just/ 
exactly) what...; raK h h ^y- 
Maji that's exactly what I 
thought; 3T0 H ecTb... that's 
H II [i] part intens even; 

He Mory h no;;yMaTb o6 stom 
I can't even think of this. 

h6o [iba] cj denoting cause 

Hoa [iva] / HBbi, HB willow 
{a tree). 

Hrji|a [igla] / -b'l, pi rirjibi, 
■—, HFjiaM needle [1) for sew- 
ing, knitting, etc; 2) for a syr- 
inge; 3) of a fir or pine); 
prickle, thorn {of plants); 
quill {of porcupines, etc). 

HrHopHp|oBaTb [ignAr^ira- 
V9t^] perf & imperf -yio, -y- 
eujb, p -OBaji, imp -yw ignore, 

Hro [iga] n Hra yoke {bond- 

Hr6ji|Ka [igolka] / -kh, -ok 
= Hr;ia; 

<> CHACTb KaK Ha ~Kax be 
on pins and needles. 

Hrpjd [igra] / -bi, pi Hrpbi, 
~, HrpaM 1. game {of chess, 
tennis, etc; also fig); na- 
cTOJibHbie Hrpu indoor / table 
games; asapiHan —a gamble; 
2. acting, performance (o/ a/i 
actor, musician, etc); 
<> -—a c-ioB pun, play on 
words; —a ne ctoht cbch the 
game is not worth the candle. 

Hrpjaxb [igrat^l imperf -avi, 
-aeuib, cbirplaxb [sigrat^j 
perf -aio, -aeuib 1. {no perf) 
play {of children)} 2. play 
{1) games, cards, etc; 2) mu- 
sic, a musical instrument; 
3) with a person's affections, 
etc; 4) on smb's feelings, 
nerves, etc); ,^aTh b hphtkh 
play hide-and-seek {also fig); 
~aTb qecTHO [He^ecTHo] play 
fair [loulj; 3. theat act, play; 


— 148 — 

<> --aTb nepBVK) CKpHnny 

play first fiddle; -^axb na 
pyKy KOMy-ji. col play into 
smb's hands. 
HrpoK [igrok, -g] m -a, -6b 

1. player {in games)', 2. gam- 

Hrpyui|Ka [igrushka] / -kh, 
-eK 1. toy, plaything; 2. fig 
pawn (a person). 

Hjieaji [id^i^al] m -a, -ob 

HAeajiMCT [id^iAl^ist, -zd] a/z 
-a, -OB idealist. 

HAeajibH|biH [id^i^al^niy] a 
sh f HAeajieH, -a, -o, -bi ideal. 

H.neHHlbiH [id^eyniy] a sh f 
HAeeH, -a, -o, -u 1. ideologi- 
cal {content); 2. (high)prin- 
cipled {person, etc). 

Hfleoji6rH|fl [id^'iAlog^iya] / 
-H, -H ideology. 

HAejJi [id'^eya] / -h, -h 1. 
idea, notion, concept; 2. 
thought, idea; plan, scheme; 
noflaib ~K) suggest an idea; 
3T0 -~5i! capital idea!; 3. 
idea {of a novel, etc). 

]\m [id^i] see h^th. 

HATH [it^'t^'i] imperf H^y, 
HAeiiib, p meji, lujia, mjio, 
lujiH, imp HAH a concrete move- 
ment in a definite direction 
— 1, 2 [cf xoAHTb 1,2] 1. go 
{move, pass on foot); come 
{on foot towards the speak- 
er, etc) walk, move {along); 

2. go, run {of a bus, etc); 3. 
start, leave {of a train, etc); 

4, lie, go, run {of a road, etc); 

5, enter {school, etc); join 
{the army, etc); 6. pass, elapse 
{of time); 7. go, work {of a 
watch, etc); 8. fall {of precip- 

itations); HACT cner it is 
snowing; 9. be on {of a play, 
negotiations, etc); 10. suit, be- 
come {of a dress, coat, etc); 
11. be required. (/or), be used 
{in); Ha koctiom hact xpH 
Meipa MaxepHH three metres 
of material are required for 
a suit; Tpjinbe hact na H3ro- 
TOBJieHHe 6yMarH rags are 
used in paper-making; 

<> AeJlO / pCHb HACT O TOM, 

HTO... the question is that... 

n -h: 6biTb Ha MbeM-Ji. --h be 
smb's dependant; HMexb na 
~h have to provide for {par- 
ents, etc). 

H3 [is; in all pretonic posi- 
tions — iz, is; in a stressed 
position — iz], h30 [iza; in the 
first pretonic position — izA; 
in the second pretonic posi- 
tion — iza] prep with gen de- 
noting 1. movement oat of 
smth; the starting point of a 
movement: bwhth h3 AOMy go 
out of the house, leave the 
house; go outdoors; npHexaxb 
H3 KHCBa come /arrive from 
Kiev; nnxb hs qaujKH drink 
from a cup; 2. a source of 
information, etc. ysnaxb hs 
rasex learn from the papers; 
3. material of which smth is 
made: KyBUJHH hs cxcKAa a 
jug made of glass; sapeHbe 
HS BHiuen jam prepared from 
cherries; sxox xa6ypex cAe.naH 
HS HiUHKa this stool is made 
out of a box; 4. a whole from 
which some part is singled 
out; also with the superlative 
degree: oahh hs mohx ApyseM 

— 149 — 


one of my friends; h3 66mero 
MHCJia, paBHoro ;;ByMCT£M out 
of a total of two hundred; 
HH OAHH H3 cTa uot oue in a 
hundred; jiy^iuHH us xyAOHC- 
HHKOB the best of the artists; 
5. reason or cause: c/iejiaTb 
qio-ji. H3 jik)6bh k... do smth 
for the love of...; do smth 
for the sake of...; hs CTpaxa 
for fear, out of fear; hs ne- 
HaBHCTH through hatred; hs 
6;iaroAapHOCTH in gratitude; 
6.: HSOBcexcHJj with all one's 
might; hso ahh b ]\QUh day 
in, day out; every day; 

H3..., H30..., H3T>..,, HC... 

pref of verbs denoting 1. move- 
ment out of smth; extraction 
of a certain part of smth: h3- 
rnaTfa [izgnat^] drive {smh) 
out, drive {smb) away; nsBJie- 
KaTb [izvl^i^kat^] extract, 
take out, draw; 2. an action 
affecting or covering the whole 
of a thing or carried beyond 
the normal limit: Hspesaxb 
Becb CTOJi cut up the whole 
table; ns-besj^Hib [iz^yez^d^it''] 
travel all over; HSHocHXb [iz- 
HAs^it^] wear o\xi {clothes, etc); 
HCHHcaib [isp^isat^] tover 
with writing; 3. the perfec- 
tive aspect: H3>KapHTb [izh:a- 
r^it^] perf of jKapHXb. 

H36|a [izba] / -bi, ace -y 
(Hs6y), pi Hs6bi, ~, H36aM 
hut, peasant house. 

H36aBHTb see HSfiaBJIHTb. 

H36aBHTbCfl see H^6aBjiHTb- 


HsSaejiiflTb [izbAvI^at^] im- 
perf -mo, -nemb, H36aB|HTb 
[izbav^it*'] perf -jiio, -Hiiib, 

p -Hji, imp -b save, deliver, 
rid of; ~HTb kofo-ji. ot xjio- 
noT save / spare smb the trou- 

H36aBJi|«Tbcsi [izbAvPattja] 
imperf -Hiocb, -HeuibCH, h3- 
6aB|HTbCJi [izbav^ittja] perf 
-jiK)Cb, -HuibCH, p -h;ich, -h- 
jiacb, imp -bCH, -biecb get 
rid {of). 

H36ajioBaTb see 6aji0BaTb. 

M36a-HHTajibHfl [izbach^i- 
tal^n^a] / H36bi-qHTa;ibHH, ace 

HsSy-qHXaJIbHK), pi H36bI-qH- 

TajibHH, H36-qHTajieH village 

HsSerjaxb [izb^i^gat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, HsCerHJyrb 
[izb^egnut^] perf -y, -euib, 
H36er (-yji), HsSerjia, imp -h, 
H36el»axb [izb^i^zhat^] perf 

-ry, ->KHUIb, -H<HX, -JKHM, 

-jKHxe, -ryx, p -JKaji, imp -ra 
avoid {doing smth, danger, 
etc); escape {punishment, etc). 

HsSHpaxejijb [izb^irat^iP] 
m -H, pi -H, -eft voter, elec- 
tor; pi also electorate. 

HsSHpaxejibHJbiH [izb^ira- 
t^il'^niy] a election {attr), 
electoral; ~oe npaBO suffrage; 
~biH ueH3 electoral qualifi- 
cation; — biH oKpyr election 
district; — -bift yqacxoK 1) 
election precinct; 2) polling 
station; —uh 6iojiJiexeHb vot- 
ing-paper; —an ypna ballot- 

Hs^Hplarb [izb^irat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuib, H36|paxb 
[izbrat^] perf -epy, -epeuib, 
p -paji -pajia, -pajio, -pa;iH, 
imp -epH 1. choose, select, 
pick out; 2. elect \by voting). 


— 150 

H36HT|biH [izb^itiy] a [pa]: 
'-an 4)pa3a hackneyed / stock 
phrase; ~aH HCTHHa truism. 

H36paHH|biH [izbranniy] 
[pa] I a: ~bie npoHSBeAeHHH 
selected works; 
1 1 as a noun H36paHH|bie 
pi -bix the elect. 

H36paTb see HsCHpaib. 

H36biTloK [izbitak, -g] m 
-Ka surplus, redundancy; 
B ~Ke in plenty; ot -~Ka 
qyBCTB OH He Mor rosopHTb 
his feelings were too strong 
for him to speak. 

M3BecTH|e [iz'^v^es^t^iya] n 
-H, -H news, (piece of) infor- 
mation; nocJieAHHe ^n the 
(latest) news. 

H3BecTH0 [iz^v^'esna] impers 
predic it is known (that...), 
it is common knowledge 
(that...); ciajio ~ it became 
known; sto naM ~ this is 
known to us; 
<> KaK ~ as is known. 


-z'^d^] / -H reputation, fame; 

<> nocTaBHTb Koro-Ji. b --b 
o HCM-Ji. inform smb of smth. 
u3BecTH|biH [iz^v^'esniy] 
a sh f HssecTeH, -a, -o, -u 
1. well-known, famous; noto- 
rious; 3T0T paCCKaS HHKOMy 

He H3BecTeH this story is 
known to nobody; 2. certain 
{not named). 

H3BeCT|b [iz^v^is^'t^, -z^d''] 
/ -H lime; whitewash {for 
walls)', ramenaH '^b slack 
lime; nerameHaH --b quick- 

ji3BeineHHle [iz''v''i^sh'':e- 

n^iya] n -h, -h notification, 
notice; summons (a writ\. 

HSBMBJaTbcfl [iz^v^ivattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH 1. coil, 
wriggle {of snakes, etc); 2. 
twist, wind; meander {of a 
road, etc). 

H3BHHeHHle liz''v''in^en''iyaj 
n -H, -ft apology, excuse; 
npocHTb ~H y Kor6-Ji. apolo- 
gize to smb. 


H3BHHiflTb [iz'^v^in^at''] 
imperf -Ak), -neuib, H3BHH|HTb 
[iz^v^'in^'it''] perf -k), -Huib, 
p -HJi, imp -H excuse, pardon 
{forgive); —Hie! (I am) sor- 
ry!, excuse me!; 
<> HCT, yjK — HTc! oh no, 
that won't do! 

HSBHHJflTbCfl [iz^'v^in^attja] 
imperf -Hiocb, -fleiiibCH, h3- 
BHHJHTbca [iz*'v^in*'ittjaj perf 

-K)Cb, -HUlbCH, p -HJICH, -H- 

jiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb apol- 
ogize, make an apology; 
<> ~flK)Cb! col sorry! 

H3BJieK|aTb [izvl^i'^kat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, MSBjieiHb 
[izvl^'ech^] perf -Ky, -qeuib, 
-qeT, -qexe, -KyT, p H3B.neK, 
-KJia, imp -KH 1. extract, take 
out, draw; derive {profit, 
etc); 2.: ~aTb ypoK learn a 

H3BHe [izvn^'e] adv from 
without, from outside; no- 
Momb -~ outside help. 

H3BOp6TJIHB|biH [izVArotl^l- 

vty] a sh f — •, -a, -o, -bi 
tricky, dodgy, resourceful. 

H3BpaTHTb see n3Bpam,aTb. 

usBpainjaTb ^iZYFAsh^'iaf] 

— 151 — 


imperf -aio, -aeuib, H3Bpa- 
TJHTb [izvrAt^it^] perf H3Bpa- 
my, -Huib, p -liji, imp -H 
pervert, distort, twist {mean- 
ing, words, etc); misinter- 

HarHaHHJefizgnan^iya] n -h 
1. banisliment, expulsion; 2.: 
5KHTb B ~H live in exile 

H3ropoJilb [izgarat^, -d^] / 
-H, -eH fence (a wall, railing); 
5KHBafl ^b hedge. 


H3roTOBJi|flTb [izgatAvl^at^] 
imperf -hk), -neiub, H3roT6- 
BJHTb [izgAtov^it^] perf -Jiio, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -b make, 

HSAaJBETb I [izdAvat^] im- 
perf -K), -euih, p -BaJi, imp 
-Bafi, H3A|aTb [izdat^] perf 
-aM, -aiiib, -acT, -aAHM, -aAH- 
Te, -aAYT, p -aJi, -ajia, -^jio, 
-ajiH, imp -aft publish (feoo/js, 
etc); issue {orders, etc); pro- 
mulgate {laws, etc). 

H3AalBaTb II [izdAvat^] 
imperf -ib, -emb, p -Baji, imp 
-Baft, H3fl|aTb [izdat^] perf 
-aM, -aujb, -acT, -aAHM, -a^H- 
Te, -a^yT, p -aji, -ajia, -ajio, 
-ajiH, imp -aft 1. utter {a 
sound); 2. {no perf) give out/ 
off {a smell); -^saTb bjiobo- 
HHe stink, stench. 

H3AajieKa [izdaPi^ka] adv 
from afar, from a distance. 

H3AaJiH [izdal^i] adv from 
afar, from a distance. 

H3AaHH|e [izdan'^iya] n -h, 
-ft 1. publication {the process 
of); promulgation {of laws, 
etc); publishing {o( newspa- 

pers, etc); 2. edition; nepHo- 
AH^ecKoe -~-e periodical. 

H3AaTejibCTBio [izdat^il**- 
stva] n -a, ~ publishing 

H3AaTb I see HBAaBaxb I. 

HSAaxb II seeHBAaBaxb II 1. 

HBAeBaxeJibCTBlG [iz^d^i®- 
vat^iPstvg] n -a, — mock- 
ery, jeering; insult, humilia- 

H3AeB|dxbcsi [iz^d^i^vattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiiibCH jeer, 
mock, scoff; insult, humili- 

HSAeJiMJe [iz^d^el^iya] n -n, 
-ft (manufactured) article, 
ware; rjiHHHHbie —h earthen- 
ware; KycxapHbie ~h handi- 
craft wares. 

H3Aep)K|KH [iz^d^ershk'i] pi 
-CK cost(s) {of production, etc); 
cyAe6Hbie ~kh costs {of a 
lawsuit); c 6ojibmHMH ~KaMH 
at great cost. 

H3%apHXb see >KapHXb. 

H3-3a [izza; in the first 
pretonic position — izzA; in 
the second pretonic position — 
izza] prep with gen denoting 
1. movement from behind or 
from around smth: oh BbiuieJi 
•~ AOMa he came from behind 
the house; Bcxaxb —' cxojia 
rise from the table; 2. cause 
or reason: n onosAaji ~ nero 
I'm late because of him, 
I was late because of him; 
Mbi He noexaJiH '- ao)kah we 
didn't go because of / owing 
to the rain; ~ Heocxop6>K- 
HocxH through carelessness; 
ccopHXbCH '^ sero-Ji. quarrel 
over smth* 


— 152 — 

HSJiarlaib [izlAgat^] imperf 
-aK), -aeiiib, HSJiOKJHTb [IzIa- 
zhtt^] perf -y, H3Ji6>KHiiib, p 
-HJi, imp -H state {a request, 
one's point of view, etc); 
dwell on (a subject). 

H3JiHiij|eK [iz^l'^ishak, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB surplus, excess. 

H3JioiKeHH|e [izlAzhen^iya] 
n -H, -H account {of smb's 
speech, etc); statement {of 
facts, etc); b ero [ee u m. d.] 
~H according to him [her, 

H3JioiKHTb see H3JiaraTb. 

HSJiyHJaTb [izluch^af^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, HSJiyniMTb 
[izluch^'it^] perf -y, -riuib, 
p -h;i, imp -\i radiate {also 

H3JiyHHHia[izluch^in9] f -u, 
'^ bend, curve {of a river). 

H3JiK)6jieHHbiH [iz^l^ubl^m- 
niy] a [pa] favourite. 

HSMeHja [izm^'ens] / -bi, -~ 
treason, treachery, betrayal; 

H3MeHeHHle [izm^i^n^e- 
n^'iya] n -h, -h change, al^ 


H3MeHHHK [izm^en^n^ik, -g] 
m -a, -oB traitor. 

H3MeH4HB|biH [izm^cn^ch^i- 
viy] a sh f '^, -a, -o, -bi 
changeable {weather, etc); 

MSMeHJ^Tb I [izm^'i^n^at^'j 
imperf -hio, -Heiiib, H3MeHJHTb 
[izm^i^n^'it''] perf -io, nsMe- 
HHuib, p -Hji, imp -H change, 

H3MeH|«Tb II [izm^i^n^at^] 
imperf -hk), -neiub, H3MeH!HTb 
[izm'^i^n^it^J perf -i6, HSMe- 
HHuib. p -HJI, imp -H betray 
{one's country, etc); be false 
to; be unfaithful; fail {of 
one's memory, strength, etc). 

H3MeH I flTbCJi [ izm'^i'^n^attja] 
imperf -nwcb, -neiubCH, h3- 
MeHiHTbca [izm^i^n^ittja] perf 

-K)Cb, HSMeHHlUbCH, p -HJICH, 

-Hjiacb, imp -HCb, -rixecb 
change {become different). 

K3MepHTbSee H3MepHTb. 

HswepiflTb [izm^i*-'r^at^] im- 
perf -HK), -HeUIb, H3Mep|HTb 

[izm^er'^it^] perf -k), -Huib, p 
-HJI, imp -b measure, i^auge. 

H3MyHeHHbiH [ izmuch^mnty] 
a \pa\^ haggard, exhausted. 

H3MyMHTb see MyqnTb. 

H3MflTb see MHTb 2. 
H3M«TbCJI see MHTbCH 1. 

H3HaHlKa [iznanko] / -kh 
wrong / reverse side. 

H3Haii]HB|aTbCJi [iznashiva- 
ttja] /mpe/-/-aeTCH,H3HociHTb- 
CH [iznAs'^ittsa] perf h3h6- 
CHTCH, p -HJicH, -HJiacb Wear 
out {of shoes, machine parts, 

H3HyTpH [iznutr**!] adv from 
within; on the inside. 

H30 see H3. 

H30... see H3..^ 

H3o6MJiHle [iz^Ab^il^iya] n 
-H abundance, plenty. 

H3o5pa>KlaTb [izabrAzhat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, H3o6pa|- 
3MTb [izabrAz^it*'] perf -my, 
-3H[iib, p -3HJI, imp -3H depict, 
portray; theat represent; 
■0 ~aTb H3 ce6a make one- 
self out to be. 

— 153 — 



HSoSpajKCHHle [izabrAzhe- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. depiction, 
portrayal {the process of)', 2. 
image, picture. 

M3o6pa3MTb see H3o6paH<aTb. 

H3o6pecTH see HSodpexaTb. 

HSodpexaTejilb [izabr^i^ta- 
t^.il''] m -H, -eft inventor. 

H3o5peTaTejibH|biM [izsbr'^i^- 
tatil^niy] a sh f H3o6peTa- 
TeJieH, -a, -o, -bi inventive, 

H3o6peT|aTb [izabr^i^tat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, H3o6p|e- 
CTH [izabr'^i^s'^t^i] perf-ery, 
-CTemb, p -eji, -ejia, imp -cth 
invent {a new instrument, etc). 

HsoSpeTeHHje |izabr^i^t^e- 
n -a, -H invention {a 
new device, etc). 

H30JiHploBaTb [izA^iravat^] 
perf & imperf -yio, -yeiub, p 
-OBaJi, imp -yft isolate; tech- 
nol also insulate. 

H30JiflTop [izApatar] m -a, 
-OB 1. technol insulator; 2. 
isolation ward (m a hospital, 

h30ji«uh1« [izAPatjtya] -h 
1. isolation; 2. (p/ -h, -h) 
technol insulation. 

H30MHeTCJi [izAmn^ottsa] 
3d person of H3MHTbCH; see 


H30MHH [izAmn^i] imp of 

HSMHTb; see MHXb. 

H30MHy [izAmnu],H30MHeuib 
[izAmnMsh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of HSMHTb; see MHTb. 

HSOTon [izAtop, -b] m -a, 
-08 isotope. 

H3-noA [ispot; in the first 
pretonic position — jspAt, -d; 
in the second and other pre- 

tonic positions — isp^t, -d] 
prep with gen denoting 1. 
movement from below or from 
under smth: — cTOjia from un- 
der the table; ■— cnera from 
beneath the snow, from un- 
der the snow; 2. movement 
from the vicinity of smth: -^ 
MocKBbi from near Moscow; 
3. the former purpose of a re- 
ceptacle: 6yTbiJiKa '- MOJioKa 
milk bottle; Kop66Ka -~ ch- 
rapeT cigarette box; KyBuiHH 
~ BHHa jug in which there 
was wine. 

H3paHJibCK|HH [izrail^sk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Israeli. 

HspacxoAOBaxb see pacxo- 

H3peAKa [izr^itka] adv now 
and then, from time to time. 

HSpCHCHH |e [izr^i^ch^en^iyaj 
n -H, -ft apothegm, maxim. 

H3yMHTejibH|biH [izurfi^i- 
f'lPniy] a sh f HsyMHTe- 
jieH, -a, -o, -bi amazing, won- 

H3yMJieHHle [izumPen^'iya] 
n -H amazement, wonder. 

H3yH|aTb [izuch^at^] imperf 
-aio, -aeujb, HsyHJHTb [izu- 
ch^it^] perf -y, H3yqHiiJb, p 
-Hji, imp -H 1. study, mak-e a 
study of; master {a language, 
etc); 2. {no imperf) learn; 
come / get to know. 

H3'b... see H3... 

H3'bflTb see H3bIMaTb. 

MSbiMJaTb [iztmat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, H3iifl|Tb [iz**- 
yat^] perf HSbiMy, HSbiMemb, 
p -Ji, imp H3biMH withdraw, 
remove {Jrom sale, circulation, 


154 — 

H3bicKaHHle [iziskan^iya] n 
-n, pi -H, -H 1. finding, pro- 
curing; 2. {mostly pi) inves- 
tigation, research; geol pros- 

HSbicKaHHJbiH [izislonnty] 
a [pa] sh f H3bicKaH, -a, -o, -bi 
refined {taste, manners, etc); 
dainty {dish). 

H3K)M [iz^um] m -a (-y) rai- 

H3iiii^HlbiA [iz^ash^iniy] a 
sh f H3HiueH, -a, -o, -u ele- 
gant, graceful, refined. 

HKaTb [ikat^] imperf hkAio, 
HKaeiiib, HKHlyxb [iknut''] 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp -h 
hiccup, hiccough. 

HKOHia [ikona] / -bi, — icon 
(a sacred image). 

HKp|d I [ikra] / -bi 1. roe, 
spawn; 2. caviare {food); 3. 
paste [made from vegetables). 

HKpla II [ikra] / see HKpbi. 

HKpw [ikri] pi HKp {sing 
HKpja / -bi) calfs {of the leg). 

HJi [il] m HJia silt. 

HJiH [il^'i] cj denoting!, an 
alternative, sometimes cou- 
pled with addition, connexion 
or with warning, threat or; 
Tenepb ~ HMKor^a now or 
never; na 6epery peKH, npy^a 
'- osepa on the bank of a riv- 
er, pond, or a lake; ~... --... 
either... or...; — >Ke or (else); 
2. explanation {always pre- 
ceded by a comma): asponJi^H, 
~ caMOJieT, 6biJi H3o6peTeH... 
the airplane, or the aircraft, 
was invented... 

HJiJiioMHHaTop fiPum^ina- 
tarjm -a, -ob porthole, scuttle. 

H^iJiiOMHHanHlfl [il^'um'^ina- 

tslya] / -H, -H illumination 
{for a festival, etc). 

HJiJiK)CTpauH|5i [il^ustra- 
tslya] / -H, -H illustration. 


ravaf*] perf & imper4 -yio, 
-yeiiib, p -oBaJi, imp -yft il- 

HM [im] I instr of oh & oho; 
see oh; 
II dat of ohh; see oh. 

HMCHH [im^in^'i], hmSh 
[im*'6n] see hmh. 

HM^HH'ie [im^^n^iya] n -h, 
-H estate, landed property. 

HMeHHo [im^inna] part 1. 
denoting specification, indi- 
cation, emphasis, etc. mhc 
HyjKHo ~ 3T0 this is exactly 
what I want; — sTa KHHra 
just this very book; — Bhk- 
Top c;ieJiaJi sto it was Victor 
who did it; hot — TaM h na- 
iiieji ero just where I found 
him; it's just the place where 
I found him; kto [mto, r^e 
u m. n.] ^? who [what, 
where, etc] exactly?; 2. used 
in explanatory parts of a sen- 
tence and before enumeration 
namely; that is; viz; 3.; bot 
— ! that's it!; exactly! 

HMeJTb [im^et^] imperf -lo, 
-emb have {1) possess; own; 
2) possess as a quality, etc); 
~Tb 3HaHeHHe be of impor- 
tance ; 
<> ~Tb MecTo take place. 

HMe|TbCJi [im^ettja] imperf 
-ctch: ~TbCH HajiHuo be avail- 
able; be on hand; be present; 
B 6H6JiHOTeKe —ctch necKOJib- 
Ko KHHf no sTOMy Bonpocy 
there are several books on 

— J55 — 


the subject at the library; 
the library has several books 
on the subject. 

HMH [imi] instr of ohh; 
see oh. 

HMnepHajiHSM [imp^ir^iA- 
Pizm] m -a imperialism. 

HMnepHajiHCTMHecK|HH [im- 
p^ir^iaPist^i'ch^isk^iy] a -aH, 
-oe, -He imperialist(ic). 

HMnopT [impart, -d] m -a 
econ import; imports. 

HMnopTHploBaTb [impArt^i- 
r9V9t^] perf Sc imperf -yio, 
-yeiub, p -oBaji, imp -yH econ 

HMymecTB|o [imush*':istv9] 
n -a property {things owned); 
belongings, possessions; ne- 
ABHJKHMoe ~o real estate. 

HMH [im^9] n HMCHH, pi 

HMCHa, HMCH, HMCHaM 1. name 
{an appellation)', 2. name, 
fame; npHo6pecTH — become 
famous; 3. ling: ~ cymecxsH- 
TCJibHoe noun; -- npHJiara- 
TCJibHoe adjective; '- qHCJiH- 
TCJibHoe numeral; 
<0> ox HMCHH on behalf of; 
Hasbiearb eemH cbohmh HMe- 
HaMH = call a spade a spade; 
c HMeHCM well-known. 

HHane [inach^i] & uname 
[inach^i] I arfo differently, in 
another way; 
II cj or (else), otherwise; 
<> xaK HjiH ~ in any case; 
in one way or another; ne 
~ KaK OH cflejiaji axo col it's 
he who has done it. 

HHBajiHA [invAPit, -d] m 
-a, -OB invalid; ^ xpy^a 
disabled worker. 

HHBeHxap|b [inv^i^ntar'J m 

-H 1. stock, equipment; xop- 
roBbiH -~b stock-in-trade 
{tools, materials); 2. invento- 
ry, catalogue. 

HHAe|eu [in^d^ey9tj, -dz] m 
-Hua, -HueB (American / Red) 

HHAeflcK|HH [in^d'eysk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He (American/ 
Red) Indian. 

HHAHdH|Ka [in^d^iank9] / 
-KH, -OK 1. [c/ HHAHeu] Indian 
woman; Indian girl; 2. (Amer- 
ican / Red) Indian woman; 
(American /Red) Indian girl. 

HHAHBHAydjibHibiH [in^d^i- 
v^iduaPniy] a sh f hhahbh- 
Ayajien, -a, -o, -bi individ- 

HHAH|eu [in^d''iy9tj, -dz] m 
-Hua, -HUCB Indian {a native 
or inhabitant of India). • 

hhahhck|hh [in'^d^iysk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Indian {of In- 
dia) . 

HHAOHesMJeu [ind9n^i^z^i- 
y9tj, -dz] m -Hua, -hucb In- 

HHAOHesHHCKJHH [indan^i^- 
z^iysk^iy] a -an, -oe, -ne 

HHAycxpHajiH3ai;Hlji [indust- 
r^i9Pizatjiy9] / -h industri- 

HHAycxpHlH [industr^iy9] / 
-h industry {light, heavy). 

HHAK)K [in^d**uk, -g] m -a, 
-OB turkey (-cock). 

HHAH)ui|Ka [in^d^ushk9] f 
-KH, -eK turkey(-hen). 

HHe|H [in^iy] m -h hoarfrost. 

HHepxH|biH [in^ertnty] ash 
f HHepxeH, -a, -o, -bi inert 
{also fig). 


— 155 — 

HHJKCHep [inzhi^n^er] m 
-a, pi -bi, -OB (civil) engineer 
{with college education). 

HHHi;Haji|bi [in^'itsiali] pi 
-OB {sing MHHUHaji m -a) ini- 

HHHUHaTHBla [in^itsiAt^i- 
V8] / -bi initiative. 

HHorAa [inAgda] adv some- 

HHOH [inoyl a 1. different 
{shape, approach, etc); hkhmh 
CJioBaMH in other words; 
2. some {certain but unspeci- 
fied); B HHbix cJiy^aHx in 
some matters; 

O HHoe Aejio (it's) another 
matter; ~ pas sometimes, 
at times; He kto -^j naK... 
none other than... 

HHOCTpaHJeu [inAstran^itj, 
-dz} m -ua, -ueB foreigner. 

MHocTpaHHbiH [ inAstrannty] 
a foreign {language, etc). 

HHcneKTOp [insp^ektar] m 
-a, pi -a, -OB inspector. 

HHCTHHKT '[ins^t^inkt, -gd] 
m -a, -OB instinct. 

MHCTHxyT- fin^s^'t^'itut, -d] 
m -a, -OB 1.' college {of high- 
er learning); institute {edu- 
cational or scientific); 2. in- 
stitution {established law, 
custom, practice, etc). 

HHCxpyKTOp [instruktar] m 
-a, pi -bi (-a), -OB (-6b) in- 
structor {mainly in sports). 

HHCxpyKUH^si [instruktjiya] 
/ -H, -H instructions, direc- 
tions, orders. 

HHCTpyMCHT [ instrum^cnt , 
-d] m -a, -OB instrument, 
tool {also fig); implement(s). 

iiHTejijiHreHTH|uH [in'^t^'iPi- 

g^entniy] a sh f HHieJiJiHreH- 
TCH, -a, -o, -bi cultured, edu- 

HHTCjiJiHreHUHlR [in^t^iPi- 
g^entsiya] / -h intelligentsia, 

HHTepBeHUH|fl [int^i^rv^en- 
tjiya] / -H, -H intervention 

HHTepBbK) [interv^yu] n in- 
decl interview {for the press). 

HHiepec [in^t^i^r^es, -z] m 
-a, -OB interest {1) concern or 
curiosity; 2) importance). 

HHTepecH|biH [in^t^i^r^es- 
nty] a sh f HHTepecen, -a, 
-o, -bi 1. interesting (fact, 
etc); 2. attractive {woman, 

HHxepecloBaTbcsi (in^t^ir^i- 
SAvattja] imperf -yiocb, -yeuib- 
CH, p -OBaJiCH, -OBajiacb, imp. 
-yflcH, -yflxecb be interested 
{in), care {for). 

HHxepHax [int^i^rnat, -d] m 
-a, -OB boarding-school. 

HHxepHauHOHaji [interna- 
tjtAnal] m -a 1. {pi -u, -ob) 
International {the organiza- 
tion); 2. (H.) the Internatio- 

HHxepHau,HOHajibH|biii [in- 
ternatsiAnal^'niy] a sh f hh- 
xepHauHOHaJieH, -a, -o, -bi 

HHXHMH|biH [in^f'imnty] 
a sh f HHXHMeH, -a, -o, -u 
intimate, familiar. 

HHxpHrla [intr^iga] / -h, 
~ intrigue. 

HH(l)eKUM|fl [inf^ektjiya] / 
-H infection {a disease). 

HH^JJiflUHifl [infl'^atstyaj | 
-H econ inflation. 

— 157 — 


HH(t)0pMauHl5! [infArma- 
tsiya] / -H, -H 1. information, 
news; 2. data, information. 

HH4)opMMp|oBaTb [infArm^i- 
ravat^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiiib, p -oBaJi, imp -yft in- 
form {acquaint with a fact). 

HHUHACHT [intjid^ent, -d] 
m -a, -OB incident, happen- 

H.o. [i-6] abbrev (= HcnoJi- 
HHiomHH o6H3aHHOcTH) acting 
{for another); h.o. AHpeKTopa 
acting director. 

HnnonpOM [ipAdrom] m -a, 
-OB hippodrome, racecourse, 
the turf. 

HpaKCKJHH [iraksk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Iraqi. 

HpaHJeu [iran^itj, -dz] m 
-Ubi, -ueB Iranean. 

HpaHCK|HH [iransk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -ne Iranian. 

HpJiaHAleu [irlan^d^its, -dz] 
m -na, -ues Irishman. 

HpjiaHflCKJHH [irlansk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Irish. 

HpoHHHecKlHH [irAu^ich^i- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He ironical. 

Hp6HH|fl [iron^iya] / -h 

Hc... see H3... 

HCK [isk. izg] m -a, -ob 
law action, lawsuit. 

HCKaMJaTb [iskAzhat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuLib, ucKaslHTb 
[iskAz^it^] perf HCKascy, -Hiiib, 
p -HJi, imp -H distort, misrep- 

HCKaweHHle [iskAzhen^iya] 
n -H, -H distortion, misrep- 

HCKasMTb see HCKajKaxb. 

HCKiaxb [iskat''] imperf 

Hmy, Hmeuib, p -aji, imp 
HiuH look for, search for; 
seek {employment , etc). 

HCKjiK)H|aTb [iskl^uch^'at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, hckjik)- 
HJMTb [iskl^uch^it^] perf -y, 
-Hiub, p -HJI, imp -H 1. ex- 
clude, rule out, preclude; 
2. expel {from school, etc). 

HCKjiioHeHHle [iskPuch^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. exclusion, 
elimination; 2. expulsion 
{from school, etc); 3. excep- 
tion {to a rule). 

HCKjiioHHTejibHQ [iskl^uch^i- 
t^il^na] 1 adv exceptionally; 
II part exclusively, only. 

HCKJIK)4MTejIbH|bIH [iskPu- 

ch'^it^il^'niy] a sh f hckjik)- 
HHTeJieH, -a, -o, -bi exception- 
al; ~oe npaBo exclusive 


ucKonaeMbiH [iskApayamly] 

I a fossil; 

II as a noun h c k o n a e - 
M I bi e pi -bix minerals. 


HCKOpeHJaTb [iskar^'i'^n^at''] 
imperf -hk), -neuib, HCKope- 
H|HTb [iskar^i^n^it**] perf -k>, 
-Hiub, p -HJI, imp -H eradi- 

HCKpja [iskra] / -bi, ^ 
spark; fig also gleam; 
<> y Hero ~bi h3 rjias no- 
cbinajiHCb ^ he saw stars. 

HCKpeHH|HH [iskr^m^n^iy] 
a sh f HCKpeHeH, -a, -e (-o), 
-H (-bi) sincere, frank, can- 
did; unaffected. 

HCKpHBjieHH|e [iskr^ivl^e- 
n^'iya] n -h, -h I. bend, 
curve; 2. med curvature; 


155 — 

3. fig distortion {of apolitical 
line, etc). 

HCKyniaxb I see Kynaxb. 

HCKvn axb II [iskupat''] 
imper'f -aio, -aeiiib, HCKynlMib 
[iskup^it^] perf -Jiib, HCKy- 
RHLUb, p -HJi, imp -H 1. expi- 
ate, atone for; 2. make up 
for, compensate. 

HCKynaTbCH see Kynaibcn. 

HCKynHTb see HCKynaib II. 

HCKycH|biH [iskusniy] as/i / 
HCKyceH, -a, -o, -bi skilful, 
clever, expert. 

HCKyccTBeHH|biH [iskus^t^- 
v^mniy] a sh f HCKyccxBen, 
-a, -0, -bi artificial. 

HCKyccTB|o [iskustva] n -a, 
— 1. art {1} painting, sculp- 
ture, etc; 2) of medicine, war, 
etc); H3o6pa3HTe.ibHbie ~a 
fine arts; 2. skill, art, crafts- 

HCJiaHfljeu, [islan^dhtj, -dz] 
m -ua, -ueB Icelander. 

HCJiaHACKJHH [islansk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Iceland(ic). 

HcnaHJei; [ispan^itj, -dz] m 
-ua, -ues Spaniard. 

McnaHCK|HH [ispansk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Spanish. 

HcnapeHHJe [ispAr^en^iya] 
n -H, pi -H, -H 1. evapora- 
tion; 2. pi fume(s), vapour; 
BpeAHbie — H miasma. 

ucnapHTbcn see HcnapHTbCH. 

Hcnap|HTbCfl [ispAr^dttja] 
Imperf -^locb, -HeiiibCH, Hcna- 
p|HTbc$i [ispAr^ittja] perf 

-K)Cb, -HUIbCa, p -HJICH, 
-H.iaCb, imp -HCb, -HTeCb 1. 

evaporate {become vapour); 
2. fig col disappear, vanish, 

HcnaHKaib see naqKaib. 

HcneHb see neMb I 1. 

McnoBeflloBaTb [ispAv'^eda- 
vat^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiub, p -OBaji, imp -yfl 1. 
confess {hear a confession); 
2. {no perf) profess {beliefs, 

McnoATHiiiKa [ispat^t^ishka] 
adv col stealthily, in an un- 
derhand way; CMenxbCH --' 
laugh in one's sleeve. 

HcnojiKOM [ispAlkom] m -a, 


Tei) executive comrriittee/ 

HcnojiHeHH|e [ispAln^e- 

n^iya] n -h 1. fulfilment, 
execution; 2. performance 
{of a play, etc); b ~h.., per- 
formed / played by...; sung 

<> npHBOAHTb B ~e carry 
out, execute, put into effect. 

m -H, pi -H, -eft 1. executor 
{a person who does smth); 2. 
theat performer; pi cast; kto 
~b rJiasHOH poJiH? who plays 
the leading part?; 
O cy^eSHbiH -~b bailiff. 

HcnojiHHTejibH|biH [ispAl- 
n^it^il^'nty] a sh f hchojihh- 
TCJieH, -a, -o, -bi 1. executive 
{committee, power, etc); 2. 
industrious, painstaking; 
<> ~biii jiHCT writ of execu- 

McnojiHHTb see HcnoJiHHib. 

HcnojiHUTbCfl see HcnoJiH^Tb- 


McnojiHl«Tb [ispAln^at^'l 
imperf -hk), -Heuib, Hcnoji- 
uluTb [ispoln^'it^J perf -w. 

— 159 — 


-Huib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. carry 
out, fulfil, execute; 2. theat 

HcnojiH|flTLCJi [ispAln^attja] 
imperf -HeTCH, HcnojiHJHTbCfl 
[ispoln^ittja] perf -htch 1. 
be fulfilled; come true {of 
dreams, etc); 2. impers {of 
age, time): saBxpa MHe Hcnoji- 
HHTCH ABaAuaxb jiex I'll be 
twenty tomorrow. 

Hcn6jib3|oBaTb [ispol^za- 
V9t''] perf & impsrf -yio, 
-yeiiib, p -OBaJi, imp -yft use, 
utilize, make use of; make 
the most of; take advantage 
of; exploit, turn to (one's) 

HcnopTHTb see nopxHTb. 

HcnopTHTbca see nopTHTbCH. 

Hcn6pHeHH|bm [isporch^m- 
niy] a [pa] sh f Hcnopqen, 
-a, -o, -bi 1. spoilt; rotten, 
bad, decayed; 2. vicious, 
spoilt {child, etc). 

HcnpaBHTb see HcnpaeJiHTb. 

HcnpaBHTbcsi see Hcnpas- 


Hcnpaejij^Tb [isprAvl^at^] 
imperf -hio, -neuib, Hcnpa- 
B|HTb [isprav^it^] perf -jifo, 
-Hiub, p -HJI, imp -b 1. re- 
pair, mend; 2. correct {a 
mistake, etc); ~HTb nojio>Ke- 
HHe improve the situation; 
3. reform, correct {smb). 

HcnpaBJi|nTbcn [isprAvl^a- 
ttsa] imperf -^locb, -neuibCH, 
HcnpaB I HTbcsi [isprav'itts9] 
perf -Jiiocb, -HUJbCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -bCH, -bxecb im- 
prove, change for the better, 
reform {of a child, criminal, 

,i^ [ispitan^iys] 
test, trial; 2. 

Hcnyr [ispuk, -g] m -a (-y) 
fright, scare. 

Hcnyraxb see nyraxb. 

HcnyraxbCfl see nyraxbCH. 

n -H, -H 
examination {for students)', 
3. test, trial, ordeal. 

Hcnuxaxb see Hcnbixbmaxb. 

HcnbixbiBJaxb [ispltivat^] 
Imperf -aio, -aeuib, Hcnbixjaxb 
[ispitat**] perf -aio, -aemb 

1. test, put to the test, try; 

2. experience, feel {fear, 
pleasure, etc). 

HccjicAOBaHHle [is^s^l^eda- 
van^iya] n -h, -h 1. investi- 
gation, research; exploration 
{of a country); analysis {of 
blood, etc); 2. paper, essay, 

HCCJieflOBaxejilb [is^s^Pe- 
davat^il''] m -h, -eft investi- 
gator, explorer. 

HccjicAJOBaxb [is^s^l^eda- 
vat^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeuib, p -OBavX, imp -yft 1. 
investigate, make a thorough 
study of; explore; 2. med 
examine; analyse {blood, etc). 

HCC5iK|axb [is^s^i^kat^] im- 
perf Aqt, HccnKH|yxb [is^- 
s^'aknut^] perf -ex, p hcchk, 
HCCHKJia be exhausted {of 
supplies, patience, etc). 

HcxcKiaxb [is^f'i^kat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, HCx|eHb[is^- 
t^ech^] perf -exy, -CMeuib, p 
-eK,, -CKJia, imp -ckh 1. elapse, 
expire; BpeMH ~-ji6 the time 
is up; 2.: —axb KpoBbK) bleed 

HcxHHJa [is^t^ina] / -u, — - 
truth, verity. 


— 160 

HCTHHH|biH [is^t^innty] a 
sh f HCTHHCH, -a, -o, -bi Ver- 
itable, true. 

HCTOpHK [istor^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB historian, student of 

HCTopHMecK|HH [istAr^ich^i- 
sli^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 1. his- 
torical {science, epoch, etc); 2. 
historic {figure, speech, etc). 

HCTopHJJi [istor^iya] / -h, 
-H 1. history {of a nation, 
etc); 2. story (1) a happening; 
2) a narrative, tale). 

HCTOHHHK [istoch^'n^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB spring {of water); 
source {also fig). 

HCTomjaTb [istAsh^:at^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, HCTOiu,iHTb 
[istAsh'^iit^] perf -y, -Hiiib, p 
-HJi, imp -H 1. exhaust, use 
up; 2. exhaust, tire out, wear 

HCTpaxHTb see xpaxHTb. 

HCTpeSHTejijb [istr^i^b^i- 
t^iP] m -H, -efl av fighter. 

HCTpe6HTb see HCTpe6jiHTb. 

HCTpeSjilflTb [istr^i^bl^at^] 
imperf -hhd, -aemb, Hcxpe- 
6lMxb [istr^i^b^it^] perf -Jiib, 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -H destroy, 
annihilate; exterminate. 

Hcxfl3|axb [is^f^i^zaf"] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub torture. 

Hcxofl [iskhot, -d]m-a out- 
come, result; 

<> 6bixb Ha ~e be coming 
to an end, be nearing the end. 

HcxloflHxb [iskhAd'^it^] im- 
perf -o>Ky, -oAHiiib, p -oAHJi, 
imp -OAH 1. issue {from), come 
{from); originate {from); 2. 
proceed {from) {an assump- 
tion, etc). 

HCHesjaxb [ishch^i^zat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, hchcs- 
HJyxb [ishch^eznuf^] perf -y, 
-einb, p HCHea, Hcnesjia, imp 
-H disappear, vanish. 

HCHepnaxb see HCMepnbiBaxb. 

HCHepnbiBJaxb [ishch^erpi- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
HCHepn|axb [ishch^erpat''] 
perf -aio, -aeuib exhaust, use 
up; Bonpoc Hcqepnan the 
question is settled. 

HCHepnbiBaK)iu,|HM [ishch^er- 
piv9yush^:iy] a [pa\ -an, -ee, 
-He exhaustive, comprehen- 

HxaK [itak, -g] cy denoting 
conclusion, summing up thus, 

HxajibflHlei; [itApyan^its, 
-dz] m -ua, -ueB Italian. 

HxajibnHCKJHH [ItAPyan- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Italian. 

H X. A. [i-te-de, itAgdaPiya] 
abbrev (=h xaK Aajiee) and 
so on, and so forth; etc (et 

Hxor [itok, -g] m -a, -ob 
sum, total; result {also fig); 
<> B -~e as a result; in the end. 

H X. n. [i-te-pe, itAmCipA- 
dobnaya] abbrev (=h xomv 
noAofinoe) and the like; and 
so on, and so forth. 

Hx [ikh, igh] I gen & ace 
of ohh; see oh; 
II pron poss corresp to ohh 
their; theirs. 

HiuH [ish^'.i] see HCKaxb. 

Hmy [ish'^iu], Hmeuib 
[ish^:ish, -zh] see HCKaxb. 

KK)Ji\b [iyul^] m -H July. 

HK)Hib fiyun''] m -h June. 

iiOA [yot, -d] m -a iodine. 

^. 161 



K [k, g], KO [ko; in the 
first pretonic position — k a; 
in the second pretonic posi- 
tion — ka] prep with dat de- 
noting 1. an action or move- 
ment directed to, towards smb, 
smth: noAOHTH k aockc go up 
to the black-board; come up 
to the black-board; hath 
K cTOJiy go to the table, go 
towards the table; npH6jiH- 
3HTbCH K qeMy-Ji. [kkomy-ji.] 
approach smth [smb]; noS- 
TH K Bpa'iy go to the doc- 
tor, go and see the doctor; 
o6paTHTbCH K KOMy-ji. address 
smb; turn to smb {for smth); 
o6paTHTbCH K Bpauy consult 
a doctor; take medical advice; 
KO MHe npHiuJiH ApysbH my 
friends have come [came] to 
see me / to my place; saftxH 
K KOMy-Ji. call on smb; 2. con- 
tiguity: npHCJiOHHTbCH K CTCHC 

lean against the wall; 3. ad- 
dition, joining, belonging, 
etc: K OAHOMy npH6aBHTb xpn 
add three to one; npHMKHyTb 
K KaKOH-Ji. rpynne join a 
group, side with a group; 
np^coeAHHHTbCH K HbeMy-Ji. 
MHeHHK) subscribe to smb's 
opinion; npHHaAJieJKarb k Ka- 
Koii-Ji. napTHH be a member 
of a party; A. time limit: k 
TpeM MacaM by three o'clock; 

5. purpose: roTOBHTbCH k ne- 
My-Ji. get ready for smth, 
prepare for smth; nepeoAexbCH 
K o6eAy change for dinner; 

6. attitude to, treatment of: 

;iio66Bb K... love of...; love 
for . . . / to. . . ; AOBepHe k KOMy-ji. 
confidence in smb, trust in 
smb; 7. appeal, call: k h6- 
BbiM ycnexaM! may we [you] 
score further successes! 

Ka6aH|6K [kabACh^'ok, -g] 
m -Ka, -KoB vegetable marrow. 

KaSejijb [kab^iP] m -h, -eft 

KaSiiHla [kAb^ina] / -bi, ^ 
booth, box; bathing-hut; ~a 
rpysoBHKa [Kpana u m. n.] 
box / cab of a lorry [crane, 
etc]; ~a JiemnKa cockpit. 

Ka6HHeT [kab^in^et, -dj m 
-a, -OB 1. private office; 
study (a room); 2. med con- 
sulting room, surgery; 3. pot 

KaSjiyK [kAbluk, -g] m -a, 
-OB heel {of the shoe); 
<> 6biTb noA ~6m y Koro-ji. 
col ^ be under smb's thumb. 

KaBajiepH|ji [kavAl^er^iya] 
/ -H cavalry. 

KaeuHlKH [kAvkh^k^i] pi 
-CK {sing KaebiHKla / -h) in- 
verted commas, quotation- 
-marks; b ~Kax in inverted 
commas [also see <>]; 
<> B ~Kax so-called. 

KaAp [kadr] m -a, -ob shot, 
sequence {in motion pictures); 
still {a photograph). 

Kaflplbi [kadri] pi -ob 1. 
personnel {skilled specialists 
and workers in a certain field); 
noAroTOBKa --ob training of 
specialists /personnel; 2. mil 


162 — 

KaKAJWH [kazhdty] I pron 
every, each; ~bie nHTb ahch 
every five days; 
II as a noun Ka»A|biH m 
-oro, -bix everyone; ot —- oro 
no cnoc66HOCTHM, ~0My — no 
ero Tpy^y from each accord- 
ing to his ability, to each 
according to his work. 

KaiKycb [kAzhus^, -z^], na- 
KeuibCJ! [kazhashs^a] see Ka- 

KasaK [kAzak, -g] m -a, pi 
-11 (-H), -OB (-ob) Cossack. 

KasjaTbCH [kAzattja] 1 im- 
perf Ka»<ycb, KajKeuibcn, p 
-aJicH, -aJiacb, nolKasaxbcji 
[pakAzattja] perf 1. seem, 
appear, look; -^-aibCH cxpan- 
HUM [cMemHbiM u m. n.] seem 
strange [ridiculous, etc]; 2. 
impers: Ka>KeTCH, mto... it 
seems that...; eiviy Ka>KeTCH, 
»iTo... it seems to him that...; 
II as parenth Ka>KeTCH it 
seems (that); KasaJiocb it 
seemed (that); Ka>KeTC5i, hh- 
KTo He ono3AaJi it looks like 
everybody was in time; ~a- 


o6 3T0M it seemed (that) no- 
body knew about it; Bce, 
'-aJiocb, ujjio xopoiiio all 
seemed to be going well. 

Kasax [kAzakh, -gh] m -a, 
-08 Kazakh. 

KasaxcKJHH [kAzakhsk^'iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Kazakh. 

Ka3au,KiHH [kAzatjk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Cossack. 

Ka3aM]Ka [kAzach^ka] / -kh, 
-en Cossack woman; Cossack 

KaaauilKa [kAzashka] / -kh, 

-CK Kazakh woman; Kazakh 

KaseHHbiM [kAz^onniy] a 1. 
public {property, money, etc); 

2. fig bureaucratic, formal; 

3. commonplace, trite. 
Ka3HaHe|H [kaznAch^ey] m 

-Ji, -CB treasurer; paymaster. 

KasHJHTb [kAz^n^it^] perf 
& imperf -ib, -Huib,- p -hji, 
imp -H execute, put to death. 

Ka3H|b [kaz^n''] / -h, -eft 
execution, capital punish- 
ment; npHFOBOpHTb K CMCpT- 

HOH ~H sentence to death. 
KaK [kak, -g] I adv inter, 
ret & def how; ~ mhc npoHTH 
Ha KpacHyio njiomaflb? how 
do J get to the Red Square?, 
can you tell me the way to 
the Red Square?; ^ Baiue 
SAopoBbe? how are you?; — 
Bac 30ByT? what is your 
name? ~ sto HasbiBaexcH? 
what do you call it?; — na- 
3biBaeTCH 3T0T ^^HjibM? what 
is the title of the film?; ^ 
Bbi CKasaJiH? what did you 
say?; ~ Bbi oTHocHxecb k 


what do you think of going 
to the cinema?; 51 3a6biji, ~ 
9T0 ACJiaeiCH I forget how to 
do it; BOT ~ Mbi nyTemecT- 
BOBaJiH that's how we trav- 
elled; BOX — HaAO 9T0 CAe- 
jiaTb that's the way to do 
it; ^ xoJioAHo! how cold it 
is!; -~ BaM He ctuaho! you 
ought to be ashamed of your- 
self!; ^ >Kajib! what a pity!; 
II part denoting 1, surprise, 
indignation: ~, oh eme He 
npHuieji? what, Ke hasn't 



come yet?; 2. a sudden and 
vigorous character of an ac- 
tion expressed by perf: ona -~ 
saKpHMHT! all of a sudden 
she screamed / yelled; 
III cj 1. denoting comparison 
like; as; oh roBopHT, ~ pyc- 
CKHfl he speaks like a Rus- 
sian; roBoppo Te6e -' Apyr 
I'm telling you this as a 
friend; 6yAbTe ~ AOMa make 
yourself at home; CHfleib ~ 
Ha HFOJiKax be on pins and 
needles; 2. denoting manner. 
OH nocTynHJi, ~ eiviy cKaaaJiH 
he did as he was told; h c^e- 
jiaK) TaK, ~ H 3T0 cfleJiaJi b 
npoiiiJibiH pa3 I'll do it the 
way I did it last time; 3. 
introducing clauses of time'. 
^ npHeAy B Omck, (xaK) 
saHAy K HCMy when / as soon 
as I arrive in Omsk, I'll 
call on him; -~ saKOH^Hiiib, 
no3BOHH MHe give me a ring 
when you're through; npouiJio 
TpH ro^a, ~ -ivibi paccxaJiHCL 
three years have passed since 
we parted; 4. used with the 
pronoun kto and a negation 
in the sense of 'but', 'besides': 

KTO §T0 CACJiaCT, ~ He TbI? 

who'll do it but you?, who'll 
do it besides you?, there's 
nobody to do it besides you; 
5. introducing object clauses: 
H BH^eJi, ~ OH Boiiieji I saw 
him come in; h cJibimaji, -^ 
OH neji I heard him singing; 
6: ~ OH HH cTapajicH, oh ne 
Aocraji KHHrH however hard 
he tried / try as he would, 
he failed to get the book; ~ 
HH ipyAHo, 9T0 HaAO cAeJiaxb 

however difficult it is, it 
must be done; -- oh hh 
Ao6p,... kind as he is...; 
<> ~ 6bi as if, as though; 
-- 6bi He Tan! co/ not likely!, 
nothing of the kind!; ^ 6w 
TO HH 6biJio be that as it 
rnay; ~ KorAa it depends; 
~ pas 1) just, exactly; 2) 
fit {of clothes, etc); ^ TOJib- 
Ko as soon as. 

KaKao [kAkao] n indecl co- 

KaK-jiH6o [kakPiba] adv =a 
KaK-HH6yAb 1. 

KaK-HH6yAb [kakn^ibut'', 
-d^] adv 1, somehow, in some 
way; 2. col anyhow, in a 
slipshod manner; 3. col some 
time, some day. 

KaKOB [kAkof, -v] pron pred- 
ic -a, -6, -bi 1. inter what; 
-^bi HOBOCTH? what is the 
news?; ~ oh co66h? what 
does he look like?; 2. def: 
BOT ~bi AeJia this is how 
matters stand; 3. rel: hhtc- 
pecHo, ~bi ero njianbi I won- 
der what his plans are (like); 
<> -^l col how do you like 

KaKJOH [kAkoy] pron -aH, 
-6e, -He 1. inter & rel what; 
~yK) raaeTy AaTb eaivi? what 
newspaper shall I give you?; 
~6e ceroAHH ihcjio? what is 
the date (today)?; h 3a6biJi, 
—6e ceroAHH qncjio I forget 
what is the date (today); 2. 
def {in exclamatory sentences) 
what; how; ~6h KpacHBbiH 
ropOAl what a beautiful 
city!; ~6ii sto KpacHBbiH 
ropoA! how beautiful the city 


— 164 — 

is!; ~6h Bbi yMHbift! how 
clever you. are!; 3. rel\ (la- 
koh)..., -~6h... such... as...; 
-O ~6h hh... whatever. ..;~6h 
6bi TO HM 6biJi(o) any what- 

KaKiOH-jiHSo [kAkoyl'^iba] 
pron indef -a9i-Jiii6o, -6e-jm6o, 
•■He-;iH6o=KaK6H-HH6yAb 1. 

KaK|6H-HH6yAb [kAkoyn^i- 
but^, -d^] pron indef -an-HH- 
6yAb, -6e-HH6yAb, -He-HH6yAb 
1. some, some kind of; any, 
any kind of {in inter or neg 
sentences); 2. (with numerals) 
col (only) about, some; ~He- 
-HH6yAb flBaAUaTb py6jieH 
some twenty roubles. 

KaK|6H-T0 [kAkoyta] pron 
indef -aa-xo, -6e-T0, -ne-TO 

1. some, a; 2. a kind of; 
something like. 

KaK-TO . [kakta] I adv 1. 
indef somehow, in someway; 

2. of time once, one day; 3. 
inter & rel how; ~- ero npH- 
MyT? I wonder how they will 
take him, I wonder what 
welcome he will get; 

II as a particle {before enu- 
meration) col that is. 

KajieKJa [kAPeka] m Sc f 
-H, ~ cripple, maimed per- 

KajieHAapjb [kal^i^ndar^] m 
-H, -efl calendar; HacTOJibHuft 
~b loose-leaf calendar; oipuB- 
HOH ~b tear-off calendar. 

KajiMTJKa [kApitka] / -kh, 
-OK wicket {in a gate or 

KajibcoHlbi [kAPsoni] pi ~ 
drawers, underpants. 

KaM6oA«Hieu [kambAdzhf- 

yatj, -dz] m -Hua, -HueB Cam- 

dzhtysk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -ne 

KaMeHH|biH [kam^mnty] a 

1. stone (attr); 2. fig hard, 
stony, relentless; 

<> ~oe cepAUe a heart of 
stone; ~biH yrojib coal. 

KaMeHiu,HK [kam^m^sh^:ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob mason, brick- 

KaMJeHb [kam^in^] m -hh, 
pi -HH, -Heft 1. stone, rock; 
TomiJibHbift —eHb whetstone; 

2. pi med stones; 

<> —CHb npeTKHoeeHHfl stum- 
bling-block; KpaeyrojibHbiH 
--CHb corner-stone; np66HbiHi 
~eHb touchstone. 

KaMcpja [kam^ira] / -bi, -' 
1. cell, chamber; ■~a xpane- 
HHH (pyHHoro) 6ara>Ka cloak- 
-room {at a railway station); 
TiopeMHan ~a cell, ward; 2. 
inner tube {of an automobile 
tyre); bladder {of a ball); 3. 
photo camera. 

KaMnaHH|5i [kAmpan^iya] / 
-H, -H campaign, drive; h3- 
SHpaxejibHaH ~-h election 

KaM4)ap|a [kamfAra] / -bi 

KaMbiui [kAmish, -zh] m -a, 
pi -H, -eft can, rush, reed. 

KaHaBJa [kAnava] / -bi, — 
ditch; cTOMHaa ~a gutter. 

Kanaji [kAnal] m -a, -ob 1. 
canai; channel {also fig); 
opocHTejibHbiH ~ irrigation 
can3l; 2. bore {of the gun 

— 165 — 


KaHajiH3au,H|$i [k^ngPiza- 
tsiya] / -H sewerage, sewer- 
age system, 

Kanax [kAnat, -d] m -a^ 
-OB rope, cable. 

KaHAHAar [kan^d^idat, -d] 
m -a, -OB 1. candidate; -^ b 
MJieHbi Knee probation mem- 
ber of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union; 2.: — 
HayK Candidate of Science 
(a scientific degree); — xh- 


u m. n.] HayK Candidate of 
Chemistry [Philology, etc]. 

KaHAHAarypla [k8n^d^idA- 
tura] / -bi, ~ candidature; 
VS candidacy. 

KaHHKyjibi [kAn^ikuli] pi 
KaHHKyJi vacation, holidays. 

KaHHTeji|b [kan^it^el^] / -h 
col tedious and long business; 
waste of time. 

KanyH [kAnun] m -a eve; 
B -- on the eve {of). 

KaHi^ejiflpH|5i [kantsi^l^a- 
r^iya] / -h, -h seal and cor- 
respondence office. 

Kanjaxb [kapat^] imperf 
-acT drip, dribble, fall in 

KanHxaji [kap^'ital] m -a, 
-OB econ capital. 

KanHxajiHSM [ksp^itAl^izm] 
m -a capitalism. 

KanHxajiHcxHHecKlHH [ka- 
p^itaPis^t^ich^isk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He capitalist(ic). 

KanHxajibHbiH [kap^itaPniy] 
a capital {repairs, construc- 
tion, etc); ~ TpyA funda- 
mental work. 

KanHxaH [kap^itan] m -a, 
-OB 1. captain (a military of- 

ficer); 2. master, captain {of 
a ship); 3. sport captain (of 
a team). 

KanHxyjiHpioeaxb [kap^itu- 
l^iravat^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeuib, p -Obaji, imp -yft ca- 
pitulate, surrender. 

KanHxyjiflu,H|$i [kap^ituPa- 
tsiya] / -H capitulation, sur- 

Kan|jifl [kapPa] / -jih, pi 
-JIH, -ejib 1. drop {of liquid); 
2. fig col a bit, a little; 
HH ~JIH He HcnyraxbCH not 
to be a bit frightened; 3. pi 
med drops; 

<> nocjieAHjiH —jiji the last 
straw; noxo^H KaK abc —jih 
BOAbi as like as two peas; 
^jiH B poT He 6paxb never 
touch wine. 

Kanpiis [kApr^is, -z] m -a, 
-OB whim, caprice. 

KanpH3H|biH [kApr^iznty] 
a sh f KanpHsen, -a, -o, -bi 
capricious {also fig). 

KanpoH [kApron] m -a kap- 
ron {a kind of synthetic ma- 
terial) . 

Kanycx|a [kApusta] / -bi 
cabbage(s); KHCJiafl/KBameHaH 
~a sauerkraut; uBexHan --a 

KapaKyji|b [kArakuP] m -h 

KapaHAaiu [karAndash, -zh] 
m -a, -efl pencil {for writing); 
UBexHOH ~ coloured pencil; 
XHMHqecKHH -^ ink pencil; 
npocxoft ^ lead pencil. 

Kapac|b [kAras^, -z^] m -h, 
-efi crucian (carp). 

Kapajxb [kArat^] imperf 
-K), -euib, nojKapaxb [pakA- 


— 166 — 

rat^] perf punish, inflict pen- 
alty on. 

Kapayji [karAul] I m -a, -ob 
guard, watch; 
II as an int help! 

KapayjilHTb [karAuPit^] im- 
perf -K), -HUJb, p -HJi, imp -h 

1. guard, keep watch over; 

2. col watch for, lie in wait 

Kap6T|a [kAr^ets] / -bi, 
~ coach (a kind of carriage)', 
<> --a cKopoH noMOiAH am- 
bulance (car). 

KapHKarypla [kar^ikAtura] 
/ -bi, — caricature, cartoon. 

KapjiHK [karl^ik, -g] m -a, 
-OB dwarf, pigmy. 

KapMaH [kArman] m -a, -ob 
pocket (m a suit, etc); 
<> 3T0 eMy He no ~y col it 
is more than he can afford. 

KapHaBaji [karnAval] m -a, 
-08 carnival. 

Kapn [karp, -b] m -a, -ob 
carp {an edible freshwater 

KapTJa [karts] / -u, ~ 1. 
geog map; MopcKan ~a sea 
chart; 2. (playing-)card; ko- 
ji6;i,a -~ pack of cards; 
<> craBHTb Ha ~y stake 
{one's all, etc); pacKpbiTb cboh 
~bi show one's hand; ero 
—a 6MTa his game is up. 

KapraeiHTb [kArtav^it^] im- 
perf -jiK), -HUJb, p -Hji, imp 
-h burr. 

KapTMHla [kArt^ina] / -bi, 
'- 1. picture, painting, can- 
vas; 2. fig picture; laKOBa 
'-a such is the picture; 

3. theat scene (a part of an 

KapTHHlKa [kArt^inka] / 
-KH, -OK (small) picture; ne- 
peBOAHbie ~KH transfers. 

KapTOH [kArton] m -a paste- 
board, cardboard. 

KapT64)eji|b [kArtof^iP] m 
-H potatoes; potato plant. 

KapT04|Ka [kartach^ks] / 
-KH, -CK card (a piece of pa- 
per or thin pasteboard); (|)o- 
Torpa4)HqecKaH ~Ka photo- 

KaprouiKla [kArtoshks] / 
-H co/=KapT64Dejib. 

Kapbep|a [kAr^yers] / -bi 
career {1) in life; 2) a profes- 

KacaJTbcfl [kAsattja] imperf 
-K)Cb, -euibCH, p -jicH, -jiacb, 

imp -HCH, -HTCCb, KOCH}yTbCSl 

[kAsnuttja] perf -ycb, -embCH, 
p -yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp -HCb, 
-lixecb 1. touch {with a fin- 
ger, etc); 2. fig touch {upon 
a matter, etc); 3. fig concern, 
affect, apply to; sto ero ne 
~eTCH it does not concern 
him; xe, Koro sto --excH 
those concerned; 
O HTO ~eTCfl as to, as con- 
cerns; HTO ~eTCJi MCHfl as to 
me, as far as I'm concern- 

Kacc|a [kasss] / -bi, — I. 
cash-box, till; pay-desk, 
cashier's desk; SHJieiHaH -—a 
booking-office; xeaTpajibHan 
-~a box-office; ticket-agency; 
2. cash, receipts; 3.: c6epera- 
TCJibHaH —-a savings-bank; 
~a B3aHMon6Mou;H mutual 
benefit fund. 

KaccMp [kAs^'s^ir] m -a, -ob 

— 167 ^ 


KacTpK).Fi|fl [kAstr^uPa] / 
-H, -b pot^ pan, stew-pan. 

Karajior [katAlok, -g] m -a, 
-OB catalogue. 

KaTacTp6(j)|a [katAstrofa] / 
-bi, — catastrophe, disaster; 
»ejie3Ho;i,op6HCHaH --a rail- 
way accident. 

KaxjaTb [kAtat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib [cf KaxKib] 1. roll 
(smth along); wheel (a bar- 
row, etc); 2. take for a drive / 

KaxlaTbCJi [k A tattja 1 /m per/ 
-aiocb, -aeiiibCH [cf KaxHTbCH] 
1. roll {of a ball, etc); 2. roll 
{over and over); 3.: -— axbCH 
Ha MaiiiHHe have a ride (in 
a car); —axbCH na jio^Ke 
boat, go boating; ^axbCH Ha 
KOHbKax go skating; -^axbCH 
BepxoM ride on horseback; 
'-axbCH Ha BeJiocHne^e bicy- 
cle, ride on a bicycle; 
<> KaK cbip B Macjie -—axbcsi 
col ^ live in clover. 

KaxeropHHecKJHH [kat^igA- 
r^'ich^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 
categorical, absolute; --hh 
oxKaa flat refusal. 

KaxeropHJH [kat^i^gdr^iya] 
/ -H, -ft category. 

Kdxep [k^t''ir] m -a, pi -a, 
-OB launch, motor boat. 

Kax|iixb [kAt^it^J imperf 
Kaiy, K^XHUJb, p -Hji, imp -h, 
noJKaxHxb [pakAt^it^] perf 
a concrete action, movement 
in a definite direction [cf Ka- 
xaxb 1] roll {smth along); 
wheel (a barrow, etc). 

KaxjiixbCfl [kAt^ittja] im- 
perf Ka^ycb, KaxHuibCH, p 
-HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 

-Hxecb, noJKaxHxbCJi [pakAt^i- 
ttsa] perf a concrete move- 
ment in a definite direction 
[cf KaxaxbCH 1] roll {of a 
ball, etc). 

KaxjOK [kAtok, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB 1. skating-rink; 2. tech- 
nol steam-roller. 

KaxyiuJKa [kAtushka] / -kh, 
-CK 1. reel, bobbin, spool; 2. 
electr coil, bobbin; HH;^yK^H- 
OHHan ~Ka induction coil. 

KaynyK [kauch^uk, -g] m 
-a (India)rubber; cHHxexHqe- 
CKHH ~ synthetic rubber. 

Ka4)e [kAfe] n indecl cafe, 
coffee-house, '— -KOH^HxepCKaH 

Ka(|)eflpla [kaf^idra] / -bi, 
— 1. rostrum, pulpit; 2. de- 
partment {of law, philology, 
etc, at a university, etc); 
chair {at a university, etc). 

Kanjaxb [kAch^at^] imperf 
-aio, -aemb, KaHH|yxb [kAch'*- 
nut^] perf -y, -euib, p -yji, 
imp -H 1. rock, swing, sway; 
2. impers: JiojxKy —aex the 
boat is rolling (and pitching); 
ero — ajio h3 cxopoHbi e cxo- 
pOHy he was reeling; 3. {no 
perf) pump {water, etc)\ 
<^ ~axb rojioBOH shake one's 

KaHJdxbCH [kAch^'attja] im- 
perf -aiocb, -aeiiibCH, Kan- 
H|yxbcsi [kAch^nuttja] perf 
-ycb, -embCH, p -yjicH, -yjiacb, 
imp -HCb, -Hxecb 1. rock, 
swing; 2. reel, stagger. 

KanejilH [kAch^el^i] pi -en 
swing {a hanging seat). 

KaHecxBJo [kach^istva] n 
-a, ^ quality U) philos; 


168 — 

2) high, low, etc); nepexojii 
KOJiH^iecTBa B -~-o philos tran- 
sition from quantity to qual- 
<> B ~e in the capacity {of). 

KEHHyTb see Ka^aTb 1,2. 

KaMHyxbcn see Ka^axbCH. 

Kany [kAch^u] see KaiHib. 

Kanycb [kAch^us^, -z^] see 


Kauj|a [kasha] / -h, — 
(cooked) cereal, porridge, gru- 
el; MaHHan -~a semolina; ob- 
CHHan —a oatmeal; 
<>- caM aaeapHJi ~y, caM h 
pacxjie6biBaH col you made 
the broth, now sup it. 

Kauijejib [kashal^] m -jih 

KaiujiMHyTb see KamjiHib. 

KauiJijnTb [kashPat^] im- 
perf -HK), -Heuib, KauiJiJiH|yTb 
[kashp9nut^] perf -y, -eiiib, 
p -yji, imp -H cough; have a 
cough; perf also give a cough. 

KauiHe [kAshne] n indecl 
muffler, scarf. 

KaiuraH [kAshtan] m -a, 
-OB chestnut; chestnut-tree. 

KaK)T|a [kAyuta] / -bi, 
/^ naut cabin; state-room. 

Keaflpar [kvAdrat, -d] m 
-a, -OB 1. square (a figure); 
2. math the second power; 
B03BecTH B ~ raise to the 
second power. 

KBaAparHbiH [kvAdratniy] a 
square {in shape). 

KBajiM{j)HKauHJJi [kvaPif^i- 
katsiy.9] / -H, -H qualifica- 
tion, skill; npoHSBOACTBeHHaH 
~fi professional skill. 


l^if^itj+ravannty] a [pa\ qual-, 

ified, skilled, expert; — xpyA 
skilled labour. 

KBapraji [kvArtal] m -a, -ob 

1. block {in a city); 2. quar- 
ter {of a year). 

KBapTHp|a [kvArt^ira] / ^bi, 
~ flat, apartment. 

KBac [kvas, -z] m -a kvass 
{a kind of brewed soft drink). 

KBepxy [kv^'erkhu] adv up, 

KBHTaHi;H|fl [kv^itantsiya] 
/ -H, -H receipt {a document); 
6ara}KHaH ~H luggage /bag- 
gage ticket. 

KCAp [k^edr] m -a, -ob ce- 

KeM [k^em] instr of kto. 

KenJKa [k^epka] / -kh, -ok 
cap {vi sored). 

KepocMH [k^irAS^in] m -a 

KCTJa [k^eta] / -bi Siberian 

Ke(J)Hp [k^i^f^ir] m -a kefir 
{made from milk by fermenta- 

KHBJArb [k^ivat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiiJb, KHBHJyTb [k^iv- 
nut^] perf -y, -euib, -yji, imp 
-H 1. nod {in agreement , etc); 

2. motion {with the head in 
some direction). 

KKA|aTb [k^'idat^] imperf 
-aio, -^eiiib, KHHlyxb [k^inut^] 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp -b 
throw, cast, fling; 
<> -^axb )Kpe6HH cast lots. 

KHAJ^Tbcti [k^id^ttja] im- 
perf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, kh- 
H|yTbCJi [k^inuttja] perf -ycb, 
-eiubcfi, p -yjicH, -yjiacb, imp 
-bCH, -bxecb 1. {no perf): 
---aTfaCJi HCM-Ji. throw /fling/ 

169 — 


shy smth {stones, etc, at smb); 
2. throw /fling oneself {at 
smb, on smb's neck, etc); 

-~aTbCH H3 CTOpOHbl B CTOpO- 

Hy rush from side to side; 
--aTbCH B peKy plunge into 
the river; KHHyTbCH 6eH<aTb 
rush off; KHHyTbCH KOMy-Ji. 
Ha noMomb rush to smb's aid. 

KHJiorp^MM [k^ilAgram] m 
-a, -03 kilogram(me). 

KHJioMCTp [k^ilAm^etr] m 
-a, -OB kilometre. 

KHJibK|a [k^iPka] / -h, pi 
-H, KHJieK sprat; pi spiced 
sprats {tinned). 

KHHO [k^ino] n Indecl 1. 
cinema, picture palace; 2. cin- 
ema, motion pictures; 3By- 
KOBoe -— sound-films. 

KHHO... first element of 
compounds pertaining to 'cin- 
ema Vmotion pictures', 'films': 
KHHO(})ecTHBaJib [k^inaPis^t^l- 
vaP] film festival; KHHOce- 
aHC [k^lnas'^i^ans, -z] (cine- 
ma) show. 

KHHyTb see KH^aTb. 

KHHyTbCfi see KHAaTbCH 2. 

KHOCK [k^iosk, -zg] m -a, 
-03 stall, stand, booth, kiosk; 
raseTHbiH ~ news-stand. 

KHn|eTb [k^ip^et^] imperf 
-nib, -Hiub, p -eji, imp -h 
seethe, boil {also fig); kh- 
nexb 3ji66oH boil with hatred; 
pa66Ta ^ht work is in 
full swing. 

KHnpHOT [k^ipr^idt, -d] m 
-a, -OB Cypriot. 

KHnpcKJHH [k^iprsk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Cyprian. 

KHnflTJHTb [k^ip^i^t'it^] 
imperf KHnnqy, -Huib, p -h;i, 

imp -H, BciKHnflTtiTb [fsk^i- 
pMn^ft^J perf boil {water, 

KHHJlTlHTbCH [k^ip'i^t^l- 

ttsa] imperf KHnaqycb, -Huib- 

CH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, imp -HCb, 

-HTecb 1. boil {of water, etc); 
2. fig col get excited. 

KHnflT|6K [k^ip^i^tok, -g] 
m -Ka boiling water. 

KHprH3 [k^irg^is, -z] m -a, 
-OB Kirghiz. 

KHprHscKJHJi [k^irg^issk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Kirghiz. 

KHpnH4 [k^'irp^ich'', -j^] m 
-a, -eft brick {used in build- 
ing, etc). 

KHcejijb [k^is^eP] m -h 
kissel, thin jelly. 

KHCjiopofl [k^isUrot, -d} m 
-a oxygen. 

KHCJioTJa [k^isUta] / -w, 
KHCJioT 1. sourness, acidity; 
2. chem acid. 

KHCji|biH [k^isliy] a sh f 
KHceji, -a, -o, -bi acid, sour 
{also fig). 

KHCT|b[k^is^t^, -z^d^] f -H, 
pi -H, -eft 1. hand {of the 
arm); 2. bot cluster, bunch 
{of grapes, etc); 3. brush 
{used in painting); 4. tassel. 

KHT [k^it, -d] m -a, -6b 

KHTilei; [k^'itaygts, -dz] m 
-Hua, -HueB Chinese. 

KHTaHCK|HH [k^itaysk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Chinese. 

KHTaflHlKa [k^itAyanka] / 
-KH, -OK Chinese woman; 
Chinese girl. 

KHUieHHHK [k^'ishech^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob anat bo.vels, 


170 — 

KHuilKa [k^ishka] / -kh, " 
-OK 1. anat gut intestine; 
2. hose {for water). 

KjiaA^Hiuje [kladb^isli^'.a] 
n -a, -- cemetery, grave- 

KJiaAOB[afl [kladAvaya] / 
-OH, -bix larder, pantry; 
store-room, lumber-room. 

KJiaHJHTbCfl [klan^attjg] im- 
perf -HKDCb, -HeuibCJi, noKJio-- 
HJHTbcsi [pakUn^ittja] perf 


-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 1. 
bow {in respect, recognition, 
etc); 2. send one's respects / 
compliments; ^-HHTecb hm 
OT MCHH remember me to 

KJianaH [klapan] m -a, -ob 
1. 'technol, anat valve; 2. flap 
{of a pocket). 

Kjiacc [klas, -z] m -a, -ob 

1. class {1) a group, divi- 
sion, etc; 2) a social group); 

2. class-room. 
KjiaccHHecK|Hfl [klAs^ich^i- 

sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He clas- 

KJiaccoBbiH [klass9viy] a 
class {consciousness, struggle, 
differences, etc), 

KJialcTb [klas^'t^] imperf 
-fly, -fleujb, p -ji, Kjiajia, imp 
-flH, nojioKlMTb [palAzhtt**] 
perf -y, nojioHcnmb, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. put, lay, place; 
•~cTb Ha MecTO put in place; 
--CTb HTO-ji. ce6e Ha xapejiKy 
help oneself to smth {at ta- 
ble); — CTb Hory Ha Hory cross 
one's legs; 2. lay {bricks, 
the foundation, etc); 

<> ~CTb HTO-Jl. B OCHOSy 

base oneself on smth; ~CTb 
flHua lay eggs. 

KjieBajTb [kPi^vat**] im- 
perf KJIIOK), KJHOeUIb, p -Jl, 

imp KJiioH, KJiK)H|yTb [kl^u- 
nuf*] perf -y, -euib, p -yji, 
imp -h 1. peak; 2. bite {of 

<> ~Tb HocoM col nod, be 
drowsy; y Hero flener nypw 
He KJiK)K)T col ^ he is rolling 
in money, 

KJiCBcp [kl^ev^ir] m -a, pi 
-a, -6b clover. 

KJieBeTJa [kPiv^i^ta] / -m 
slander, calumny, libel, 

KJieBexalxb [kPiv'^i^tat^J 
imperf KjieBemy, KjieBemeiiib, 
p -JI, imp KJiesemH, HaiKJie- 
Bexaxb [nakl^iv^i^tat^] perf 
slander, calumniate, 

KjieeHJKa [kPi^yonka] f 
-KH, -OK oilcloth. 

K.iielHXb [kl^'eif] imperf 
-K), -Hiiib, p -HJi, imp -ft glue; 

KJielfl [kPey] m -a (-ra) 
glue; paste {for sticking to- 

KJieHMJHxb [kl'i^ym^it*'] 
imperf -Jiib, -HUJb, p -hji, imp 
-H, sa'.KJieHMHXb [zakl^i^y- 
m^'it''] perf 1. stamp, mark, 
brand; 2. fig brand, stigma- 

kjichmIo [kl*'i^ym6] n -a, 
pi KjieftMa, '-, KJieHMaM 
stamp, mark, brand; 4)a6- 
pHMHoe —6 trade mark. 

Kjien [kPon] m -a, -ob 

KJiexJKa [Kl^'etka] / -kh, -ok 
1. cage {for birds and ani- 
mals); 2 check {on cloth); 

— 171 — 


square {on paper); 3. biol 

KJi6m|H [kl^esh^:i] pi -eft 
technol pincers, nippers, tongs. 

KJiHeHT [kPient, -d] m -a, 
-OB client, customer. 

KJiu3M|a [kl^izma] / -u, 
~ enema, clyster. 

KJiHMax [kl^imat, -d] m -a 

KjiHH [kPin] m -a, pi -lh, 
-beB wedge; 

<> ~ ~0M BblUlHdaiOT ^ 

like cures like. 

KJiHHHK|a [kl^in^ika] / -h, 
'- clinic, hospital. 

KJion [klop, -b] m -a, -6b 

KJioyH [kl6un] m -a, -ob 

kjio4|6k [klAch^ok, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB 1. scrap {of paper, 
etc); 2. patch {of land). 

KJiyS I [klup, -b] m -a, pi 
-bi, -OB puff {of smoke); cloud 
{of dust). 

KJiy6 II [klup, -b] m -a, 
pi -bi, -OB club {1) an organ- 
ization; 2) the premises of 

KJiy6HHK|a [klubn^ika] / -h 
garden strawberry. 

Kjiy6|6K [klubok, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB 1. ball {of thread or 
yarn); 2. fig tangle; 
<> ceepHyTbca ~k6m roll 
oneself up into a ball. 

KJiyM6|a [klumba] / -bi, 
-- (flower)bed. 

KJibiK [kllk, -g] m -a, -6b t. 
canine (tooth); 2. fang; tusk. 

KJiiOB [kPuf, -v] m -a, -ob 
beak, bill. 

Kjiioft [kPuy] see KJiesaTb. 

KjiibKB|a [kPukva] / -u 


KJiioHyTb see KjiesaTb. 

KJiioH I [kl^uch^, -j^] m 
-a, -eft 1. key {to a lock); 
2. fig key, clue; 3. technol 
span;ier, wrench. 

KJiK)H II [kPuch^, -j^] m 
-a, -'?ft spring {of water); 
<> fiiTb —OM spout, jet. 

KJiKJK) [kPuyu], Kjiioeiiib 
[kPuy6sh, -zh] see KJieBaib. 

KJi«Kc|a [kPaksa] / -bi, ~ 
blot (of ink). 

KjiH|cTbCH [kPastjg] im- 
perf -Hycb, -HeuibCH, p -ncn, 
-jiacb, imp -HHCb, -HHiecb, 
noiKJiflCTbcsi [pAkl^^st§9] perf 
swear, vow; — cibCH b sep- 
HOCTH vow fidelity. 

KJiflTB|a [kPatva] / -bi, 
■^ vow, oath; jiomaasi ~a 

KHHrja [kn^iga] / -h, — 
book {1) a literary, scientific, 
etc, work; 2) a part of such; 
3) for keeping accounts, re- 
cords, etc); dyxrajiTepcKaH 
-—a ledger. 

KHHKJKa [kn^ishka] / -kh, 
-CK book {1) a literary, sci- 
entific, etc, work; 2) for 
notes, records, etc; 3) of bus, 
etc, tickets); sanHCHan --Ka 
notebook, diary; HjieHCKan 
— Ka membership card. 

KUHMHuPi [kn^izhniy] a 1. 
book {attr); — nepenJiex 
book-cover; 2. bookish, ab- 

KHM3y [kn^izu] adv down, 

KHdn'iKa [kn6pka]/-KH, -ok 
1. drawing-pin; US thumb 


— 172 — 

-tack; 2. press-stud; US 
snap-fastener; 3. electr but- 

<> HajKaxb (he) Bce — kh col 
pull the wires. 

KHyr [knut, -d] m -a, -6b 
whip, lash. 

Ko see K, 

KoSypja [kabura] / -u, ko- 
6yp holster. 

KOB^pHjbifi [kAvarnty] ash 
f KOBapeH, -a, -o, -bi insidi- 
ous, perfidious, crafty. 

KOBa|Tb [kAvat^] imperf 
KyK), Kyeiiib, p -Ji, imp Kyft, 
noAiKOBaTb [patkAvat^] perf 
1. {no perf) forge {also fig); 
2.: -~Tb jiomaAb shoe a horse; 
<0> Kyft »ejie30, noKa ropHHO 
prov strike while the iron is 

KOBlep [kAv^or] m -pa, 
-poB carpet, rug. 

KOBiu [kofsh, -vzh] m -a, 
-eft 1. dipper, ladle; 2. tech- 
nol scoop, bucket. 

KorAa [kAgda] I adv 1. in- 
ter & rel when; ~ oh npH- 
flCT? when will he come?; 

H He 3H§K), — OH npHACT 

I don't know when he will 
come; 2.: — b "cySfiory, ~ 
B BOCKpeceHbe sometimes on 
Saturday, sometimes on Sun- 

II cj of time when; as; while; 
O — 6bi HH whenever; ~ 6bi 
Bbi HH no3BOHHJiH... whenever 
you rang me up...; ecTb ~! 
col no time for it! 

Korfla-jiH6o [kAgdaPiba], 
KOFAa-HHSyflb [kAgdan^ibut'', 
-d''] adv some time, some 
day; ever {in inter sentences). 

KOFAa-TO [kAgdata] adv 
1. once, at one time, for- 
merly; 2. in the future; -^ 
OH eme npHAex! but when will 
he come!, it'll be a long time 
before he comes! 
^ Koro [kAvo] ace & gen of 


KorjOTb [kogat^, -d^] m -th, 
pi -TH, -reft claw, talon; 
<> noKasbiBaTb cboh ~th s 
show one's teeth. 

KOAeKc [kodeks, -gz] m -a, 
-OB code {!) of laws; 2) of 
rules, principles, etc). 

Koe-rAe [koyagd^e] adv here 
and there. 

Koe-KaK [koyakak, -g] adv 
1. carelessly, anyhow; 2. with 

Koe-KaKloH [koyakAkoy] 
pron indef -an, -6e, -rie 1. 
some, certain; 2. some, a 
little; pi also a few. 

Koe-KJTO [koyakto] pron 
indef -oro, -OMy, -oro, -cm, 
Koe KOM some people; 

Koe-KyAa [koyakuda] adv 
somewhere, to some place. 

koc-hIto [koyashto] pron 
indef -ero, -eiviy, -to, -eM, Koe 
o qe.M something; a little. 

K6«|a [kozha] / -h, -- 
1. skin {of the body, fruit, 
etc); 2. leather; 
O --a na KOCTH col ^ a bag 
of bones; hs ~h boh jiesxb 
col ^ lay oneself out. 

KowaHbiH [kozhaniy] a 

Kosja [kAza] / -b'l, pi kosh,. 
— , KosaM goat {an animal}i 

— 173 — 


Kosjeji [kAz^6l] m -Jia, -jiob 

<C> ~eji oxnymeHHJi co/ scape- 

KoflKJa [koylo] / -h, kock 
1. cot, bunk, berth; 2. bed 
{in hospital). 

KOKJiibui [kAkPush, -zh] m 
-a (w)hooping-cough. 

KOKC [koks, -gz] m -a coke. 

K0Ji6ac|a [k^lbAs5] / -m, pi 
K0Ji6acbi, K0Ji6ac, K0Ji6acaM 
sausage; BapeHan [Kon^eHaH] 
~a boiled [smoked] sausage; 
JiHeepnaH ~a pluck sausage. 

K0Jie6aHH|e [kal^i^ban^iya] 
n -H, -H 1. oscillation, vi- 
bration; ^e MaHTHHKa swing 
of the pendulum; 2. fluctua- 
tion {of temperature, prices, 
etc)', 3. hesitation, wavering; 
6e3 ~H unhesitatingly, with- 
out hesitation. 

KOJieSjaTbCJi [kaPi^battja] 
imperf KOJie6,niocb , K0Jie6- 
jieuibCH, p -ajiCH, -ajiacb 

1. oscillate, vibrate, vacillate; 

2. fluctuate {of temperature, 
prices, etc); 3. hesitate, wa- 
ver; He K0Jie6jiHCb without 
hesitation, unhesitatingly. 

KOJieH|o [kAl^^na] n -a, pi 
-H, -eft 1. knee; cTaib na '-h 
kneel; no ~o knee-deep; 
2. pl\ MaTb c pe6eHK0M Ha 
~5ix mother with a child in 
her lap; 3. {pi -bH, -bee) 
Jechnol elbow; 
<)v M6pe no --G col ^ devil- 
-may-care attitude, 

Kojiec|6 [kal^i^so] n -a, pi 
KOJieca, KOJiec, KOJiecaM wheel 
{of a cart, etc); MaxoBoe ^6 

KOJl I en [kaPi'^ya] / -en, -eft 
1. rut; 2. (railway) track; 
<> BOHTH B ~eK) settle down; 
BbiSHTb H3 ~eH unsettle 
{make smb insecure or uncer- 
tain) . 

KOJiHHecTB|o [kAPicH'istva] 
n -a quantity, amount; (the) 

KOJijierHajibH|biH [kal^ig^i- 

arniy] a sH f KOJiJierndJieH, 

a, -o, -bi collegiate, joint; 

—oe pyKOBOACTBO collective 


KOJiJierH|fl [kAl^eg^'iya] / 
-H, -ft board {of a ministry); 
^n aABOKaxoB College of 

KOJiJicKTHB [kal^i^kt^if, -v] 
m -a, -OB collective, body; 
group {of performers); CTyAOH- 
qecKHH — student body. 

KOJiJiCKTHBRbift [kal^i^kt^iv- 
niy] a collective, joint; -' 
AoroBOp collective agreement. 

KOJiJieKUH|ji [kAp^ktjtya] | 
-H, -ft collection {of paintings, 

KOJioAleu [kAlod^its, dz] m 
-ua, -ueB well, draw-well; 
maxTHbift -— eii. pit, shaft. 

KOJiOKOJi [kolakal] m -a, pi 
-^, -OB bell {of a church, etc). 

KOJiOK6jib4HK [kalAk61^- 
ch^ik, -g] m -a, -ob 1. hand- 
bell, bell; 2. bot bluebell. 

KOJioHHin [kAlon^lya] / -h, 
-ft i. colony; 2. settlement, 

K0Ji6HH|a [kAlona] / -bi, -^ 
1. archit column, pillar; 2 
column {of demonstrators, etc). 

KOJioc [kolas, -z] m -a, pi 
Kajiocbfl, KOJiocbeB bot ear. 


174 — 

KOjijoTb I [kAlot*'] imperf 
'K>, KOJieiub, p -oji, imp -h 
1. prick, stab; 2. impers: 
y Hero KOJiex b 6oKy he has 
a stitching pain in the side; 
-<^ npaBAa rjiasa kojict prov 
^ home truths are hard to 

koji)6Tb II [kAlot^] imperf 
-ib, Kojieiiib, p -OJI, imp -h, 
pacjKojiOTb [rasKAlot''] perf 
break, chop (wood); crack 

KOJiyMSHJeu [kalumb^iyatj, 
-4z] m -Hua, -HueB Colui;n- 

KOjiyMSHHCKlHH [kslumb^iy- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Co- 

KOJixos [kAlkhos, -z] m -a, 
-08 collective farm. 

KOJix63HHK [kAlkhoz^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -oe collective farm- 
er (a member of a collective 

KOJixosHbiH [kAJkhozniy] a 
collective farm (attr). 

K0jibi;|6 [kAPtjo] n -a, pi 
KOJibua, Kojieu, KOJibuaM 1. 
ring (a circle); o6pyqaJibHoe 
--6 engagement ring, wed- 
ding-ring; 2. fig ring {of en- 
circlement, etc). 

kojik)h|hh [kAl^uch^iy] a 
-aH, -ee, -ne, sh f ^, -a, -e, 
-H 1. prickly, thorny; — aH 
npOBOJioKa barbed wire; 2. fig 

KOJiac|Ka [kAl^iska] / -kh, 
-OK 1. carriage {a horse-drawn 
vehicle); 2. perambulator, ba- 
by carriage. 

KOM I [kom] m -a, pi -bH, 
•bee lump, clod {of earth). 

KOM II [kom] pr of kto. 

KOManjlla [kAmands] / -bi, 
~ 1. command, order; 2. m// 
party, detachment, crew; 

3. (ship's) crew, company; 

4. sport team. 

KOMaHflHp [kamAn^d^ir] m 
-a, -OB 1. commander; 2. mil 
commander, commanding of- 
ficer; captain; leader. 

KOMaHflMpoelKa [kaman^d^i- 
rofka] / -KH, -OK mission, 
business trip. 

KOMaHAloeaTb [kAmanda- 
vat''] imperf -yK), -yeuib, p 
-OBaJi, imp -yfl 1. give or- 
ders, command, order; 2. be 
in command {of); 3. fig col 
order about, boss. 

KOM^p [kAmar] m -a, -6b 
gnat, mosquito. 

K0M6aHH [kAmbayn] m -a, 
-OB combine {in farming or 

KOMSaMHep [kAmbayn^ir] m 
-a, -OB combine operator {in 

KOMSHHar [kamb^inat, -d] 
m -a, -OB 1, works, plant; 
group of enterprises; — 6bi- 
TOBoro o6cjiy>KHBaHHH com- 
bined service shop, every- 
-day service centre; 2. train- 
ing centre. 

K0M6HHau,Hlji [kamb^'ina- 
tsiya] / -H, -H 1. combina- 
tion; 2. (underwear) slip; com- 

K0M6jiHlfl [kAm^ed^iya] / 
-H, -H comedy {also fig); 
<> pasbirpweaTb ~k) play the 

KOMeHAaHT [kam^i^ndant, 
-d] m -a, -OB 1. commandant; 

175 — 

2. superintendent, official in 
ciiarge of quarters. 

KOMHccHOHHbiH [k^m^is^ion- 
niy] I a comrnission (attr); 
— ' MarasHH commission sfiop 
(selling second-hand goods on 

II as a noun komhcchoh- 
H|bie pi -bix commission 
{a payment made to smb for 
selling goods, etc). 

KOMMccHJfl [kAm^is^iya] / 
-H, -H 1. commission, com- 
mittee, board; 2.: 6paTb na 
— K) take on commission. 

komht6t [kam^if'et, -d] m 
-a, -OB committee, board. 

KOMM^pHccK I uPi [kAm^er- 
ch^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He com- 

KOMMyHJa [kAmuna] / -bi, 
— commune. 

KOMMyHajibHJbiH [kamun^l^- 
n*yl a municipal; communal; 
--bie npeAnpHHTHH municipal 
services; — bie ycjiyrH public 

KOMMyHH3M [kamun^izmj m 
-a communism. 

KOMMyHHCT [kamun^ist, -zd] 
m -a, -OB communist. 

n^is^'t^'ich^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, 
-He communist; --an napTHH 
Communist Party, 

KOMMyraTop [kamutatar] m 
-a, -OB electr switchboard; 

KOMHarla [komnata] / -bi, 
~ room {in a house, etc); 
BaHHan ~a bath-room. 

KOMOA [kAmot, -d] m -a, -ob 
chest of drawers. 

KOMnaHHJfl [kAmpan^'iya] / 

-H, 5H 1. company (1) of peo- 
ple; 2) companionship); bo- 
AHTb — K) c KeM-Ji. col asso- 
ciate with smb; 2. company, 
KOMnapTH|n [kompart^iya] 

/ -H, -H ( = KOMMyHHCTHqeCKaH 

napTHH) Communist Party. 

K6Mnac [k6mpas, -z] m -a, 
-OB compass {for showing di- 

KOMneHcai^HJH [kamp^i^nsa- 
tsiya] / -H, -H compensa- 

KOMneKCHploeaTb [kam- 
p^i^n^s^iravat^] perf & im- 
perf -yio, -yeuib, p -oBaji, 
imp -yfl compensate, make 
up for; indemnify for. 

KOMnjiCKT [kAmpl^ekt, -gd] 
m -a, -OB complete set. 

KOMnjiHMeHT [kampPim^ent, 
-d] m -a, -OB compliment. 

KOMnosHTop [ka'mpAz^itar] 
m -a, -OB composer. 

KOMnoT [kAmpot, -d] m -a, 
-OB stewed fruit. 

KOMnpecc [kAmpr^es, -z] m 
-a, -OB compress. 

KOMnpoMeTMp|oBaTb [kam- 
pram^i'-'t^'iravat'] imperf -yio, 
-yemb, p -oBaji, imp -yfl, 
c'lKOMnpoMeTHpoeaTb [skam- 
pram^'i^t^iravat'] perf com- 
promise (a person). 

KOMnpoMHcc [kamprAm^is, 
-z] m -a, -OB compromise; 
HATH Ha ~ compromise, 
make a compromise. 

KOMcoMOJi [kamsAmol] m -a 

(=BceCOl63HbIH JleRHHCKHii 
K0MMyHHCTH4eCKHft C0K)3 Mo- 

jioAejKH) Komsomol, Young 
Commurtist League. 


— 176 

KOMCoMOJileu [k8msAm6- 
l^its, -d^] m -bua, -buee mem- 
ber of the Komsomol, mem- 
ber of the Young Communist 
League, YCL'er. 

K0MCOM6jibCK|HH [kamsA- 
mol^sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 
Komsomol {attr). 

KOMy [kAmu] dat of kto. 

KGHBefiep [kAnv^§y9il m -a, 
■OB technol conveyor, produc- 
tion line. 

KOHBepr [kAn^v^'ert, -d] m 
-a, -OB envelope {for letters), 

KOHrojiesleu, [kengAl^ez^itj, 
-d?] m -ua, -ueB Congo- 

KOHrojie3CK)HH [ksngAl^es- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, »He Congo- 

KOHrpecc [kAngr^es, -z] m 
-a, -OB congress, 

KOHflMTepCK|HH [kAn^d''!- 
t^irsk^iy] I a -aH, -oe, -He: 
--HH Mara3HH=K0HAHTepcKaH; 
II as a noun KOHAHTep- 
ck| aH / -OH, -HX confection- 
er's, pastry-cook's^ 

KOHflyKTop [kAnduktsrj m 
-a, pi -a, -OB conductor {on 
a tram, train, etc). 

KOHlen [kAn^etj, -dz] m -ua, 
-iioB 1. end {of a rope, book, 
winter, etc); 2. distance^ way 
{from one place to another)] 
B 66a ~ua there and back; 
both ways; 3. fig death, end; 
O 6e3 ~u,a endless, without 
end; ao -~ni to the end; 
B ~ue ~u6b in the end; 


make both ends meet; Ha 
xyflofl ~eu. col if the worst 
comes to the worst; najiKa 

o AByx —uax a two-edged 

KOHeHHO [kAn^eshna] par- 
enth & part of course, cer- 
tainly, sure(ly); — j^al of 
course!, you betl; ~ Hex! 
certainly not!, no fear! 

koh6hhoct1h [kAn^ech^'nas^- 
t^i] pi -eft {sing KOH^HHocTlb 
/ -h) anat extremities. 

KOH^MHlbifl [kAn^ech^niy] a 
sh f KOH^qen, -a, -o, -bi 1. fi- 
nal, last; ~aH cxanuHH ter- 
minal, terminus; 2. ultimate, 
<> B --0M HTore in the end. 

KOHKp^THJbiii [kAnkr^etniy] 
a sh f KOHKpereH, -a, -o, -bi 
concrete, specific. 

KOHKypeHUHiH [kankur^'en- 
tjiya] / -H competition {busi- 
ness rivalry). 

KOHKypHploBaxb [kankur^i- 
ravat''] imperf -yio, -yeuib, p 
-OBaji, imp -yft compete {in 
trade, etc); vie {in some qual- 

KOHKypc [kdnkurs, -z] m -a, 
-OB competition {for a posi- 
tion, prize, etc). 

KOHHbiH [konnty] a 1. horse 
{attr), equestrian; 2. mount- 
ed {army, police); 3. horse- 
<> ~ saBOfl stud farm. 

KOHonjilH [kanApl^'a] / -i5 
bot hemp. 

KOHcepBaropMlfl [kans^irvA- 
tor^'iya] / -h, -h conserva- 

KOHcepBlfai [kAn^s^ervi] 'pi 
-OB tinned / canned food; 
oBomubie -~bi canned vege- 
tal) k.s. 

— 177 — 


KOHcncKT [kAnsp^'ekt, -gd] 
m -a, -OB summary, synop- 
sis, abstract; notes {of a lec- 

KOHCTHTyu,H|fl [lonst^itu- 
tsiya] / -H, -H constitution 
(i) pol; 2) physical make-up). 

KOHCTpyKUHJin [kAnstruk- 
tsiya] / -H, -H 1. design {the 
relation of parts of a ma- 
chine); 2. construction, struc- 

KOHcyji [konsul] m -a, -ob 

KOHcyjibCTBlo [konsuPstva] 
n -a, ~ consulate. 

KOHcy.ibTau,H|ji [kansuPta- 
tsiya] / -H, -H 1. consulta- 
tion, advice; 2. consultation 
office; HceHCKan —h materni- 
ty centre. 

KOHcyjibTHploeaTbCH [kan- 
sul^t^iravattja] imperf -yiocb, 
-yeiubCH, p -oeajiCH, -OBajiacb, 
imp -yftcH, -yflxecb, npOiKOH- 
cyjibTHpoeaTbCfl [prakansul^- 
t^iravattsa] perf consult 
{smb)\ consult together. 

KOHxaKT [kAntakt, -gd] m 
-a, -03 contact {also fig). 

KOHTHHCHT [kstt^t^in^ent, 
-d] m -a, -OB continent, 

KOHTHHCHTdjibHbiH [kan^t^i- 
n^i^ntaPniy] a continental. 

KOHTOpja [kAntora] / -bi, -~ 
office, bureau; ~a cbhsh 

KOHTp... first element of 
compounds denoting opposi- 
tion to what is expressed by 
the second element: KOHTpMe- 
pbi [kontrm^eri] counter-meas- 
ures; KOHTppeBOjiKDUHH [kontr- 

r^iVAl^utslya] counter-revolu- 

K0HTpa6aHfl{a [kantrAban- 
da] / -bi 1. smuggling; 2. smug- 
gled goods. 

KOHTpaKT [kAntrakt, -gd] 
m -a, -OB contract, agree- 

KOHTpojiep [kantrAl^or] m 
-a, -OB controller, comptrol- 
ler; ticket-collector. 

K0HTp6ji|b [kAntrol^] m -h 
control {1) supervision; 
2) power, authority; 3) means 
of suoh); 3T0 He noflAaerca 
--K) it is impossible to ver- 
ify it; OTAeji TexHHqecKoro 
— H checking department. 

K0HTy3H|ji [kAntuz^iya] / 
-H, -H confusion, shell-shock, 

K0H4)epeHUH)H [kanf^i^r^en- 
t§*y9] / -H, -H conference 
{a formal meeting). 

K0H4)eT|a [kAnf'eta] / -bi, 
~ sweet, sweetmeat; US can- 

KOH4)HCK|oBaTb [kanf^iskA- 
vat^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiiib, p -OBaji, imp -yfl con- 
fiscate, seize. 

KOH^jiHKT [kAnfPikt, -gd] 
m -a, -OB conflict. 

K0H(j)y3lHTbCfl [kAnfuz^ittsa] 
imperf K0H4)y}Kycb, -HUibCH, 
p -HjiCH, -HJiacb, imp -bCH, 
-bxecb, ciKOH4)y3HTbCfl [skAn- 
fuz^ittja] perf be embarrass- 
ed, be shy; become embar- 
rassed, become shy. 

KOHi^eHTpHploBaTb [kan- 
tsi^ntr^fravat^] imperf -yio, 
-yeuib, p -OBa;i, imp -yfi, 
ciKOHi^eHTpHpoeaTb [skan- 



tst^ntr^'iravat^l perf concen- 
trate; mil also mass. 

KOHuepT [kAntsert, -d] m 
-a, -OB 1. concert; 2. concerto. 

KoHHJaTb [kAn^ch^at^] itn- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, K6HH|HTb 
[kon^ch^'it^] perf -y, -huib, p 
-HJi 1. end, finish; 2. grad- 
uate from {an educational es- 
tablishment); finish (school). 

KOHH|aTbCfl [kAn^ch^dt1^9] 
imperf -aeicji, kohhIhtbcsi 
[kon^ch^ittja] perf -htch, p 
-HJiCH, -HJiacb end, finish, 
come to an end, terminate; 
imperf also be drawing to a 

KOHHHTb see KOH^aTb. 

KOH|b [kon^] m -H, pi kohh, 
-eft, -HM 1. horse [an animal); 
2. chess knight; 3. sport 
vaulting horse; 
<> flapCHOMy ~H) B 3y6bi He 
cMOTpax prov never look a 
gift horse in the mouth. 

KOHbK|H [kAn^k^i] pi -6b 
{sing KOHJeK m -bKa) skates. 

KOHbKoSeJKleu [kan^kAb^e- 
zh9t§, -4?1 f^ -na» -ueB skat- 

KOHb«K [kAn^yak, -g] m -a 
(-y) cognac, brandy. 

kohk)iii|hh [kAn*ushn*'a] / 
-HH, -eH stable, mews. 

KOonepaTHB [kAAp^irAt^if, 
-v] m -a, -OB 1. co-operative 
society, co-operative; 2. col 
co-operative store. 

KoonepauH|« [kAAp^'i^ra- 
tstya] / -H, -ft 1. co-opera- 
tion, collaboration; 2. co-op- 
eration, association; co-opera- 
tive system; noTpeCHTejibCKan 

~H consumers* co-operative 

KonjaTb [kApat^] imperf 
-aK), -aeuib 1. dig (a hole, 
etc); 2. dig out {potatoes, etc). 

KoneMK)a [kAp'^eyka] / -h, 
KoneeK copeck {the hun- 
dredth part of the rouble). 

KonHjilKa [kAp^ilka] / -kh, 
-OK money-box. 

KonHp|oBaTb [kAp^iravat^] 
imperf -yio, -yemb, p -osaji, 
imp -yft, ciKonHpoBaTb [skA- 
p'^fravat^] 'perf copy, imitate 
{also fig). 

Kon|HTb [kAp^it^] imperf 
-jiK), KonHiub, p -Hji, imp -ft, 
HaJKonHTb [nakAp^it^] perf 
accumulate, amass, hoard; 
HaKOUHTb onbiT gain experi- 

KonHJJi [kop^iya] / -h, -ft 

1. copy, replica, duplicate; 

2. col image. 

KonHJa [kApna] / -b'l, pi 
KonHbi, KOneH, -aM shock, 
stook; --a cena (hay)cock. 

Konoilb [kopat^, -d^] / -h 
soot, lampblack. 

KonT|HTb [kApt^it^] imperf 
Konny, -ftmb, p -hji, imp -ft 

1. smoke, cure in smoke; 

2. smoke {of an oil lamp, 

KonHeHUH [kApch^only] a 
smoked, smoke-dried, cured, 

Kop|a [kAra^ / -bi 1, bark 
{of a tree); 2. crust {of the 
earth, etc); 

<> ^a rojiOBHoro Mosra anat 

Kopa6jilb [kArabl''] m -h, 
-eft ship, vessel; 

— 179 — 


<> cwHraTb CBOH ~H burn 
one's boats. 

KOpajiji [kAral] m -a, -ob 

Kope|ei; [kAr^'eyats, -dz] m 
-Hua, -HueB Korean. 

KOpeHCK|HH [kAr^eysk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Korean. 

KopcHHloH [kar^i^nnoy] a 
1. native, aboriginal, indig- 
enous; 2. radical, fundamen- 
tal; -^bie HHTepecbi vital in- 
<> ~6fi 3y6 molar. 

KopleHb [kor^m^] m -hh, pi 
-HH, -Heft, -HHM root (1) of a 
plant, etc\ 2) of some matter, 
trouble, etc\ 3) math & ling); 
<;> B —He radically; basical* 
ly; yHHHTOJKHTb B ~He erad- 
icate, uproot; Jiec na ~hk) 
standing timber; CMOTpexb b 
'—eHb get at the root. 

K0p3HH|a [kArz^ina] / -u, 
~ basket. 

KopHA6p (ksr^'idor] m -a, 
-OB corridor, passage. 

KOpiiHHeBbiil [kAr^ich^n^'i- 
viy] a brown. 

KOpJKa [korka] / -kh, ^ok 

1. crust {of the bread, etc)\ 

2. rind, peel {of fruit, etc)\ 

«C> OT ~KH AO ~KH col ^ 

from cover to cover. 

KopM [korm] m -a (^y), pi 
-a, -OB 1. forage, feed, fod- 
der; Ha noAHOJKHOM ~y at 
grass; 2, feeding {of ani- 

KopMld [kArma] / -bi stern 
{of a boat or ship), 

KopMJHTb [kArm^'it^] imperf 
-jiK), KopMHiub, p -Hji, imp 
-H, HaJKOpMHTb [nakArm^it**] 

perft noiKopMHrb [pakArmMt^] 
perf 1, feed {a baby, a horse, 
etc); 3Aecb xopomo KopMHT 
the fare /food is good here; 
2. {no perf) fig keep, support, 
provide for; 

<> ~HTb o6eii;aHHflMH col 
feed with promises. 

Kop66|Ka [kAropka] / -kh, 
•OK 1. box {of or for matches, 
etc); 2.: — Ka sa^hhh frame 
(of a building)! 
<> ~Ka CKOpocT^H technol 
gear-box; Hepennaa — na anat 

KopoBJa [kAr6va] / -bi^ -^ 
cow; AOHHan —a milch cow 
{also fig). 

Kop6ji|b [kArol^] m -h, -eS 

Koponla [kArona] f ' -hi, ^ 
crown {of a monarch). 

KopoHlKa [kAronka] / >-kh, 
-OK crown {for a tooth). 

KopoTKJHH [kArotk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -ne, sh f KopoToK 

(KOpOTOK), -a, -0 (KOpOTKO, 

-6),~-H (KopoTKH, -h) 1. short 
{!) street, hair, etc; 2) legs, 
etc; 3) life, etc; 4) story, etc); 
2. prompt and resolute^ sum- 

<> ~oe saMbiKaHHe electr 
short circuit; Sbixb na —oh 
Hore c KCM-ji. col ^ be on 
friendly terms with smb; 
pyKH KopoTKH! col ^ try and 
get it! 

KopoHC [kAroch^i] comp of 
KOpOTKHH & corresp adv. 

Kopnyc [korpus, -z] m -a, 
pi -a, -OB 1. {pi -bi, -oB)body 
{of a man or animal); 2. hull 
{of a ship or tank); 3. build- 


— 180 — 

ing; 4. mil corps; 5. technol 
frame, case. 

KoppecnoHfleHT [kar^ispAn^- 
d^ent, -d] m -a, -ob corres- 
pondent (o/ a newspaper, 

KoppecnoHAeHi;Hlji [lor^is- 
pAn^d^'entstya] / -h, -h 1. 
mail, correspondence; saKaa- 
HaH ~H registered mail; 2. 
report (in the pressy 

K6p4|HTbCJi [korch^ittj9] 
imperf -ycb, -HiubcH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, clkopHHTbcji [sk6r- 
ch^'ittsa] perf writhe, squirm. 

KopuiyH [korshun] m -a, -ob 
(black) kite (a bird). 

KOpbiCTH|biH [kArtsnly] a 

Sh f KOpblCTCH, -a, -O, -bl 

mercenary, selfish. 

KopbiTlo [kArfta] n -a, ~ 
trough, wash-tub; 
<> OKaadTbcn y pasdiiTGro 
■~a^be no better off than 
at the start. 

KOp|b [kor^] / -H measles. 

Koc|a I [kAsa] / -bi, ace 
Kocy, pi K6cbi, ~, KocaM 
plait, tress, braid. 

KOc|a II [kAsa] / -bi, ace 
Kocy (-y), pi Kocbi, ^.KocaM 

<> Haiujia --a ua KaMeHb 
prov diamond cut diamond. 

KOCBeHHJbiH [kos^v^mnty] a 
indirect {1} result, tax, etc; 
2) ling); ^bie yjiHKH circum- 
stantial evidence. 

Koc|HTb I [kAs^it**] imperf 
Komy, KocHiiib, p -HJi, imp -h, 
:iK0CHTb [sk.As^it^] perf 1. 
mow, cut; 2. fig mow down. 

KOc|HTb II [kAS^'it*'] imperf 
Kom>^, -Huib, p -HJI, imp -h, 

CiKocHTb [skAs'^it^] perf 
squint; imperf also be cross- 

K0CMH4ecK|HH [kAs^m^ich^i- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He cosmic, 
space (attr); —Hft kopaSjib 
spaceship; ~oe npocTpancTBO 
(cosmic) space, 

KOCMOflpoM [kasmAdrom] m 
-a, -OB cosmodrome. 

KocMOHaeT [kasmAnaft, -vd] 
m -a, -OB sj^aceman, cosmo- 

k6cmoc [kosmss, -z] m -a 
space, cosmos. 

KocHyxbCJi see KacaibCH. 

KocTjep [kAs^t^or] m -pa, 
-poB fire, bonfire, camp-fire. 

KOCTOHlKa [kostach^ka] / 
-KH, -eK 1. dim of KOCTb; 2. 
stone {in fruit); US pit; 
«0 nepeMbiBarb --kh col ^ 
pick to pieces. 

KOCTbIJl|b [kAsttl''] m -H, 
-eft crutch {used by lame 

KocTJb [kos^t^, -z^d^] / -H, 
pi -H, -eft, -HM 1, anat bone; 
2. pi dice {in gambling); 3.: 
cjiOHOBan ^b ivory; 
<> AG ~eft to the bone / mar- 
row; $i3biK 6e3 --eft col ^ 
loose tongue. 

KGCTioM [kAs^t^um] m -a, 
-OB costume, dress; suit {of 

KGCUHJKa [kAsfnka] / -kh, 
-OK (triangular) kerchief; 
scarf {worn about the head, 
etc); neckerchief. 

KOT [kot, -d] m -a, -oe 

<> '-' Hanjiaxaji col ^ next 
to nothing; KyniiTb --a b 

181 ~ 


MeuiKe ^ buy a pig in a 

KOT|eji [kAt^ol] m -jia, -jioB 
1. copper, cauldron; 2. tech- 
nol boiler. 

KOTeH|oK [kAt^onak,^ -gl m 
-Ka, -pi KOTHTa, KOTHT kit- 

KOTJiexja [kAtPeta] / -u, 
'-: 0T6HBHaH —a cutlet, chop; 
py6jieHaH —a rissole. 

KOTOplbiH [kAt6riy] pron 1. 
inter which; — -hh ^ac? what's 
the time?; b ~-om Macy? 
when?, at what time?; 2. rel 
introducing attributive clauses 
that; who; which; KHHra, 
'-'yio OH noiepHji the book 
(that) he lost. 

K6(J)e [k6f'9] m indecl cof- 

ko(|)6hhhk [kAf'eyn^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB coffee-pot. 

K6(|)T[a [kofta] / -bi, -- wom- 
an's jacket, blouse. 

K04erap [ksch^'i^gar] m -a, 
-OB stoker, fireman. 

KOHeHjerb [kach'i^n^et^] 
imperf -e}o, -eQuih, oiKOHeHeTb 
[Akach^i^n^et^] perf become 
numb (with cold). 

KouiejijeK [kashi^l^ok, -g] 
m -bKa, -bKOB purse {for car- 
rying money). 

K6m|Ka [koshka] / -kh, -en 

1. cat (an an/ma/); pussy-cat; 

2. technol grapnel, drag. 
Kouiy I [kAshu] see ko- 

CHTb I. 

KOuiy II [kAshu] see ko- 

Knee [ka-pe-es-es] abbrev 
(/)(=KoMMyHHCTH4ecKaH nap- 
THH CoyeTCKoro CoK)3a) CPSU^ 

(Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union). 

Kpa6 [krap, -b] m -a, -ob 
zool crab. 

KpacBOH [krayi^voy] a re- 
gional [cf KpaH 3]. 

KpiKJa [krazha] / -h, -^ 
theft, larceny. 

KpaJH [kray] m -h (-io), pi 
-H, -en, -HM 1. edge, brim, 
brink; ~h Tpoxyapa curb; 2. 
land, country; 3. territory, 
region {an administrative di- 

<> Ha ~K) r"u6ejiu on the 
brink of ruin; h3 ~ji b — ii 
from one end to another; 
B HauiHX — flx in our parts; 
xBaxHTb qepes —ft col ^ 
overdo, lay it too thick. 

KpaHHc [kr^yn^i] adv ex- 
tremely; ~ HyjKAaxbCH B 
qeM-ji. need smth badly. 

KpdfiH|HH [krayn^iy] a 1. 
extreme {!) north, right, etc; 
2) views, measures, etc); ~hh 
AOM cjiesa the last house to 
the left; ~hh cpoK dead-line, 
time limit; the last date; ?. 
dire {need, poverty, etc); utter, 
uttermost {surprise, etc); 
<> B ~eM cjiynae at a pinch, 
in an emergency; na ~hh 
cjiynafi if the worst comes 
to the worst; no —eft Mepe 
at least. 

KpaHH0CT|b [kraynas^'t^, 
-z^d^] / -H, -eft 1. extreme 
{an excessive degree); sna- 
Aaxb B —b run to extremes; 
2. extremity {an extreme 
necessity, danger, etc). 

KpaH I [kran] m -a, -ob 
tap, cock; US faucet; no>Kap- 


182 — 

HbiH ~ fire-cock; BOAOpas- 
66pHbiH — hydrant. 

KpaH II [kran] m -a, -ob 
crane {a machine). 

KpanHB|a [krAp^ivaJ / -u 
(stinging) nettle. ( 

KpacaBJeu [krAsav^itj, -d^] 
m -ua, -ueB handsome man. 

KpacaBHUja [krAsav^itja] / 
-bi, ~ beauty, beautiful wom- 
an; beautiful girl. 

KpacHB|bifi [krAs^iviy] ash 
f —, -a, -o, -bi beautiful, 

O—biecjioBa fine words; fair 

Kpac|HTb [kras^it^] imperf 
Kpaiiiy, -HUib, p -Hji, imp -b, 
BbilKpacHTb [vfkras^it^] perf, 
ojKpacHTb [Akras^it^] perf, 
noJKpacHTb [pAkras^it^] perf 
1. paint, dye; 2. {no perf) 
adorn, make beautiful. 

Kpac|HTbcji [kras^ittja] im- 
perf Kpamycb, -HiiibCH, p 
-HJicH, -Hjiacb, imp -bCH, 
-bxecb, HaJKpacHTbCH [nAkra- 
s^ittsa] per/ make oneself up, 
use cosmetics. 

KpacJKa [kraska] / -kh, pi 
-KH, -OK 1. paint, dye; 2. 
{mostly pi) colour {also fig); 
<> crymaxb --kh exaggerate; 
BOFHaTb B ~Kyco/make smb 

KpacHldib [krAs^n^et^] im- 
perf -eio, -eeiiib, noiKpacHeTb 
[pakrAs^n^et^] perf 1. redden, 
grow red; flush, blush; 2. 
(no perf) blush {for), be 
ashamed {for). 

KpacHopeHHB|biH [krasna- 
r^'i^ch^iviy] a sh f ^, -a, -o, 
-w eloquent, expressive. 

KpacHJbiH [krasniy] a sh f 
KpaceH, -a, -o, -u. red; 
<>• ~biH yrojioK room for 
reading and recreation; --asi 
cTpoKa new paragraph; ~oe 
A6peB0 mahogany. 

KpacoT|a [krasAta] / -h\,pl 
KpacoTbi, KpacoT, KpacoTaM 
beauty {of a face, voice, na- 
ture, etc). 

Kpa|cTb [kras^t^] imperf 
-ay, -fleiub, p -ji, -jia, imp 
-AH, yiKpacTb [ukras^t^j perf 
steal, practice theft. 

Kpa|cTbC5i [krastsa] imperf 
-Aycb, -AeiiibCH, p -JicH, -jiacb, 
imp -AHCb, -AHxecb steal, 
slink, sneak. 

KpdTKJHH [kratk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f KpaxoK, -^, -o, 
-H short, brief, concise. 

KpaxKO [kratka] adv briefly. 

Kpax [krakh, -gh] m -a 1. 
crash, bankruptcy; 2. fig 
break-up, collapse; 
<> noxepnexb — go bankrupt; 
fail {of plans, etc). 

KpaxMaji [krAkhmal] m -a 
starch {powder). 

KpaxMaji( HXb [ krAkhmal^it^] 
imperf -lo, -Huib, p -hji, imp 
-b, HaiKpaxMajiHXb [nakrAkh- 
mal^it^i perf starch. 

KpcAMx [kr^i^d^it, -d] m 
-a, -OB fin credit. 

Kpeficep [kr^eys^ir] m -a, 
-OB cruiser {a warship). 

KpeM [kr^em] m -a, -oe 
cream {1} a sweet food', 2) a 

KpewaxopHJH [kr^imAtor^'iy] 
m -H, -eB crematorium. 

KpeMjilb [kr'^em!^] m -n, -eft 
1. kremlin {in old Russia, 

183 — 


the citadel of a city); 2. (K.) 
the Kremlin {of Moscow). 

KpeHflejijb [kr^en^d^iP] m 
-H, pi -H, -eft knot-shaped 

KpenK|HH [kr^epk^iy] a -an, 
-03, -He, sh f KpenoK, -a, -o, 
-H strong, sturdy, firm; — oe 
SAOpoBbe sound health; 
— oro cjiojKeHHH of sturdy 
build; ^HH Mopoa hard frost. 

KpennyTb see oKpennyTb. 

KpenocT|b I [kr^epas^t^, 
-z^'d^] / -H strength (o/ dru^s, 
liquors, etc). 

KpenocT|b II [kr^epas^t^, 
-z'^d^] / -H, p/ -H, -eft strong- 
hold; mil fortress. 

Kpenne [kr^epch^i] comp of 
KpenKHH Sccorresp adv. 

Kpecjjio [kr^esla] n -Jia, -eji 
arm-chair, easy chair. 

KpecT [kr^est, -zd] m -a, 
-OB cross {also fig); 
<> nocTaoHTb ~Ha hcm-ji. [hr 
KOM-ji.] col ^ give up smth 
[smb] as hopeless. 

KpecTbaH|HH [kr^i^s^t^ya- 
n^in] m -una, pi -e, -- peas- 

KpHejoH [kr^ivoy] \ a sh f 
'^, -a, KpHBO, KpHBbi 1. crook- 
ed, curved, wry; 2. one-eyed; 
II as a noun k p h b | a h / 
-OH, -b'lx math curve, curved 

<> ~aji yjibiSKa crooked 

KpHSHc [kr^iz^'is, -z] m -a, 
-OB crisis. 

KpHK [kr^ik, -g] m -a (-y), 
-OB 1. cry, shout, yell, scream; 
2. fig- — AyuJH a cry from 
the heart; 

<>nocjieflHHH ~ MOAbico/ the 
last word in fashion. 

KpMKHyTb see KpHHaXb. 

KpHcxajiJi [kr^istal] m -a, 
-OB crystal {a form of sub- 
stance) . 

KpHTHK [kr^it^ik, -g] m -a, 
-OB critic; xeaTpajibKbifl -^ 
art critic. 

KpHTMKJa [kr^it^ika] / -h 
1. criticism; ne BbiAepJKHBaib 
~H be beneath criticism, 
hold no water; 2. critique. 

KpHTHK|oBaTb [kr^it'^lkA- 
vat^] imperf -yio, -yemb, p 
-OBaji, imp -VH criticize. 

KpHTMHecKJMH I [kr^it^i- 
ch^'isk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 
critical {mind, approach, es- 
say, etc). 

KpHTHHeCKiHH II [kr^lt^l- 

ch^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, -ne 
critical, crucial. 

KpHH|aTb [kr^ich^at^] im- 
perf -y, -Hmb, p -aji, imp 
-H, KpHKH|yTb [kr^iknut^] 
psff'-y, -eiub, p -yji, imp -h 

1. cry, shout, scream, yell; 

2. shout {at smb); 3. call out 
{to smb). 

KpoeaTJb [krAvat^] / -h, 
-eft bedstead, bed. 

Kp68H|biH [krovniy] a 1. 
blood {attr) {relatives, etc); 
2. fig vital {interests^ etc); 
<> — aH MecTb blood feud; 
~biH Bpar deadly enemy. 

KpOBO... first element of 
compounds pertaining to 
'blood': KpoBOo6pameHHe[kr9- 
VAAbrAsh^'.en^iya] circulation 
of the blood. 

KpoBOTeHeHH|e [kravat^i®- 
ch^en^iya] n -a med haemor- 


— 184 — 

rhage; extravasation; bleed- 

KpOBJb [krof**, -v^] / -H 
blood {in the body); 
<> 3T0 y Hero [y nee a tn. d] 
B — H it runs in his [her, 
etc] blood; -— b c mojiokom ^ 
the very picture of health. 

KpoJHTb [kvAii^] imperf -k), 

-HUJb, p -HJI, imp 'H, C'iKpOHTb 

[skrAit^] peri cut (out) (a 

KpoKOAMJi [krakAd^il] m -a, 
-OB crocodile. 

KpojiHK [krol^'ik, -g] m -a, 
-OB rabbit. 

KpoMe [krom^i] prep with 
gen used 1. in the 'sense of 
*not including', 'apart from'i 
Bce ^ Hero everybody except 
he, everybody but he; 2. in 
the sense of 'in addition to'i 
KTO TSM 6biJi -~ Te6H? who 
was there besides you?; 
<0> -' Toro besides, in addi- 
tion, furthermore; ^ uiyTOK 
joking apart. 

KponoTJiHB|biH [krapAtl^i- 
viy] a sh f ^, -a, -o, -bi 1. 
laborious, toilsome; 2. pains- 
taking, laborious. 

Kpocc [kros, -z] m -a, -ob 
sport cross-country race. 

Kp6TK|Hft [krotk^'iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f KpoTOK, -a, -o, 
-H gentle, meek. 

KpoiulHTb [kr Ashtt^] /mper/ 
-y, KpOLUHuib, p -HJI, imp -h, 
HalKpoiuHTb [nakrAshit^] perf 
crumble, crumb. 

Kp6u]|Ka [kroshks] / -KH,-eK 
1. crumb [of bread, etc); 2. m 
& / col little one; darling;' 
-^ HH ~KH not a bit. 

Kpyr [kruk, -g] m -a (-y), 
pi -H, -OB 1. math circle; 2. 
fig sphere, range, domain; 


o6fl3aHHOcTeH this is outside 
the range of my duties; 3. 
fig circle {of people); 
O rojioBd Hfl§T --0M col s 
I'm all in a whirl. 

Kpyrji|bifl [kruglty] a sh f 
— , -a, -o, -bi 1. round {in 
shape); 2. whole {year, etc); 
3. col perfect, utter, com- 

KpyroBloH [krugAvoy] a 
circular {movement, etc); 
<> -aa nopyKa 1) mutual re- 
sponsibility/guarantee; 2) mu- 
tual shielding/ saving {from 
punishment, etc). 

Kpyro36p [krugAzdr] m -a 
mental outlook; hcjiobck c 
uiHpoKHM ^OM broadminded 

KpyroM [krugom] I adv 1. 
round {of turning, etc); 2. 
around, all round; 3. col 
entirely, wholly; ^ b AOJirax 
heavily in debt; 
II prep col with gen denot- 
ing movement in a circle 
about smth round. 

Kpy«eBJo [kruzhava] n -a, 
pi -a, — , -aM^lace, point-lace. 

Kpy)K|MTbcji [kruzhlttjaj/m- 
perf -ycb, Kpyn^HuibCH (-Hmb- 
ch), p -hjich, -HJiacb, imp 
-HCb, -HTecb 1. whirl, spin, 
go round; 2. circle {of birds, 
airplanes, etc); 
<> rojioea Kpy)KHTcsi I feel 

Kpy^lKa [krushka] / -kh, 
-eK mug, tankard, 

— 185 — 


KpyjKiOK [kruzhok, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB circle, society; hobby 

Kpynja [krupa] / -bi, pi 
Kpynbi, -— groats. 

KpynHJbifi [krupnty] a sh f 
KpyneH, -a, -o, -bi 1. large, 
big; large-scale; 2. great, 
important; 3. prominent, 
outstanding, major; 4. big, 
tall, well-grown; 
<> —biH pasroBop col high 

KpyT|HTb [kfut^it^] imperf 
Kpyqy, KpyiHiub, p -hji, imp 
-H turn (a handle, wheel, etc). 

KpyrjOH [krutoy] ashf ^, 
-a, KpyTo, Kpyibi 1. steep 
(descent, bank, etc); 2. sud- 
den, abrupt; ^oft nepeJioM 
drastic change; 3. strict, 
stern, severe; 

<^ -^OH KHnsiTOK boiling wa- 
ter (just off the fire); ~6e 
fliiuo hard-boiled egg; ~asi 
Kama thick gruel. 

Kpyne [kruch^i] comp of 
KpyTOH & corresp adv. 

KpymcHHle [krushen^iya] n 
-H, -H 1. wreck (of a ship); 
crash [of an aircraft); ~e 
noesfla railway accident; 2. 
fig ruin {of one's hopes, etc). 

KpbiJi|o [krtlo] n -a, pi 
KpbiJibH, KpbijibeB wing. 

KpHjibujo [krtl^tjoj n -a, 
pi Kpbijibua, Kpujieu, -a.M 

Kpbicla [kriS9] / -bi, ~ rat 
{a rodent). 

Kpbimla [krisha] / -h, -r 
roof (of a house, etc). 

Kpbiui|Ka [krtshka] / -kh, 
-CK lid, cover. 

KpK)K [kr^uk, -g] m -a, pi 

-H (KpiOHbH), -OB (KpIOMbeB) 

1. hook {for hanging heavy 
things on); 2. col detour. 

KpionloK [kr^uch^6k, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB small hook; pbi6o- 
jioBHbiH ~6k fish-hook; bh- 
aajibHbiH —OK crochet; sa- 
cxernyTb -^6k do up a hook; 
sacxerHyTb Ha —ok hook (a 
dress, etc). 

KcraTH [kstat^i] I adv 1. to 
the point, opportunely; o^ieHfa 

— most welcome; 2. at the 
same time, while one is 
about it; 

11 parent h by the way, by 
the by. 

KTO [kto] pron Koro, KOMy, 
Koro, KCM, (o) KOM 1. inter 
who; — 3TO HAeT? who is it 
coming?; kopo tm BHAeji? 
whom did you see?; KOMy bm 
AajiH raaery? whom did you 
give the newspaper?; 2. rel 
who; he who; h He 3HaK), — 
3T0 6mji I don't know who 
it was; — xo^ct hohth na 


ABaAuaib KonecK he who 
wants to go on an excursion 
must give twenty copecks; 
3. indef col some {of people); 

— neji, — MOJiMaji some sang, 
some were silent; He noft^eT 
JIH — CO MHOH B TeaTp? will 
someone go to the theatre 
with me?; — mto jik)6ht tastes 

<> — 6bi HH whoever; — 6bi 
HH npHiueji... whoever 
comes...; ~ 6bi to hh 6biJi 
whoever it may be; ~ Koro? 
who will win?; — — , a oh 


- 186- 

jtoJixeH 3T0 3HaTb he should 
know it, if anybody does. 
kt6-jih6o [ktol^iba] pron= 


KT6-HH6yAb [kton^ibut^, 
-d^] pron indef Kor6-HH6yAb 
somebody, someone; anybody, 
anyone {in inter sentences). 

kt6-to [ktota] pron indef 
Koro-To somebody. 

Ky6 I [kup, -b] m -a, pi 
-bi, -OB math cube. 

Ky6 II [kup, -b] m -a, pi 
-bi, -OB boiler {for boiling, 
distilling, etc). 

KySHHjeu [kub^In^its, -dz] 
m -ua, -ueB Cuban. 

KySHHCKJHH [kub^insk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Cuban. 

KySjoK [kubak, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB 1. goblet; 2. sport cup. 

KyeiuiiH [kufshtn] m -a, pi 
-bi, --OB jug, pitcher. 

Kyjia [kuda] adv 1. inter & 
indef where, which way; — 
OH noexaji? where did he go?; 
•— HAex 3T0T aBT66yc? what's 
the route of the bus?; ro- 
pOA, ^ OH yexaji the town 
where he has gone; 2.: ~ 
(6bi) HH wherever {denoting 
direction); ~- oh hh noHAex 
wherever he goes; — 6bi oh 
HH nomeji wherever he may 

<> xoTb —I col couldn't be 

KyAa-JiH6o [kud^l^iba], Ky- 
fla-HH6yAb [kudan^ibut^, -d^], 
KyAa-TO [kudata] adv some- 
where, to some place. 

KyAp|H [kudr^i] pi -efl 
curls, curly hair.. 

KyApflBJbiH [kwdr^avi^] a 

sh f —, -a, -0, -bi curly, 

KysHci; [kuz^n^etj, -dz] m 
-a, -OB (black)smith, ham- 

KysHCHMK [kuz^n^ech^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB grasshopper, 

KysoB [kuzaf, -v] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB body {of a car or car- 

Kyft [kuy] see Kosaxb. 

KyK|jia [kukb] / -jibi, -oji 
doll {also fig); xeaxp ~oji 
puppet theatre; 

KyKypyaja [kukuruza] / -bi 
maize; US corn. 

KyKym|Ka [kukushka] / '•kh, 
-eK cuckoo. 

KyjiaK [kulak, -g] m -a, -6b 

1. fist {a clenched hand); 

2. technol cam; 

<> CMeHTbcji B ^ col ^ laugh 
in one's sleeve, 

KyjiHHapH(ji [kuPinar^iyaj 
/ -H cookery. 

KyjiHcja [kul^'isa] / -bi, pi 
-bi, ~- {mostly pi) theat wing, 

<> 3a '-aiMH behind the 
scenes {of). 

KyjibT [kul^t, -d] m -a, -ob 
1. cult, worship; 2. fig cult 
{of beauty, etc); 
<> cjiy^KHrejib —a minister 
of religious worship. 

KyjibT... first element of 
compounds pertaining to 'cul- 
ture': KyjibXXOBapbi [kiil^'t- 
tAvari] articles for cultural 

KyjibTHBHp|oBaTb [kul^t^i- 
v^iravat''] imperf -yio, -yeiub, 
p -OBaji, imp -yft cultivate 
{also fig). 

— 187 


KyjibTyp]a [kuPturs] / -bi," 
-- 1. culture (1) of a man; 
2) of a given people in a 
given period, etc); 2. agric 
culture, crop; xexHHqecKHe 
--bi industrial crops; KOpMO- 
Bbie ~bi forage crops. 

KyjibTypH|biH [kul^turniy] 
a sh f KyjibxypeH, -a, -o, -bi 
1. cultural {level, standard, 
revolution, etc); 2. cultured 
{person); 3. agric cultured 

KynajibHbiH [kupal^nty] a 
bathing {cap, suit, etc). 

Kyn|aTb [kupat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, BbiKynjarb [vl- 
kupat^] perf -aK), -aeiub, 
HC;KynaTb [iskupat^] perf 
bathe, give a bath to. 

KynjarbCfl [kupattja] imperf 
-aiocb, -aeiubCH, BbiKynjaibCfl 
[vtkupattsa] perf -aiocb, 
-aeinbCH, HciKynaTbcsi [isku- 
pattja] per/ bathe, go bathing; 
take a bath. 

Kyne [kupe] n indecl (sleep- 
ing) compartment {on a train)^ 

Kyn|eu [kup^ets, -dz] m 
-ua, -uoB tradesman; trader, 

KynHTb see nOKynaxb. 

Kynoji [kupal] m -a, pi -a, 
-OB cupola, dome. 

Kyp|HTb [kur^it^] imperf 
-K), KypHUJb, p -HJi, imp -H 
smoke {cigarettes, etc). 

KypH^|a [kur^itja] / -bi, pi 
Kypbi, Kyp, KypaM hen, chick- 
en; • 

<> KypaM Ha cmcx col = 
enough to make a cat laugh. 

KypHocjbiH [kurndsiy] a sh 
i --, -a, -0, -u snub-nosed. 

Kypopx [kurort, -d] m -a, 
-OB health-resort. 

Kypc [kurs, -z] m -a, pi 
-bi, -OB 1. course {1) of a 
ship, etc; 2) of lectures; 3) at 
a university, etc); 2. pi (in- 
struction) courses; 3. fin rate 
of exchange; 

O 6bixb B —e ;iejia be well- 
-informed (on the matter). 

KypcHB [kurs^if, -v] m -a 
italics, italic type. 

Kypc6B(Ka [kursofka] / -kh, 
-OK kursovka {a sanatorium 
voucher entitling to board 
and medical treatment with- 
out lodging). 

KypxJKa [kurtk9] / -kh, 
-OK jacket {a short coat). 

Kypbep [kur^yer] m -a, -ob 
messenger, courier. 

Kycajxb [kusat^l imperf 
-K), -euib bite {of a dog, flea, 

KycdlxbC5i [kusattsa] imperf 
-K)Cb, -euibCH bite {with the 

KycloK [kusok, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB piece, bit; slice {of 
bread); lump {of sugar); cake, 
bar {of soap); 
<> jiaKOMbiM ~6k titbit. 

Kycx [kust, -zd] m -a, -6b 
bush, shrub; 

<> cnpHxaxbCM b --bi col ^ 
show the white feather. 

KycxapHHK [kustarn^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB bushes, shrubbery, 

KycxapH'ibiH [kustarniy] a 
1.: — bie H3AejiHH handicraft 
wares; — bift npoMbiceji do- 
mestic craft; 2. fig primitive, 
amateurish {methods, etc). 


— 188 — 

KyxaplKa [kukharka] / -kh, 
-OK cook. 

KyxJHsi [kukhn^a] / -hh, 
-OHb, -HHM 1. kitchen; 2. cook- 
ing, cuisine. 

Kynja [kuchma] / -h, ~ 
1. heap, pile; 2. fig col heap 
{of), heaps {of). 

KyuiaH|be [kushan^ya] n 
-bH, -HH, -bHM food, dish. 

KymaJTb [kushat^] imperf 
-K), -eiiib eat {food); have, 
take {food); -~Tb noAano din- 
ner [supper, etc] is served; 
~HTe DHpor have some pie, 

KymeTJKa [kushetka] / -kh, 
-OK coucn {furniture). 

Kyib [kuyu], Kyeuib [kuyosh, 
-zh] see KOBaib. 


jiadopaTopHiJi [bbarAtd- 
r^iya] / -h, -h laboratory. 

jiaBMHJa [lAV^ina] / -bi, — 
avalanche {also fig). 

jiaBJKa I [lafka] / -kh, 
-OK bench {a seat). 

jiaB|Ka II [lafka] / -kh, 
-OK (small) shop; US store. 

jiaep [lavr] m -a, -ob bot 
laurel, bay(-tree); 
O noKHHaib ~bi reap lau- 
rels; noHHTb Ha ~ax rest on 
one's laurels. 

jiarepjb [lag^ir^] m -h, pi 
-H (-H), -en (-efl) camp {also 
fig); pacnojiaraxbcH ~eM 
camp; CHHMaibCH c ~h break 

jiaflHo [ladna] part col denot- 
ing consent, affirmation all 
right, (very) well, agreed; 
US O.K. 

;iafl6H|b [Udon^] / -h, -eft 
palm {of the hand). 

jiaflb|« [Ud^'ya] / -h, pi 
'ii, JiaAefl, -HM chess rook, 

jia)Ky [lazhu] see jiasHTb. 

AasJHTb [laz^it^] imperf 

jiajKy, -Huib, p -HJi [of 
jiesTb 1] climb, clamber. 

jiafl [lay] m JiaH bark(ing). 

jiaK [lak, -g] m -a (-y), pi 
-H, -OB lacquer, varnish. 

jiaKelfi [Uk^ey] m -h, -cb 1. 
footman, man-servant; 2. fig 
lackey, flunkey. 

jiaKHpoBaHHlbifl [bk^iro- 
vanniy] a [pa] varnished, 
lacquered; -—an Koma patent 

jiaMnja [lampa] / -bi, — ' 

1. lamp; (electric) bulb; 

2. valve, tube {in radio, etc); 
<C> ~a flHeBHoro CBera fluo- 
rescent lamp. 

ji^MnoHJKa [lampach^ka] / 
-KH, -CK dim of jiaMna 1. 

ji^HAbiui [landfsh, -zh] m 
-a, -eft lily of the valley. 

jiaoccKJHH [lAossk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -ne Laotian. 

jianja [laps] /. -bi, ^ 1. 
paw {1) of a bear, wolf, etc; 
2) col a human hand); 2. tcch- 
nol claw, dovetail; 
<> nonacTb b --w k KOMy-ji. 
col fall into smb's clutches. 

— 189 — 


jianiu|a [Upsha] / -ri noo- 

jiapjcK [Ur^ok, -g] m 
-bKa, -bKOB stall {for selling 

jidcKJa [laska] / -h 1. ca- 
ress, endearment; 2. kind- 

jiacK|dTb [lAskat^] imperf 
-aio, -^euib 1. caress, fondle; 
2. fig caress {of a voice, mu- 
sic, etc). 

jiacKOBlbiH [laskaviy] a sh 
f — , -a, -o, -bi 1. affection- 
ate, tender; 2. fig caressing 
{wind, sun, etc). 

jiacTOH|Ka [lastach^ka] / 
-KH, -eK swallow {a bird); 
<> nepeasi --Ka ^ the first 

jiaTBHflcK|Hfi [Utv^iysk^iy] 
a -aH, -oe, -He Latvian. 

jiaTyH|b [lAtun^] / -H brass 
{an alloy). 

jiaTbim [Utish, -zh] m -a, 
-eft Lett. 

jiaTUiuicK|HH [Utlshsk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Lettish. 

jiaypeax [laur^i^at, -d] m 
-a, -OB laureate {of a poet, 
artist, etc); ~ JleHHHCKOH 
npeMHH Lenin prize laureate / 

jiaHJTb [layst^] imperf 
jiaer, p -ji, -jia, imp Jiaft 
bark, bay. 

Ji6a [Iba], ji6ob [Ibof, -v] 
see Jio6. 

jiraJTb [Igat^] imperf jiry, 
jijKeuib, JiryT, p -ji, -jia, Jira- 
jio, jirajiH, imp jifh, coji- 
r|aTb [sAlgat^] perf -y, coji- 
Hceiub, -yT, p -aji, -ajia, -ajio, 
'^m, imp -h lie, tell lies. 

jiryH [Igun] m -a, -6b liar. 

jieSe^lb [Peb^it^, -d^] m 
-H, pi -H, -eft swan {a wa- 

jieB [Pef, -v] m jibBa, pi 
jibBbi, jibBOB lion. 

jieBuijd [Pi*^fsha] m & f 
-H, -eft left-handed person. 

jieB|biH [P6v*y] a 1. left, 
left-hand; ^aa ciopona left- 
-hand side [also see <>]; 2. pol 
left, left-wing; 
<0> — aa cTOpoHa the wrong 
side {of a material, clothe 
etc); BbiBepHyxb Ha —yio cto- 
pOHy turn inside out. 

jier [Pok, -g], jierjia [Pi^- 
gla] p of jie^b; see jio^HTbcn* 

jierajibHJbiH [l^i^gal^niy] a 
sh f jierajieH, -a, -o, -bi le- 
gal {party, methods, etc). 

jierdHA|a [Pi^g^6nda] / -bi, 
-- legend. 

jierKJHe [Pokhk^iya] pi -hx 
{sing jierK|oe n -oro) anat 
lungs; BocnaJieHHe — hx pneu- 

jiePKlHft [Pokhk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f jieroK, JierKa, 
jierKo, jierKH (-h) 1. light 
{not heavy); 2. easy {not dif- 
ficult); ^an pa66Ta easy/ 
light work; 3. light, slight; 
~Hft cjiyqaft mild case {of 
illness); 4. light, wanton; 
5. companionable, sweet- 
-tempered, friendly;— rift xa- 
paKxep sweet temper; 
<> ~afl axjicTHKa track and 
field athletics; y nero —aa 
pyKa col he brings .luck; jie- 
roK Ha noMHHe! col talk of 
the devil / angel (and he is 
sure to appear)! 


— 190 — 

jierKOMbicjieHH|biH [l^ikhkA- 
mis''l''inniy] a sh f jierKO- 
MbicjieH, -a, -0, -bi light- 
-minded, fri/olous. 

jierne [Pekhch^i] I comp 
of jierKHH & corresp adv; 
II impers predlc it is easier; 
-~ cKaaaTb, mcm CACJiaxb eas- 
ier said than done; 
<> Mac 6t Hacy He ~ col 
(things are going) from bad 
to worse; eiviy or axoro He 
~ he's none the better 
for it. 

jiefl [IM, -d] m Jibfla 
(jibAy), pi Jibflbi, JibAOB ice 
{frozen water). 

jieflHHK [Ped^n^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB ice-house; ice-box. 

jie^HMK [I'^i^d^n^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB glacier. 

jie;ioK6ji [PidAkol] m -a, 
-OB ice-breaker (a ship). 

.neflMHJOH [l^'id^i'^noy] a 
1. icy, glacigl; —an cocyjib- 
Ka icicle; 2. ice-cold, chill- 
ing; 2. fig icy {welcome, 
stare, etc). 

jiecK [l^'eyak, -g] see jieftKa. 

jiejK|aTb [l^i^zhat^l imperf 
-y, -Hiub, p -aji, imp -h 
1. lie {in a horisontal posi- 
tion); be {in some place, said 
of things); --arb b hoct^jih 
lie in bed; keep the bed; 
~aTb B jiHXopaAKe be laid 
up with fever; ^axb b 6ojib- 
HHue be in hospital; 2. lie, 
be situated {of a town, road, 
lake, etc); 3. tig rest {with 
smb, of responsibility, etc); 
be the duty {of smb); 4. fig 
weigh heavily {on one's con- 
scimae, etc); 

«0 —axb B ocHOBe underlie 
{of a principle, etc); — axb 
noji cyKHOM be shelved; 
flyuia / cepAue ne ~hx feel 
a distaste, have no liking 
{for smth or smb). 

jie3BH|e [l^ez^v^iya] n -h, 
-H blade {of a knife, for 
shaving, etc). 

jiealjb [l^es^t^] imperf -y, 
-eiiib, p ~, -jia, imp -b a 
concrete movement in a defi- 
nite direction — 1 {cf jiasHXb] 
1. climb {a tree, through a 
window, etc); 2. fig col thrust 
oneself {upon); interfere, 
meddle; --xb He b CBoe Aejio 
poke one's nose into other 
people's affairs; 3. get {into 
some place, for burglary, etc)', 
4. fall out {Of hair); 
<> —xb KOMy-ji. B jiyuiy col 
= worm oneself into smb's 

jiefi [l^ey] see jiHXb. 

jieHK|a [l^'eyka] / -h, jieeK 

jieftxenaHx [l^iyt^i^nant, 
-d] m -a, -OB lieutenant 
{a military officer). 

jieKapcxBlo [l^i^karstv9] n 
-a, — m.edicine {a drug). 

jiCKxop [l^'ektar] m -a, -os 
lecturer {a person who gives 

jieKUH|fl [l^ektstya] / -h, 
-H lecture. 

.len [l^on] m jibua flax; — 
-AOJiryneu flax-fibre. 

jieHHBJbiH [l^'i^n^iviy] a sh 
f — , -a, -o, -bi lazy. 

jieHHHHSM [Pm^in'^izm] m 
-a Leninism {the teaching of 

^ 191 — 


jieHHHCKJHH [Pen^insk^iy] 
a -asi, -oe, -He Lenin (attr), 

jicHlHTbCH [l^i^n^ittsa] im- 
perf -K)Cb, jieHHUibCH, p -hji- 
CH, -lijiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 
be lazy. 

jieHTJa [l'ent9] / -bi, — 
1. ribbon (1) for trimming, 
etc; 2) a symbol of honour); 
(hat) band; 2. fig: BHTbCH 
--0H wind its way {of a river, 
road, etc); 3. technol tape, 
band {of steel, paper, etc); 
ryceHH^Han —a caterpillar 
track; 4. film {of celluloid, 
used in cinema). 

jieHTH|H [Pi^n^t^ay] m -h, 
•eB col idler, lazy-bones. 

jieHJb [Pen^] I / -h lazi- 
ness, indolence; 
II predic col be (too) lazy 
{to do smth); euy — b pyKoft 
nomeBeJiHTb he is too lazy 
to lift a finger; 
<> see KOMy He ~b col any- 
one who feels like it. 

jienJHTb [Pi^p^it^l imperf 
-jiib, JienHUib, p -HJi, imp -h, 
BbiJienJHTb [vtl^ip^it^l perf 
-jiKD, -Hiub, p -HJI, imp -H, 
CiJienHTb [s^l^i^p^it^] perf 

1. (BbiJienHTb) mode!, sculp- 
ture {in clay, wax, etc); 

2. (cjienHTb) make, build 
{birds' nests, honeycombs). 

jiec [Pes, -z] m -a (-y), pi 
-a, -OB 1. woodland, wood(s), 
forest'j CMemaHHbiH -^ mixed 
forest; 2. timber, lumber; 
<> -~ pyGsiT — luenKH jiexflx 
prov ^ you cannot make an 
omelette without breaking 
eggs; KTO B '^, KTO no Apoea 

prov = one pulls one way 
and the other pulls the other 

jiec|a [Pi^sa] pi -6b scaf- 
fold(ing) {used in construc- 
tion, etc). 

jiecHHK [Pi^s^n'^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB forest-guard, forester. 

jiecHJOH [Pi^snoy] a forest; 
timber; — 6e xoshhctbo for- 
estry; --bie Haca>KAeHHH af- 
forested areas. 

jiecTHHuja [Pes^n^itja] / 
-bi, ~ stairs, staircase; lad- 
der {for gQing up and down; 
also fig); cKJiaflnan ^a step- 
-ladder;. noHcapnaH ~a fire- 
-escape; napa^Han ~a main 
staircase; Mepnan ~a back- 

jiecTHJbiH [Pesnly] a sh f 
jiecxeH, -a, -o, -bi compli- 
mentary {words, etc); flatter- 
ing {to one's vanity). 

jiecxjb [Pes^t^, -z^d*'] / -h 

jiexa [Pi^ta] pi Jiex, -m 
1.: CKOJibKO eMy jiex? how 
old is he?; eMy nnxb jiex he 
is five (years old); c agxckhx 
Jiex from / since childhood; 
cpeAHHX Jiex middle-aged; 
2. years {time); npomjio mho- 
ro Jiex many years passed; 
<> B --x elderly; Ha cxa- 
pocxH Jiex in one's old age. 

jiexjaxb [Pi'^tat^j imperf 
-aio, -aeuib [cf jiexexb 1] fly 
{through the air). 

jiex|exb [Pi^t^et''] imperf 
jieqy, -Hiub, p -eji, imp -A 
a concrete movement in a de- 
finite direction — 1 [cf jie- 
xaxb] 1. fly {through the air); 


— 192 — 

2. fig fly (0/ time); 3. tear 
along at breakneck speed; 
<> jiereTb CTpejiofl fly like 
an arrow from the bow. 

jieTKHH [l^'et^n^iy] a sum- 
mer {attr). 

jieTH|bifi [l^otnty] a flying 
{field, weather, etc); ~biH 
cocT^B air crew; US flight 
personnel; ~oe flejio aero- 

jieT|o [Peta] n -a summer; 

<> CK6jIbK0 ~, CKOJIbKO 3HM 

it's ages since we met; I 
haven't seen you for ages. 

jiexoM [l^'etam] adv in 

jiexHHK [Pot^ch'^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB flyer, pilot, aviator. 

jieH66HHu|a n^i^ch^^ebn^'i- 
tj9] / -bi, ~ hospital, nurs- 
ing home. 

jieneSHbifi [l^i^ch^ebniy] a 
1. medical {establishment, 
aid, etc); 2. medicinal {herb, 

jieH|HTb [Pi^ch^if] imperf 
-y, jieHHUib, p -ifji, imp -u 
treat {medically). 

jiCHJIiTbCJi [l^i^ch^ittja] 
imperf -ycb, jie^HiiibCH, p 
-H^cn, -HJiacb, imp -iicb, 
-rixecb undergo a cure, take 
a treatment, receive treat- 
ment {for). 

jiCH^ I [Pi*ch''u] see Jie- 


jieny II [l^i^ch^u] see Jie- 

JICHb see J10>KHTbCfl. 

jiem [I'^esh^:, -zh'^:] m -a, 
-efl bream {a freshwater fish). 

jiiKc... first element of com- 
pounds denoting 'pseudo-', 

'false': ji>KeHayKa [IzhenAuka] 
pseudo-science; ji>KecBHAe- 
Tejib [Izhes^v^id^et^il''] false 
witness, perjurer. 

jiMteuib [Izhosh, -zh] set 

ji}KH [Izhi] see .no>Kb. 

jDKHBibiH [Izhtviy] u sh f 
^, -a, -o, -bi lying, un- 
truthful; false, deceitful. 

jiH [I'^i], Jib [1^1 I part 
used 1. in general questions: 
6biji JIH OH B xe^xpe? was he 
at the theatre?; He Aauib jih 
xbi MHe cxaKan boaw? will 
you kindly give me a glass 
of water?; 2. in combination 
with some words to express 
doubt, uncertainty, etc: spHA 
JIH hardly, scarcely; e^Ba jih 
hardly, it's doubtful wheth- 
er...; ^y^h jih He almost, 

II cj 1. introducing an indi- 
rect question if, whether; h 
He 3Haio, xaM jih oh I don't 
know if / whether he is there; 
2.: JIH,.., JIH... whether... 

jiHSepaji [l^ib^i^ral] m -a, 
-OB liberal. 

jiHSepajibHJbifi [l^'ib^i^ral^- 
niy] a sh f jiH6ep^JieH, -a, 
-o, -bi pol liberal. 

jih6o [l^iba] cj denoting 
1. an alternative, sometimes 
coupled with addition, connex- 
ion or with warning, threat 
or; — ..., ^... either... or... 

-jih6o part forming indefi- 
nite pronouns or adverbs when 
added to kxo, qxo, etc: kxo--' 
somebody, someone; FAe- — 
■ somewhere, in some place. 

— 193 -^ 

jiHeaHJei; [l^ivan^its, -dz] 
n -ua, -ueB Lebanese. 

jiHBaHCKJHH [l^ivansk^iy] a 
-aji, -oe, -He Lebanese. 

jiHBJeHb [l^iv^in^] m -hh, 
-Heft heavy rain, downpour. 

jiHBHJei; [Piv^iyats, -d^] m 
-Hua, -Hues Libyan. 

jiHBHHCKJMH [l^iv^iysk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Libyan. 

jiHrja [l^iga] / -h, — league 
(a society). 

jmmvi [Pizht] see jiH3aTb. 

jiH)Ky [Pizhu], jiHjKeuib 
[Pizhash, -zh] see JiHsaxb. 

jiH3|aTb [Pizat^] imperf 
jiH^y, jiHJKeuib, p -aji, imp 
JIH}KH, jiH3H|yTb [Piznut^] 
psrf -y, -eiub, p -yji, imp 
-H lick {of a cat, dog, etc). 

jiHKBHAMploBaxb [l^ikv^i- 
d^iravat^] perf & imperf 
-yio, -yeiiib, p -oBaji, imp 
-yft liquidate, eliminate, do 
away with. 

jiHKcp [l^ik^or] m -a, -ob 

jiHK|oBaTb [l^ikAvat^l im- 
perf -yK) -yeujb, p -OBaji, 
imp -yft rejoice, exult. 

jiHJi [l^il], JiHJia [Pila] see 


jiHjiHlfl [l^il^iya] / -h, -h 
lily; BOAHHan — h water- 

jiHjioBbiH [l^ilovly] a violet. 

jiHjicH [Pils*'a], jiHJiacb [l^i- 
las^, -z^] see jiHibcn. 

jiHMOH [I'^imon] m -a, -ob 
lemon; lemon-tree. 

jiHHeHKJa [IMn^eyka] / -h, 
jiHHeeK 1. ruler {for drawing 
straight lines, measuring 
length, etc); JiorapH(J)MHHe- 

CKan —a slide rule; 2.: 6y- 
Mara b —y lined paper; 
<> nHOHepcKafl —a Young 
Pioneer parade {line-up). 

jiHHHJfl [l^in^iya] / -h, -ft 
line (/) straight, carved, etc, 
2) of a railway, etc; 3) tele- 
graph, telephone; 4) of con- 
duct, etc); npoBOAHTb -~io 
draw a line [also see <>]; 
<> npoBojiHTb ~K) pursue a 
policy; hath no ~h HaHMCHb- 
uiero conpoTHBJieHHa follow 
the line of least resistance. 

jiHHa|Tb [l^in^at^] imperf 
-ex, noljiHHHTb [pal^in^at^j 
perf 1. ifade, lose colour {of 
materials); run {of colours); 
2. {no perf) shed hair, cast 
the coat {said of animals); 
moult, shed feathers {said of 
birds); slough {of snakes). 

jiHn|a [Pipa] / -hi, ^ 
lime(-tree), linden. 

jiHnK[HH [l^ipk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f jihrok, -a, -o, 
-H sticky, adhesive; ~Hft 
njiacTbipb sticking-plaster. 

.iHnHJyTb [l^ipnut^] imperf 
-CT, p jiHH (-yji) stick {re- 
main fastened by adhesion). 

jiHc|a [l^isa] / -bi, pi jihcm, 
■—, jiHcaM, jiHCHu,|a [l^ls^itsa] 
/ -bi, ~ fox {also fig). 

jiHCT [l^ist, -zdj m -a, pi 
-b'l (-bH), -OB (-bes) 1. {pi -bH) 
leaf {of a plant, tree, etc); 

2. {pi -hi) leaf {in a book); 
sheet {of paper, metal, etc); 

3. {pi -bi): onpocHbiH — ques- 
tionnaire; noAnHCHoft — sub- 
scription list; 

<> HPpaTb c ~a mus play 
at sight. 


194 ^ 

jiHCTBeHHbiH [l^is^t^v^m- 
niy] a leaf-bearing; ~ Jiec 
foliage forest. 

.jiHCTOBiKa [l^istofka] / -kh, 
-OK leaflet {printed matter). 

jiHTeHHbiH [l^it^eyniy] a 
foundry (attr); ^ aaBOA found- 
ry (a works). 

jiHTCparypla [l^it^irAturs] / 
-u literature; xyAomecTseH- 
Han --a fiction {novels, etc). 

jiHTepaTypH|biH [Pit^irAtur- 
niy] a sh f jiHiepaxypeH, -a, 
-o, -bi literary (language, 
style, etc). 

jiHTOBleu [l^itov^its, -dz] m 
-ua, -ueB Lithuanian. 

jiHTOBCKJHH [l^itofsk^iy] 
-aH, -oe, -He Lithuanian. 

jiMTp [Pitr] m -a, -ob litre. 

jiHTb [l^it^] imperf jibio, 

JIbeillb, p JIHJl, JIHJia, JIHJIO, 

jiHJiH, imp Jieu 1. pour {a liq- 
uid or of a liquid); jihji cHJib- 
HbiH AO>KAb it was pouring; 
2. technol cast, mould {mol- 
ten metal, etc); 
<> ~ cjiesbi shed tears; ~ 
BOfly Ha MbK)-ji. MejibHHU.y ^ 
draw water to smb's mill; 
play into smb's hands. 
jiMTbca [l''ittj8] imperf 

JlbeiCH, p JIHJICH, JlHJiaCb, 
JIHJlCCb, JIHJlHCb 1. flow, 

stream, pour {of water, tears, 
etc); 2. fig stream {of light, 
etc); pour {of words, a song, 

jiudj^T [l^ift, -vd] m -a, -ob 
Hfi, elevator. 

jiH^HHK [I'^ifch^'ik, -g] m -a, 
-ob brassiere, bra. 

jiMxopafllKa [l^'ikhAratka] / 
-KM fever {also fig). 

jiHxopaAOHH|biH [l^ikhAra- 
dach^niy] a sh f jiHxopa;;o- 
Hen, -a, -o, -bi feverish {also 


jiHueMepHJbiH [Pitst'^m^er- 
niy] a sh f JiHueMepen, -a, 
-o, -bi hypocritical. 

jiHi^jo [l^itjo] n -a, pi 
jiHua, -~, jiHuaM 1. face {of a 
person); 2. fig individuality, 
individual character; noKa- 
3aTb CBoe ~6 show one's 
real worth; 3. person {any 
individual); ^acTHoe —6 pri- 
vate person; AOJDKHocxHoe -^6 
official, functionary; 4. the 
right side {of a material, of 
an article of clothing); 5. 
ling person; 

<> B ~e in the person {of); na 
oflHO ~6 as like as two peas; 
HeBSHpaji Ha jiHu,a without 
respect of persons; b ~6 to 
smb's face; anarb b ^6 know 
by sight; axo eiwy ne k '-y 
this doesn't become him {also 
fig); noKaaarb roBap ~6m col 
show smth to advantage; ne 
y^apHTb — 6m B rpfl3i> col = 
not disgrace oneself; be up 
to standard|the mark. 

jiHHHo [I'^ich^na] adv per- 
sonally, in person. 

jiMHHOCTlb [Pich^'nas^t^, 
-z^'d^] / -H, -eft 1. person 
{any individual); HciopHqe- 
cKan ~b historical figure; 
HenpHKocHOBeHHocTb ~H per- 
sonal immunity; 2. personal- 
ity, individuality. 

jiUHHbiH [Pich^nty] a per- 
sonal {affair, hygiene, etc)-, 
private {life, property, etc); 
<> ^ cocidB mil personnel. 



jiHiujaTb [Pishat^l imperf 
-aio, -aenib, jiMui|HTb [l^i- 
shlt^] perf -y, -Hiiib, p -hji, 
imp -H deprive of {rights, 
property, etc); deny {pleasure, 
etc); --aTb CBo66Abi imprison; 
~aTb BOHHCKoro SBaHHH re- 
duce to the ranks; 
<> jiHuiHTb ce6fl )KH3HH Com- 
mit suicide. 

jiHui|aTbCJi [Pisliattja] /m- 
perf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, jiHuiJHTb- 
cfl [Pishfttsa] perf -ycb, -Hiiib- 
CH, p -HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp 
-HCb, -HTecb lose, be depriv- 
ed {of), forfeit; jiHUiHTbCH 
3peHHH lose one's sight; jih- 
iiiH^CH HyscTB faint; jih- 
lUHTbCH pe^H be deprived of 
speech, lose one's tongue. 

jiHuicHHle [l^ishen'^iya] n 
-H, pi -H, -H 1. deprivation 
{the act of); ~e rpajKAancKHx 
npaB disfranchisement; 2. 
{mostly pi) privation, hard- 

jiHuiHTb see JiHiuaTb. 


jihuihIhh [l^ishn^iy] a 1. 
spare, extra; 2. superfluous, 
unnecessary; oh sjxecb ~hh 
he is not wanted here; 
<> c ~HM col more than; 
TpH KHJioMeTpa c -~HM more 
than three kilometres, three 
kilometres odd. 

jiHiub [l^ish, -zh] I part 
denoting restriction, limita- 
tion only, but; 

11 c/ 1. introducing an ad- 
ditional thought: Mbi noHACM 
TyAa, -~ HCMHoro otaoxhcm 
we'll go there, only first we'll 
rest a little; we'll go there 

after a short rest; 2.: ^ 
TOjibKo as soon as; 
<> ~ 6bi if only; ~ 6bi 
yexaxb ceroAHH if only I could 
leave today. 

jio6 [lop, -b] m Ji6a, pi 
Ji6bi, ji6oB forehead {of the 
face) . 

jiOB|HTb [lAv'^it'^] imperf 
-jiK), jioBHiub, p -HJI, imp -H, 
noHMJaTb [pAjmat^] perf -aro, 
-aeuib 1. catch {a ball, mice, 
etc); capture {a thief, butter- 
flies, etc); pick up {signals); 
2. fig seize {an opportuni- 
ly)\ 3, fig catch {snib's eye); 
<> — HTb Ha cjioee col 
take smb at his word; b 
MyTHOH BOAC pbi6y ~HTb fish 
in troubled waters. 

jiOBKJHH [lofk'^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f jiobok, -a, -o, 
-H 1. deft, dexterous, adroit; 
2. ingenious, dodgy, tricky; 
~HH xoA clever stroke. 

jiOBjiiM [16vp9] / -H hunt- 
ing, catching; fishing; bird- 

jioBym|Ka [Uvushka] / -kh, 
-CK trap {for animals, etc; 
also fig). 

jiorHKla [locj^ika] / -h logic. 

jiorHHecK|HH [lAg^ich^'i- 

sk^iy] a -an, -oe -ne logi- 
cal {approach, result, etc). 

jiorHHHlbiH [lAg^'ich^niy] a 
sh f jiorHMen, -a, -o, -bi logi- 
cal {argument, action, etc). 

jiOAJKa [lotka] / -kh, -ok 
boat {a small open vessel); 
noABOAHan ~Ka subma- 

jiOAbipjb [lodir^] m -a, -en 
idler, loafer. 


— 196 

jiojKJa [lozha] / -h, -- theat 

jiojK|HTbCJi [lAzhitts9] im- 
perf -ycb, -Hiubcji, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hiecb, 
jiewb [l^ech''] perf jinry, jih- 
jKCLUb, jiHryT, p jier, Jierjia, 
imp Jinr 1. lie down; '-HTbCH 
cnaTb go to bed; 2. cover {of 
snow); fall (o/ folds in a 
dress, etc). 

jioiKlKa [16shk9] / -kh, -ck 
1. spoon (for eating, etc); 2. 
spoonful (of); 

<0> ~Ka Acrxji B SoHKC Me^a 
^ a fly in the ointment. 

ji6«h1wh [lozhniy] a sh f 
jio/KeH, -a, -0, -bi false (i) 
theory, rumour, etc; "2) pride, 
shame, etc). 

jio}Kb [losh, -zh] / ji>KH lie, 

jioaynr [lozunk, -g] m -a, 
-OB slogan, catchword. 

ji6K|oTb [lokat^, -d^] m -th, 
pi -TH, -Teft elbow {of the 

<> HyBCTBO -^TJi feeling of 

jioM I [lorn] m -a, pi -bi, 
-OB crow-bar. 

JIOM II [lorn] m -a scrap 

jioMJaTb [Umat''] imperf 
-aio, -aeiiib, ciJioMdTb [sIa- 
mat^] perf break {1) a chair, 
arm, etc; 2) traditions, etc); 
<> — axb rojioBy Han hcm-ji. 
col = puzzle over smth. 

jioM|aTbC5i [lAmattja] im- 
perf -aKx:b, -aeuibCH, noijio- 
Maxbcsi [paUmattja] perf, 
cijiOMaTbcji [slAmaltja] perf 
I, break, crack, smash, burst; 

2. (nojiOMaTbCH) col grimace; 
put on airs. 

jiOM6apfl [lAmbart, -d] m 
-a, -OB pawnshop. 

jioM|6Tb [Umot^, -d^] m 
-TH, pi -TH, -Ten slice {of 

jionaTJa [lApata] / -bi, — ' 
spade {for digging); shovel. 

ji6n|aTbCfl [lopattja] imperf 
-aiocb, -aeuibCH, ji6nH|yTb 
[lopnut^] perf -y, -euib, p 
-yji, Imp -H 1. break, burst 
{of a rope, string, etc); crack 
(of a glass, bottle, etc); 2. fig 
col go bankrupt {of a busi- 
ness, policy, etc): 
<> ero repncHHe JionHyjio 
his patience was exhausted, 
he lost all patience. 

jiococHH|a [lasAS^ina] / -bi 
salmon {the flesh of). 

ji6coc|b [16s8s^, -z**] m -h, 
-eft salmon (a fish). 

jioc|b [los' 

■H, pi 

-H, -eft elk {a kind of deer). 

jiOTepe|ji [bt^i^r^eya] / -h, 
-ft lottery. 

jioxMaxbiJI [lAkhmatiy] a 
shaggy; tousled, dishevelled. 

jioxMOTblM [lAkhmot'ya] pi 
-eB rags {old, worn clothes), 

jiouwaH [lotsman] m -a, -ob 
naut pilot. 

ji6iiiaA|b [loshat^, -d^] / -h, 
pi -h, -eft, -HM horse {an 

jiyr [luk, -g] m -a, pi -a, 
-OB meadow. 

jiy)K|a [luzha] / -h, ^ pud- 
dle {of water); 

^ cecTb B ~y col = get 
into a mess; disgrace one- 

197 — 


jiyxaHKJa [luzhayka] / -h, 
jiyjKaeK lawn, grass-plot. 

jiyK [luk, -g] m -a (-y) 

jiyK^BlbiH [lukaviy] a sh f 
'-, -a, -0, -bi 1. cunning [per- 
son); 2. sly, arch. 

jiyHJa [luna] / -bi, pi jiyHbi, 
'-, jiynaM moon {a satellite). 

jiyHHbiH [lunniy] a lunar; 
moonlit {night). 

jiyn|a [lupa] / -u, ~ mag- 
nifying glass. 

jiyn [luch^, -j^] m -a, -eft 
beam {from a lamp, etc); ray 
{of light, etc). 

jiyHUiC [lutshi^] I comp of 
xopoiKHH & corresp adv; 
II impers predic it is better; 
BMy -- he feels better; eMy — 
yHTH it would be better for 
him to go away; he had bet- 
ter go away; 
«0> TCM ~ so much the better. 

jiynuilHH [lutshiy] I -an, 
-ee, -He comp & super I of 


II as a noun ji y q m ] e e n 
-ero (the) best; (the) better; 
3a HeHM^HHCM --ero for want 
of smth better. 

jibi3KH-[lizhi] pi JibiJK {sing 
jibiiK|a / -H) skis. 

jibiiKHHK [Hzhn^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB skier. 

jibijKHbiH [Hzhniy] a ski 
{attr)\ — cnopT skiing. 

jibicHH|a [Hs^ina] / -bi, '^ 
bald spot. 

jibiclbiH [Hsiy] a sh f —, 
-a, -o, -bi bald, bald-headed. 

Jib see jiH. 

jibBa [Pva], JibBOB [l^vof, 
-v] see jiee. 

jibBHu|a [Pv^itja] / -bi, ^ 

jibrorla [l^gota] / -bi, -- 
privilege (a favour not en- 
joyed by others). 

jibroTHJbiH [Pgotniy] a: 
— bie n6iiiJiHHbi preferential 
duties; Ha -~bix ycjiOBHHX 
on favourable terms; no ~oft 
ueH^ at a reduced price. 

jibfla [l^'da], jibAOB [l^'dof, 
-v] see JIQ.JX. 

jibAHHJa [l^d^ina] / -bi, — 
block of ice, ice-floe. 

jibercii [l^yottsa] see jiHXbCH. 

jibHa [l^na] see jich. 

jibHHHl6ft'[l^n'i^n6y] a flax- 
en; -~6e nojioTHo linen; -^66 
M^cjio Unseed oil. 

jibCTHBlbifi [Ps^'t^iviy] a 
sh f •~, -a, -0, -bi smooth- 
-tongued; obsequious, fawn- 

jibcrlHTb [l^s^t^it^] imperfi 
jibmy, -Huib, p -HJi, imp -H, 
nojibcrlHTb [pAl^s^t^it^] perf 
nojibuiy, -HUib, p -HJI, imp 
-H flatter {!) praise; 2) grati- 
fy the vanity of). 

jibw [l^'yu], Jibeiiib [Pyosh, 
-zh] see jiHTb. 

jiK)5e3H|biH [l^ub^ezniy] a 
sh f jiK)6e3eH, -a, -o, -bi kind, 
obliging, considerate; 
<> Syflbxe ~bi please, would 
you be so kind. 

jiroSHMJei; [Pub^imhts, -dz] 
m -ua, -ues favourite. 

jiK)5HMbiH [Pub^imiy] [pa] 

I a favourite; dear, dearly- 
-loved, beloved; 

II as a noun ji lo 6 h m | bi h 
m -oro, -bix darling, dear, 



jiK)6HTejilb [l^ub^it^iP] m 
-H, -eft 1. amateun 2. fan, 
lover {of music, etc). 

jiK)6|HTb [l^ub^it^] imperf 
-jiK), jiK)6Hmb, p -HJi, imp -h 
1. love (a c/i//rf, e^c); 2. like, 
be fond of{ love {music, etc)\ 
3. fig need, require; sth 
UBexbi jik)6ht Bo^y these flow- 
ers require much water; 
KapT6(|)ejib jiioSht necManyK) 
noHBy potatoes thrive in 
sandy ground; 

<> JiK)6Hiiib KaraTbcsi, — h h 
caHOHKH BOSHTb prov ^ aft- 
er dinner comes the reckon- 

jiio5|oBaTbcsi [PubAvattja] 
imperf -yKx:b, -yeuibCH, p 
-OBajiCH, -OBajiacb, imp -yftcH, 
-yfiiecb, noiJiH)6oBaTbcsi [pa- 
PubAvattja] perf admire, feast 
one's eyes {on)\ 
<> nojiK)6yHTecb Ha ce6a! 
col just look at yourself! 

jik)66bhhk [l^ubovn^ik, -g] 
m -a, -08 lover, paramour. 

jiioSoBHHula [l^ubovn'^itja] 
/ -bi, ~ mistress, paramour. 

jiK)6|6Bb [Pubof^ -v^] / 
-BH, instr -oBbKD love; H3 ~bh 
K... out of love of... / for... 

jiK)6o3HaTejibH|biH [l^ubA- 
znat^il^nty] a sh f jiKD6o3Ha- 

TejieH, -a, -o, -u inquisitive 
{eager to learn). 

jik)56h [l^uboy] I a any 
{no matter which); 
1 1 as a noun Ji lo 6 | 6 ft m -oro, 
-bix anyone; either {of two). 

jiK)6onbiTHlbiH [PubAptt- 
niy] a sh f jiio6oribiTeH, -a, 
-0, -bi 1. inquisitive, curious; 
2, curious, unusual, odd. 

jiio6onbiTCTB{o p^ubApttjt- 
V9] n -a curiosity, inquisi- 

jik)a1h [l^ud^i] pi -eft, -hm, 
-bMH, (o) -Hx people, men; 
<> BbiHTH B ~H make one's 
way in life. 

jiiOAHJbiH [l^udniy] a sh f 
jiiOAeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. densely 
populated; 2. crowded {street, 
meeting, etc). 

jiK)K [Puk, -g] m -a, -ob 
1. manhole; 2. naut hatch- 
way, hatch; 3. theat trap. 

jiiocTpla [Pustra] / -bi, -' 
chandelier {hanging from the 

ji5ir [Pak, -g] imp of Jienb; 

see JI0>KHTbCH. 

jiflry [Pagu], jiR»eiub [l^'a- 
zhash. -zh] 1st & 2nd persons 
of AeHb; see jiomvnbCfi. 

jijiryui|Ka [l^i'^gushka] f 
-KH, -eK frog {an animal). 


MaBsojielfi [m9vzApey] m 
-fl, -eB mausoleum. 

MarasHH [magAz^in] m -a, 
-OB 1. shop, store; yHHsep- 
cajibHbiH ~ department shop / 

store; npOMTOBapHbifl <— dry 
goods shop; 2. technol supply 
chamber {in a rifle, etc). 

MarHcxpajilb [mag^'istral^] 
/ -H, -eft 1. highway {the 

199 — 


main route); >jceJie3Ho;];op6}K- 
Han ^h rly main line, trunk 
line; 2, main {for water, gas, 

MarHHT [mAgn^it, -d] m -a, 
-OB magnet {also fig). 

MarHHT0(j)6H [magn^itAfon] 
m -a, -OB tape-recorder. 

MaeK [mayak, -g] see MaHKa. 

Mimy [mazhu], Ma»ceiiib 
[mazhash, -zh] see Masaib. 

Mawb [mash, -zh] see ui- 

MasaJTb [mazat^] imperf 
Ma>Ky, Ma>Kemb, p -ji, imp 
MajKb 1. oil, grease, lubricate; 
butter; 2. cover / soil with 
smth greasy / dirty; 3. col 
miss the mark. 

Masjb [mas^, -z^] / -h, -eft 
ointment, liniment; can6>K- 
Haji ^b shoe polish. 

Man [may] m Man May. 

MaHK[a [mayka] / -h, MaeK 
undervest, singlet, T-shirt; 
sports shirt, jersey. 

Maflop [mAyor] m -a, -ob 
major {a military officer). 

MaftcKlHH [maysk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He May {attr). 

MSLK [mak, -g] m -a (-y), 
-OB 1. poppy {the plant and 
flower); 2. poppy seed. 

MaKapoHbi [mskAroni] pi 
MaKapoH macaroni. 

MaKCHMajibH|bifi [msks^i- 
maPniy] a sh /MaKCHMajien, 
-a, -o, -bi maximum {attr). 

Majiajei; [mAlayats, -dz] m 
-Hua, -HueB Malay, Malayan. 

MajiaHCKlHH [mAlaysk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -ne Malayan. 

MajieHiulHH [mAPeyshty] a 
-an -ee, -He least, slightest. 

MajicHbKlHH [mapin^k^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He 1. small, 
little; 2. small, young; 3. 
little, slight; ordinary {man). 

Ma.iiHH|a [mApina] / -bi rasp- 

Majio [mala] I adv little; 
II as a nam few {books, etc); 
little {tea, etc); 
<> — Toro moreover; ~ jih 
4To! col what of it! 

Majio... first element of com- 
pounds denoting insufficiency^ 
a small degree of, etc: Majio- 
jiexHHH [malA^et^n^iy] young 
{boy, etc); juvenile; Majiorpa- 
MOTHbiH [makgramatniy] al- 
most illiterate, uneducated; 
MaJioonbiTHbiH [mabopttnty] 
of little experience, inexpe- 

MajiOAyuiHlbiH [malAdush- 
niy] a sh f MaJioAymen, -a, 
-0, -bi cowardly, faint-hearted. 

MajioKpoBH 1 e [malAkrov^iya] 
n -H med anaemia. 

Majio-noMajiy [mabpAmalu] 
adv little by little, gradu- 

MajiOHHCJieHHlbiH [malAch^i- 
s^Pmniy] a s/i/Majio'^HCjien, 
-a, -o, -bi small in number. 

Maji|biH [maliy] a sh f — -, 
-a, -6, -bi 1. small {in size, 
quantity); 2. {only sh f) too 
small, tight; najibxo '-6 the 
coat is too small, 

Majibraui [mAl^gash, -zh] 
m -a, -eft Malagasy. 

MajibramcKJHH [mApgash- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -ne Mala- 

MajibMHK [mal^ch^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB boy. 


200 — 

MajiMp [mAl^ar] m -a, -6b 

MajinpM|fl [maPi^r^iya] / 
-H malaria. 

MaM|a [mama] / -u, •— 
mother {a female parent); 
mummy, ma. 

MaHAapHH [mandAr^'m] m 
-a, -OB tangerine. 

Maneep [mAn^ovr] m -a, 
-OB mil manoeuvre {also fig). 

Manepja [mAn^era] / -bi, /?/ 
-bi, -~ 1. manner {customary 
behaviour); 2. style {in liter- 
ature, etc); 3. pi manners 
{good, bad, etc). 

MaHweTJa [mAnzheta] / 
-ti, ~ cuff {of a sleeve). 

MaHH(|)ecT [man^if'est, -zd] 
m -a, -GB manifesto. 

MaHy4)aKTyp|a [manufAktu- 
ra] / -bi 1. {pi -bi, ~) econ 
manufactory; 2. textilG(s), 

MaprapHH [margAr^in] m -a 

MapHHoeaHHbifi [mar^ino- 
vanniy] a {pa\ preserved in 
pickle, piclded. 

MapJKa I (marka] / -kh, -ok 
1. (postage) stamp; 2. mark, 
brand, label; trade mark; 
<> noA —KOH under the guise 


Map'|Ka II [marka] / -kh, 
-OK mark (a monetary unit). 

MapKCHSM [mArks'^izm] m 
-a Marxism. 

MapKCH3M-jieHHHM3M [mArk- 
s^izml'^in^'in^izm] m MapK- 
CH3Ma-JieHHHH3Ma Marxism- 
-Leninism {the teaching of 
Marx, Engels and Lenin); 


HHBMa the classics of Marxism- 

MapKCMCT [mArks^ist, -zd] 
m -a, -OB Marxist, 

Mapji|« [marina] / -h 
cheese-cloth, gauze. 

MapOKKaH|eu [marAkan^its, 
-dz] m -ua, -ueB Moroccan. 

MapOKKaHCKJHH [marAkan- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Moroc- 

MapT [mart, -d] m -a 

Mapiu [marsh, -zh] m -a, 
-efl march {1) movement; 2) 

Mapmaji [marshal] m -a, 
-OB marshal {a military of- 
ficer) . 

Maprnpyr [mArshrut, -d] m 
-a, -OB route, itinerary. 

Mac|Ka [maska] / -kh, -ok 
mask {also fig). 

MacKapaA [maskArat, -d] tn 
-a, -OB masquerade, fancy- 

MacKHploeaTb [mask^irA- 
vat^] imperf -yra, -yeiub, p 
-oBaji, imp -yft, saiMacKHpo- 
eaib [zamask^irAvat^] perf 
1. mask {also fig); 2. mil 

MacjieHJKa [mAs^l^onka] / 
-KH, -OK 1. butter-dish; 2. 
technol lubricator, oil cup. 

Mac;i|o [masla] n -a 1. 
butter; oil {vegetable and 
mineral); 2. oil colour/ paint; 
<> HACT KaK no ~y col ^ 
it goes like clock-work. 

Maccja [massa] / -bi, pi -bi, 
~ 1. phys mass; 2. paste (/) 
a substance; 2) a food-stuff); 
pulp {of wood, etc); 3. a 



large amount / quantity (of), 
a lot (of), a great deal {of); 
4. col mass, the bulk {of); 5. 
pi masses {of the popula- 

MaccoBbiH [massaviy] a 
mass {attr), popular. 

Macrep [mas^t^ir] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB 1. foreman {in a fac- 
tory, etc); 2. expert; 3. sport 

<> OH — Ha Ece pyKH he's a 
Jack of all trades. 

MaaepcKlan [mas^t^i^r- 
skaya] / -oh, -hx workshop, 
studio {of an artist). 

MacTepcTBJo [mas'^t^i^rstvo] 
n -a 1. handicraft, trade; 2. 
skill, mastership, workman- 

MacuiTaS [mAshtap, -b] m 
-a, -OB scale {of a map, etc); 
B wajieHbKOM ~e on a small 

Mar [mat, -d] m -a chess 
checkmate, mate. 

MaiewaTHK [mat^i*^mat^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob mathematician. 

MarcMaTHKla [mst^i^mat^i- 
ka] / -H mathematics. 

MarepHaji [mat^i^r^yal] m 
-a, -OB material. 

MarepHajiHSM [mst^ir^iA- 
l^'izm] m -a philos material- 
ism; AHajieKTH4ecKHH -~ di- 
alectical materialism; hcto- 
pH^ecKHH — historical mate- 

MaTepHajlHCTHHeCKJHH [m9- 

t^'ir^iA^is^'t^ich^isk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He p/i//os materialist(ic). 
MaTepHajibHJbiM [mat^i*^- 
r'^yaPniy] a sh f MaiepHa- 
JieH,-a,-o, -bi material {1) val- 

ues, etc; 2) philos); ^oe nojio- 
^enne financial position; 
~aH noMomb pecuniary aid. 

MarepHK [mat^i^r'^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB mainland, continent. 

MaTepMHCTB|o [mat^i^r^in- 
stva] n -a maternity, mother- 

MarepHsi [mAt^er^iya] / 
-H, -H 1. philos substance, 
matter; 2. cloth, fabric. 

MaTOBbiH [mataviy] a 1. 
dull, lustreless; mat {skin)', 
2. opaque, frosted {glass). 

Marpac [mAtras, -z] m -a, 
-OB mattress. 

Marpoc [mAtros, -z] m -a, 
-OB seaman, sailor. 

MaTH [mach^:] m -a, -eS 
sport match. 

MaTJb [mat^, -d^] / -epH, 
instr -epbK), pi -epn, -epefl 
mother {a female parent). 

wax [makh] m -a: oahhm 
— OM col at one stroke. 

Max|aTb [niAkhat^] imperf 
Mamy, Mameiub, p -aji, imp 
MaiiiH, MaxH|yTb [mAkhnut^l 
perf -y, -eiub, p -yji, imp -h 
wave {one's hand, handker- 
chief, etc); wag {the tail)', 
flap {wings); 

<0> Maxnyrb KyAa-ji. col go 
off somewhere; waxnyxb py- 
KOH col give up as hopeless, 
give up as a bad job. 

Manexja [mach^ikha] / -h, 
~ stepmother. 

MaHTJa [mach^ta] / -h, -' 
mast {on a boat). 

MauuH [mAsht] see Maxarb. 

MamiiH|a [mAshfna] / -u, 
~ 1. machine, mechanism; 
engine; 2. motor-car; lorry; 


— 202 — 

US truck; AaeaH noeAeM na 
—e let's take a car; let's 
drive {in a car); 
<> rocyAapcTBCHHafl ~a ma- 
chinery of state. 

MauiHHHCT [mashin^ist,-zd] 
m -a, -OB 1. machinist, 
machine-operator; 2. engine- 
-driver, locomotive-driver. 

MaiuHHHCT|Ka [mashin^ist- 
ke] / -KH, -OK (girl) typist. 

MamHH|Ka [mAshinka] / 
-KH, -OK 1. dim of MauiHHa; 
2,: nHiuyman —Ka typewriter; 



MauiHHOCTpoeHH I e[m9shina- 
strAyen^iya] n -h engineer- 
ing industry. 

Mauiy [mAshu], Mauieuib 
[mashash, -zh] see Maxaib. 

MaslK [mAyak, -g] m -a, 
-OB lighthouse; beacon {also 

MaflTHHK [mayat^n^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB pendulum. 

MFJija [mgla] / -bi haze, 

MrHoeeHHle [mgnAv^en^iya] 
n -H, -H instant, moment; 
<> B ~e OKa col in the twinkl- 
ing of an eye. 

MrHOBeHH|biH [mgnAV^en- 
niy] a sh f MrHOBeneH, -a, 
-o, -bi instantaneous, im- 

McSeJilb [m^eb^'il^] / -h 
furniture {in a room, etc). 

MCA [m^ot, -d] m -a (-y) 
honey {made by bees). 

MCA... first element of com- 
pounds pertaining to 'medi- 
cine: MCAcecipa [ni^ets'^i^stra] 
(hospital) nurse, MCAnyHKT 

[m^etpunkt, -gd] dispensary; 
aid post. 

MeAajijb [m^'i^dal^] / -h, 
-efl medal; 

<> oSopOTHaSI CTOpOHa ~H 

the reverse side of the med- 

MeABCAJb [m^i^d'^v^et^, -d*'] 
m -H, pi -H, -eft bear {an 

MeAHUHHJa [m^'id^'itji'na] / 
-bi medicine {a science). 

MeAHU.MHCK[MH [m^id^itjfn- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He medi- 

MeAJieHHJbiH [m^'ed^l^mniy] 
a sh f MeAJieH (MeAJieneH), 
-a, -0, -bi slow {horse, jour- 
ney, worker, poison, march, 

MeAH|biH [m^edniy] a cop' 
per {attr), coppery; 
<> —biH BCK the Brazen Age. 

MCAJb [m^et^, -d^] / -H 1. 
copper {a metal); 2. col cop- 
per coins. 

Me«... = MeHiAy... 

MejKAOMeTHJe [m^izhdAm^e- 
t^iya] n -h, -h ling interjec- 

MCjKAy [m'^ezhdu] prep with 
instr {sometimes gen) corre- 
sponding to the English 'be- 
tween' and 'among'; 
<0 ~ TCM meanwhile, in the 
meantime; a -- tcm never- 
theless; ~ TeM KaK while; 
whereas; ~ npoHHM 1) in 
passing {say smth, etc) 2) by 
the way, by the by; ~ Ae- 
jiOM at odd moments. 

Me/KAy... fifst element of 
compounds denoting position, 
location between smth or rela- 

— 203 — 


tions between, among smth, 
smh: MejKAyBeAOMCTBeHHbiH 
[m^izh duv^'eda ms^t^v^in niy] 
interdepartmental; Me}K6H- 
6jiH0TeHHbiH [m^ezhb^ibPiA- 
t^ech^'nty] inter-library(fl//r); 
Me>KAypHflbe [m^izhdur^a- 
d^ya] agric space between 

Me^AynapOAHbiH [m^izhdu- 
HAFodniy] a international. 

MeKCHKaH|eu [m^iks^'ikd- 
n^its, -dz] m -ua, -ueB Mexi- 

MeKCHKaHCKlHft [m^iks^i- 
kansk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 

MCji [m^el] m -a (-y) chalk 
{1} chem; 2) for writing); 

MCJi [m^ol], Mejia [m^i^la] 
see MecTH. 

Mejie|Tb [m^i^l^et^] imperf 
-ex, o6:MejieTb [Abm^'i'^Pet^] 
perf shallow, become shallow. 
MejiM [m^i^Pi] see MOJioxb. 
MejiKJHH [m^elk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f mcjiok, -a, -o, 
-H 1. small {in size, value, 
etc); ~HH necoK fine sand; 
2. econ petty, small, small- 
-scale; --hh c66cTBeHHHK 
small owner; 3. minor, insig- 
nificant; 4. //g- petty, narrow- 
-minded, mean; 5. shallow 
{river, pond, etc); ^an ra- 
pejiKa flat plate, dinner-plate; 
<> —lie flCHbrH small change 

mcjioahIji [m^i^lod^iya] / 
-H, -H melody, tune. 

MCJioiHlbiH [m'elach^niy] 
a sh f MejioHCH, -a -o, -bi 
petty, small-minded, mean. 

MCJioHlb [m^elach^, -j^] / 
-H, -efi 1. small / miscella- 
neous things / articles; 2. 
small change {money); 3. tri- 
fle, trivial thing-. 

MCJijb [m^el''] / -H, -eft 
shoal, shallow; bank {in the 
sea); cecxb na ~b run 
aground, na ^u aground 
[also see <>]; 

<0> Ha ~H in low water, on 
the rocks. 

MejibKJaTb [m^i^l^kat^] im- 
perf -aex, MCjibKHlyxb* 
[m^i^Pknut^] perf -ex, p -yji 
1. flash; be seen for an 
instant, appear for a mo- 
ment; 2. fig: y Hero —nyjia 
Mbicjib an idea flashed across 
his mind. 

MCjibKOM [m^el^'kam] adv 
in passing; cursorily; ysH- 
Aexb ~ catch a glimpse; 
BsrjiHHyxb '- give a cursory 

MCjibHHK [m^ePn^'ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB miller {a flour mill 
operator or owner). 

MCjibHHula [m^ePn^itsa] f 
-bi, ^ 1. flour mill; 2. coffee- 

MCJibHC [m^el^ch^i] comp o/ 
MejiKHH & corresp adv. 

MCjiK) [m^i^l^u], MCjieuib 
[m^ePish, -zh] see MOJioxb. 

MCHce [m^en^iya] adv used 
to form comp less; ~ KpacH- 
BbiH less beautiful; 
<> TCM He ~ nevertheless. 

MCHbuie [m^en^shi^] I comp 
of MajibiH & MajieHbKHH; 
II comp of Majio; 
<> ~ Bcero least of all. 

MeHbuiJHH [m^en^shiy] -aa, 

— 204 — 

-ee, -He 1 comp of Majibift & 

II superl o/MajibiH & MajieHb- 
KHH ; 

-<0> no --eM Mepe at least; 
caMoe -~ee not less than. 

MCHbuiKHCTBlo [m^in^sliin- 
stvo] n -a, pi MeHbiuHHCTBa, 



•^ HauHOHajibHoe --'O nation- 
al minority. 

MCHK) [m^i^n^u] n indecl 
bill of fare, menu. 

MeHfl [m'^i^n^a] gen 8c ace 
of H. 

MeHlflTb [m^i^n^at^^] imperf 
-HK), -Heiiib, noiMeHHTb [pa- 
m^i^n^at^] perf 1. change 
\l) clothes; 2) money); 2. ex- 
change {gifts, stamps, etc); 
3. (no perf) change, alter 
(one's opinion, etc). 

MeHlflTbCJi[m^i^n^attj9] im- 
perf -Hiocb, -neiiibCH, noiMe- 
HHTbCH [p9m''i^n^attS9] perf 

1. {no perf) change {become 
different); 2. exchange. 

Mepja [m^era] / -bi, — 1. 
measure {standard); ^u }\Jiu- 
Hbi linear measures; ~bi no- 
sepxHocTH square measures; 

2. measure, step; npHHHTb 
cpoqHbie ~bi take prompt 
action; npHHHTb HaAJieH^amHe 
'-bi take proper measures; 
take adequate measures; 

^ Bbicmasi ~a HaKasaHnn 
capital punishment; ceepx 
'-hi to excess; b -— y within 
reasonable limits; no ~e roro 
KaK as (while); no ~e chji 
as far as possible. 
Mep3KiHM [m^'ersk^iyl a 

-aH, -oe, -He, sh f MepaoK, 
-a, -o, -H 1. vile, disgusting, 
loathsome; 2. co/ nasty (very 

Mep3|HyTb [m^orznut''] im- 
perf -Hy, -Heuib, p —, -;ia, 
imp -HH freeze, feel cold. 

MepHAHan [m^ir^id^ian] m 
-a, -OB gecg meridian. 

Mep|HTb [m^^r^'it^] imperf 
-K), -Huib, p -HJi, imp -b 1. 
measure, get / take measure- 
ment; 2. try on (a dress , etc); 

<> ~HTb Ha CBOH apUIMH Col 

= measure others' corn by 
one's own bushel. 

Mep|Ka [m^erk9] / -kh, -ok 
1. measure, measurement; 
CHHTb ~Ky c Koro-Ji. take 
smb's measurements; 2. in- 
strument for measuring (a 
measuring rod, yardstick, etc); 
3. fig yardstick. 

t^iy9] n -H, -H measure, 

MepTBlbiH [m^ortvty] a sh 
f ~, MepTBa, -o (MepTBo), 
-bi (MepTBbi) 1. dead; 2. fig 
dead; lifeless; 

<> --a.a nexjifli av loop; ~aji 
XBaxKa mortal grip; hh )khb 
HH ~ col more dead than 

Mepulaxb [m'i^rtjat^] im- 
perf -aer twinkle, flicker, 
shimmer, glimmer. 

Mec|HTb [m^i^s^it^l imperf 
Memy, Mecnmb, p -hji, imp 
-h knead (dough, clay, etc). 

iwecTH [m^'i^s'^t^i] imoerf 
MCTy, Mexeuib, p mcji, Me;ia 
imp MeiH 1. sweep (with a 
broom)\ 2. impers snow hard. 

205 — 


MecTKOM [m'^i^stkom] m -a, 


npo4)co{b3HOH opraHHsauHH) 
local trade-union committee. 

MecTHOCT|b [m^esnas^t^, 
-z^d''] / -H, -eft 1. country 
{wooded, open, etc); 6o;i6th- 
CTan ~b marshland; 2. local- 
ity, district, neighbourhood; 
;;a4HaH —b country place. 

MecTHJbiH [m^'esnty] a lo- 
cal; — biH >KHTejib native; 
'-oe caMoynpaBJieHHe local 

MecT[o [m^esta] n -a, pi 
Mecxa, —, -aM 1. place, spot, 
locality; '— o HasHaneHHH des- 
tination; —o p0H<AeHHH 
birth-place; — o ctchhkh Ma- 
iiiHH parking place; 2. seat 
{in a theatre, at the table, etc); 
berth {on a train, ship); 3. 
space, room; 4. post, posi- 
tion, office, situation; 6e3 
'-a out of work; 5. place, 
passage {in a book, maga- 
zine, etc); 6. standing, place 
{in society, history, sports, 
etc); 7. piece of luggage; 
<> Ha BauiCM --e if I were 
you; K —y pertinent, apt; 
He K --y out of place; He 
HaxoAHTb ce6e ^a ^ eat 
one's heart out; sacTaxb / sa- 
CTHHb / noHMarb Ha ^e npe- 
cxynjieHHa catch red-handed, 
catch in the act. 

MecxoiKMxejibcxBlo [m^esta- 
zhit^iPstva] n -a, — (place 
of) residence, domicile. 

MecxoHMeHH|e [m^istoim^e- 
n^'iya] n -h, -h ling pronoun; 
:303BpaxHoe ~e reflexive pro- 
iioun; npHXHJKaxejibHoe -— e 

possessive pronoun; yiosa- 
xeJibHoe ~e demonstrative 
pronoun; onpeAejiHxejibHoe 
— e defining pronoun. 

MecxonojiomeHHJe [m^esta- 
palAzhen^iya] n -h position, 
location, situation. 

Mecxonpe6biBaHH|e [m^esta- 
pr'^ibtvan'^iya] n -h, -h resi- 
dence, dwelling-place {per- 
manent or temporary); ~-e npa- 
BHxejibCxea seat of govern- 

MecxopoiKAeHHle [m^istarA- 
zhd'^en'^iya] n -h, -h geol de- 
posit, layer. 

Mecx|b [m^es^t^, -z^d^J / 
-H vengeance, revenge. 

Mecni; [m^es^atj, -dz] m -a, 
-CB 1. month; 2. moon; 
<> MeflOBbiw -~ honeymoon. 

MecflHHbiH [m^es^ach^'nty] 
a monthly. 

Mexajiji [m^i^tal] m-a, -ob 

MexajiJiHHecKlHH [m^itAPi- 
ch^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 
metal {attr); metallic. 

MexajiJiyprMHecK|HH [m^ita- 
lurg^ich^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, 
-He metallurgical. 

Mex|axb [m'^i^tat^l imperf 
Meuy, Meqeuib, p -aji, imp 
MeMH, MexHJyxb [m^i^tnut^] 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp -h 
1. sport throw, fling, cast; 
— aXb AHCK [KOHbe, mojiox] 
throw the discus [javelin, 
hammer]; 2. {no perf): —axb 
HKpy spawn; 
<> -^axb wpeSHH cast lots. 

Mcxejilb [m^i^t^'el*'] / -h, 
-eft snow-storm. 

MexeopoJiorM4ecK|MH [m^i- 


206 — 

t^iAralAg^ich''isk''iy] a -an 
-oe, -He meteorological. 

MeTeopoji6rH|H [m^it^iAFA- 
log^iya] f -h meteorology. 

MCTH [m^i^t^i] see MecTH. 

MeT|HTb I [m^et^it^] im- 
perf Mewy, -Hiiib, p -hji, imp 
-b, noiMeTHTb [pAm^et^it''] 
perf mark {a page, linen, etc). 

McrlHTb II [m^et^it^] im- 
perf Me^iy, -Huib, p -hji, imp 
-b 1. aim [a weapon, blow, 
etc); 2. fig aspire {to a post). 

McrlKa [m^etka]/ -kh, -ok 
mark, sign. 

mctkIhh [m^etk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f mctok, -a, -o, 
-H 1. well-aimed (blow, etc); 
accurate (fire); ~hh cxpeJioK 
good marksman; ~Hn rjias 
keen eye; 2. fig neat, point- 
ed, apt {remark, etc). 

MCTJila [m^i^tla] / -b'l, pi 
MCTJibi, Mexeji, MexjiaM broom. 

MCTHyTb see Mexaxb 1. 

Meioji [m^'etat, -d] m -a, 
-OB method. 

MCTp [m^etr] m -a, 
-OB metre; KBaApaTHbift -^ 
square metre; Ky6HtiecKHH 
--- cubic metre. 

MeTpHKJa [m^etr^ika] / -h, 
"^ birth-certificate. 

iwexpo [m^i^tro] n indecl 
the underground, metro; 
exaxb Ha / B ^ go by the 
underground; travel by the 

•• Mcry [m^'i^tu], Mereuib 
[m^i^t^osh, -zh] see MecxH. 

Mcx [m^ekh, -gh]m -a (-y), 
pi -a, -OB 1. fur; 2. furriery; 
furs {garments, neck-pieces, 
etc); 3. wineskin; water-skin. 

MexaHH3ai;Hl5i [m^ikhan^i- 
zatjiya] / -h mechaniza- 

MexaHHSM [m^ikhAn^izm] m 
-a, -OB mechanism (a/so //g^); 
machinery, gear(ing); works 
{of a clock); MacoBofl ~ clock- 
-work; nepeAaxoMHbift -^ 
transmission gear. 

McxaHHK [m^'i^khan^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB mechanical engi- 
neer, mechanic. 

MexaHHKJa [m^i^khan^ika] 
/ -H mechanics; npHKJiaA- 
nan —a applied mechanics. 

MexaHMHecKJHH [m^ikhAn^i- 
ch^isk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -ne 1. 
mechanical, power-driven; 
~oe c6opyAOBaHHe machin- 
ery; 2. fig mechanical, ma- 

McxoBOM [m^ikhAvoy] a fur 

MCHH [m^i^ch^i] see Mexaxb. 

MCHxja [m^i^ch^ta] / -bi 
dream; day-dream, fancy. 

MeHx|axb [m^i^ch^tat^] /m- 
perf -aK), -aeuib dream, day- 

Meny I [m^ech^u] see Me- 

XHXb I. 

Meny II [m^ech^u] see Me- 

MCHy [m^i^ch^u], Meneuib 
[m^ech^ish, -zh] see Me- 

Meiujaxb I [m^'i^shat^] im- 
perj -aio, -aeuib, nolMeiuarb 
[pam^i^shat*"] perf prevent, 
hinder, hamper; obstruct, 
bar; ecjiH nnqxo He noMemaex 
if nothing interferes; 
<> He —ajio 6bi it would be 

— 207 — 


Mem|aTb II [m^i^shat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, noiivie- 
uiaxb [p9m^i*^shat^] perf, 
ciMemaxb [s^m^i^shat^] perf 
\. (noMemaxb) stir [coffee, 
etc, with a spoon); 2. (cMe- 
maib) mix (up), mingle, 
blend; 3. (cMeuiaxb) col con- 
found, mistake {one for an- 

MeiujoK [m^'i^shok, -gl m 
-Ka, -KOB 1. bag; sack; Be- 
meBOH ~6k rucksack, knap- 
sack; 2. sack(ful) (o/po/ato<?s, 

<0> cnajibHbiH ~6k sleep ing- 
-bag; —KM noji rjiasaMH bags 
under the eyes. 

Mcuiy [m^i^shu] see ue- 


Mem,aHCK|HH [m^i^sh^:an- 
sk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -He 1. 
petty bourgeois {attr)\ 2. fig 
Philistine (attr), narrow- 
-minded, vulgar. 

MHr [m'^ik, -g] tn -a mo- 
ment, instant; 

<> B OAHH — in a flash, in 
a jiffy. 

MHrjaxb [m^igat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, MHrH|yTb [m^ig- 
nut^] perf -y, -eujb, p -yji, 
imp -H 1. blink; —-yxb ko- 
My-Ji. wink at smb; 2. twin- 
kle, flicker. 

MwroM [m^igam] adv col in 
a flash, in a jiffy. 

MM3MH|ei; [m^'iz^in^itj, -dz] 
m -ua, -uee little finger; lit- 
tle toe. 

MHKpo... first element of 
compounds denoting small- 
ness, minuteness: MHKpoa.Mnep 

MHKpo6HOJi6rHH [m^'ikrab^'iA- 
log^iya] microbiology. 

MMKp66 [m^ikrop, -b] m -a, 
-OB microbe. 

MHJiHxapH3M [m^il^itA- 

r^izm] m -a militarism. 

MHJiHUHOKep [m^il^'itjiA- 
n'^er] m -a, -ob militiaman 
[cf mhjihuhh]. 

MHJiHUH'ifl [m^il^'itslya] / -h, 
-H militia {a governmental 
body in the USSR responsible 
for maintaining public order). 

MHJiJiHapfl [m^il^iart, -d] 
nam card -a, -ob milliard- 
's billion. 

MHJiJiHMexp [m^il^im^etr] m 
-a, -OB millimetre. 

MHJiJiHOH [m^il^ion] nam 
card -a, ob million. 

MHjiocxlb [m'^Ilas'^t^, -z^'d^] 
/ -H, -CH 1. favour, grace; 
2. mercy, clemency; charity; 
H3 ~-H out of charity; 
<> ~H npocHM! welcome!; 
cKaHiHxe Ha — b col you don't 
say; cAeJiafixe — -b be so 

MHJi|biH [m^iUy] I a sh f 
^, -a, -0, -bi (-bi) 1. nice, 
sweet, 2, dear, darling; 
1 1 as a noun m h ji | bi h m 
-oro, -bix sweetheart, darling, 

MMjija [m'^il^a] / -h, -b 

MHMO [m^'ima] adv & prep 
with gen past, by; nonacxb 
— miss (one's aim); ~ uejiH 
beside the mark, wide of the 

<0>- nponycxHXb ~ yuieri pay 
no attention to, take no heed 
of, give no ear to. 

208 — 

MHMOXOAOM [m'^imAkhodam] 
adv 1. in passing (by); by the 
way; 2. in passing {say smth, 

MMMJa 1 [m^ina] / -bi, ~ 
mil, naut mine. 

MHHla II [m^ina] / -bi, ~ 
countenance, expression; c^e- 
jiaTb KHCjiyK) ~y col pull a 
wry face; 

<> Aejiaxb xopomyK) ~y npH 
njioxoH Hrpe put a good face 
on the matter. 

MMHAajilb [m^indaP] m -h 
almond; almond-tree. 

MMHCpaji [m^in'^i^ral] m -a, 
-OB mineral {an inorganic sub- 

MHHepajibHbiH [m^in^i^ral^- 
nty] a mineral {attr). 

MHHHMajibH|biH [m^ln^i- 
mal^niy] a sh f MHHHMajieH, 
-a, -o, -bi minimum {attr). 

MHHHCTepcTBlo [m^'in^is^- 
t^erstva] n -a, ^^ ministry, 
board {a branch of govern- 
ment); US department; Mh- 


Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 
istry of Finance; MHHHCTep- 
CTBO BHyipeHHHx AeJi Minis- 
try of Internal Affairs; Mh- 
HHcrepcTBO couHajibHoro o6e- 
cne«ieHHH Ministry of Social 

MHHHCTp [m'^in^istr] m -a, 
-OB Minister {head of some 
department of state); 
<> -- 6e3 nopT^ejifl Minister 
without portfolio. 

MHH|oBaTb [m'^inAvat*'] 
perf -yio, -ycmb, p -OBaji, 
imp -yti 1. go past, pass, 

leave behind {a place, town, 
etc); imperf also be in the 
act of passing / going through 
(a place, town, etc); 2. {with 
neg) escape {danger, death, 
etc); 3. be over, be past; 
3HMa —oBajia winter is over; 
<> —yji noAp66HOCTH omit- 
ting details. 

MMHOMCT [m^'inAm^'ot, -d] m 
-a, -OB (trench) mortar. 

MHHOHOcleu [m^'inAnos^'itj, 
-dz] m -ua, -ucB naut torpe- 
do-boat; scKaApeuHbiH ~eu 

MHHyc [m^inus, -z] m -a, 
-OB 1. math, electr minus; 
2. drawback, shortcoming. 

MMHyTJa [m^'inuta] / -bi, -^ 

<> B ojiHy ~y in no time, in 
an instant; c ~bi Ha — y ev- 
ery minute; '-as ~y to a 

MHp I [m^ir] 


pi -hi, -OB world, universe; 
globe, earth; bo bccm ~eall 
over the world; -~ ^kubothux 
animal world; ~ pacxeHHH 
vegetable kingdom; 
<> He OT '-a cero col un- 

MHp II [m^'ir] m -a peace 
{!) freedom from war or civil 
disorder; 2) a treaty to end 
war); ohjiot --a stronghold 
of peace; aaKjiioMHTb — make 

MHplHTb [m^'ir^it^] imperf 
-lb, -HUJb, p -Hji, imp -H, 
noJMHpHTb [pam^ir^'it''] per^ 
reconcile, restore peace. 

MHplHTbcji [m^'ir'^ittso] im- 
perf -ibCb, -HUIbCH, p -HJlCa, 

— 209 — 


-lijiacb, imp -HCb, -Hiecb, 
noJMHpHTbCfl [p9m^ir*'itts9] 
perf, npH';MHpHTbC5i [pr^im^i- 
r^'ittsa] perf 1. make it up 
{with, smb), be reconciled 
(with smb); 2. (npHMMpHTbcn) 
reconcile oneself {to smth); 
put up {with smth); ~HTbCH 
c cosAaBiUHMCH nojio»:eHHeM 
accept the situation; c 9Thm 
HejibSH --HTbCH it cannot be 

MHpHJbiH [m^irnty] a sh f 
MHpeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. peace 
{attr), peaceful; ~oe ypery- 
jiHpOBaHHe peaceful settle- 
ment; -^-oe cocymecTBOBa- 
HHe peaceful coexistence; 2. 
peaceful, peaceable; tranquil, 

MHpoB033peHHle [m^'irsvA- 
zr^en^iya] n -h, -h world 
outlook; ideology {doctrines, 
opinions, way of thinking); 


the Marxist-Leninist outlook. 

MHpoBOH [m^irAVoy] a 
world {attr). 

MHpojiK)6HBlbiH [m^iral^u- 
b^ivty] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 
peaceable, peace-loving. 

MHc|Ka [m^iska] / -kh, -ok 
basin {a kind of bowl); (soup) 

mhcch|si [m^is^iya] / -h, 
-H 1. mission {a special task, 
work); 2. dipt mission, lega- 

MMTHHr [m^it^'ink, -g] m 
-a, -oB (mass) meeting, rally. 

MHUjeH|b [m^ishen''] / -h, 
-eft target {also fig). 

MjiaflCHleu [mlAd^en^'itj, 
-dz] m -ua, -ueB baby, infant. 

MJianuiiHH [mlatshiy] a 
-an, -ee, -He 1. younger; 
the youngest; 2. junior {of 
lower position, rank, or stand- 

MHC [mn^'e] dat & pr of h, 

MHeHH|e [mn'^en^iya] n -h, 
-ft opinion, judgement, esti- 
mation; o6iuecTBeHHoe ~e 
public opinion; 6biTb o cede 
BbicoKoro —H think highly / 
too much of oneself; no mo- 
eMy ~K) in my opinion. 

MHH [mn^i] see MHXb. 

MHMTejibH|biH [mn^it^il^- 
niy] a sh f MHHiejieH, -a, -o, 
-bi overanxious about one's 

MH6r|He [mnog^iya] I a 
pi many; bo ~hx oxHOuie- 
HHHx in many respects; 
II as a noun m h 6 r | h e pi 
-Hx many (people). 

MHoro [mnoga] I adv 1. 
much, a lot, a great deal; 
2. (with comp) much; 
II as a num many, plenty 
of, a lot of; much; 
<> HH ~ HH Majio no less 

MHoro66pb I e [mnagAbor^'ya] 
n -H sport combined compe- 

MHoro3HaHHTejibH|biH [mna- 
gaznAch^it^il^niy] a sh f 
MHorosHaHHTejieH, -a, -o, -u 
significant {look, etc); mean- 

MHorojieTHHH [mnagAl^et^- 
n^iy] a 1. of many years; 
■~ TpyA many years' work; 
2, bot perennial. 

MHoroceMeHH|b!H [mnaga- 
s^i^m^eyniy] a ^h f MHoroce- 


— 210 - 

MeeH, -a, -o, -bi having a 
large family. 

MHorocTOp6HH|iiH [mnaga- 
stAFon'Ti^iy] a sh f Mnoro- 
CTopoHeH, -H, -e, -H 1. math 
polygonal, multilateral; 2. 
multilateral {treaty, etc); 3. 
many-sided, versatile. 

MHoroMHCJieHH|biH [mn9- 
gAch'*is^l''mnty] a sh f mho- 
roMHCJieH, -a -o, -bi numer- 

MH6)KecTB|o [mnozhastva] 
n -a great number {of), great 
deal {of), lots (o/); 68Cko- 
HeHHoe ---o infinite number 

MH6)K[HTb [mnozhtt^] im- 
perf -y, -Hiub, p -hji, imp 
-b, noJMHo^HTb [pAmnozhU''] 
perf, yJMHOJKHTb [umnozhit*'] 
perf 1. math multiply; 2. 
(yMH6>KHTb) increase, mul- 
tiply, augment. 

MHOH [mnoy], mhok) 
[mnoyu] instr of h. 

MHy [mnu], MHeujb[mn^osh, 
-zh] see unih. 

MHycb [mnus** -z''], MHeuib- 
cji [mn^oshs'^a] see MHibcn. 

M06HJiH3auH|fl [mab'^il'^i- 
z^tjtya] / -H mobilization 
{also fig). 

Mo6HjiH3loBdTb [m9b'*il''i- 
ZAVat^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiub, p -OBaji, imp -yfl 
mobilize {forces, means, etc). 
^ Mor [mok, -g], Morjia [niAg- 
la] see Moqb. 

MorMJi|a [mAg^ib] / -bi, ^ 
grave, tomb. 

Mory [mAgu], M6)Kemb 
[mozhas'i, -zh] see MOMb. 

MoryH|HH [mAguch^'iy] a 

-an, -ee, -He, sh f — -, -a, -e, 
-H powerful, mighty. 

Moryiii,ccTB|o [mAgush^^.i- 
stva] n -a power, might. 

MOflja [moda] / -bi,~ fash- 
ion, vogue, 

MOfleji|b [mAdel^] / -h, -eft 

1. model {of a ship, etc); 

2. pattern, model; 3. style, 

Moe [mAyo] pron n Moero, 
MoeM-y, ~, MOHM (o) -M see 


Moero [mayi^vo] gen & ace 
of MOH, gen of MOe; see 


Moeft [mAyey] gen dat, 
instr & pr of moji; see moh. 

MoeiM [mAyom] pr of moh. 

MoeMy [mayi^mu] dai of 
MOH & Moe; see moh. 

MoeK) [mAyeyu] instr of 
moh; see moh. 

MOJKHO [mozhna] impers 
predic one can; it is pos- 
sible; one may; sto — cj^e- 
jiaTb one can do it, it can 
be done; sAecb ~ KypHib 
one may smoke here; smok- 
ing is allowed here, ecjiH ^ 
if (it is) possible; KaK -' 
66jihiuQ as much as possible; 
as many as possible; KaK -' 
CKopee as soon as possible; 
•~- BOHTH? may I [we] come 

<> KaK ~! col it's out of 
the question! 

M03r [mosk, -zg] m -a (-y), 
pi -H, -OB brain; kocthmh ^ 
marrow {of the bones); 
<0> AG ~a KocTeM col to the 
bone; uieBCJiHTb —awH col 
= use one's brains. 

211 — 


M036jl|b [mAzol^] / -H. pi 
-H -eft corn, callus, callos- 

MOH [mAi] pron pi -x, -m, 
'-' (-x), -MH, (o) -X see moh. 

MOMM [mAim] Instr of moh 
& Moe; see moh. 

Moii I [moy] I pron poss 
corresp to ^ m Moero, MoeMy, 

^ (MOero), MOHM, (o) MOeM, 

Moa /, Moe n, mom pi my; 


II as a noun moh pi -x my 

p&o^\% Xrelatives). 

moh II [moy] see mmtb. 

MOHCfl [moys^a], MOHxecb 
[moyt^is^, -1^] see Mbixbcq. 

MOKHlyxb [moknuf'J im- 
perf -y, -euib, p mok (-yji), 
MOKJia, imp -H become wet; 
soak {remain in liquid); -^-yxb 
noA AO>KAeM be out in the 

MOKpoTJa [mAkrota] / -bi 
phlegm {mucus). 

MOKplbiH [mokrty] a sh f 
'— , -a, -o, -bi wet, soggy; 

<> — bIM flO HMTKH wet to 

the skin; y nee rjiasa Ha 
--0M Mecxe col = she is a 
cry-baby; she is close to 

MO.JI [mol] m -a, -ob pier, 

MOjiBJa [mAlva] / -bi 1. ru- 
mour, general talk; HAet —a 
it is rumoured that; 2. fame 

MOJiAaeaHlHH [maldAva- 
n^in] m -Hna, — Moldavian. 

MOjiflaBCKJHH [mAldafsk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Moldavian. 

m6jihh|s! [moln^iya] / -h, 
-H I. lightning; 2. col light- 

ning-cable; 3. special issue 
(<)/ a newspaper); 4. zipper, 
slide fastener. 

MOJioAe)K|b [malAd^osh, -zh] 
/ -H youth, young people. 

MOJioA|eTb [malAd^et^] im- 
perf -eK), -eeiub, noJMOjiG- 
flexb [pamaUd^et''] perf look 
younger, feel rejuvenated / 
younger; grow young again. 

MOJiOAlei; [maUd^etj, -4z] 
m -ua, -uoB brick, fine fel- 
low/lad; fine girl; BecTH 
ce6H ~u,6m behave magnifi- 
cently; ~eu! col well done!, 
good for you [him, etc]\ 

mojioaIoh [mslAdoy] a sh f 
MojiOA, -a, mojioao, mojioau 
1. young {of age); 2. new 
{potatoes, wine, etc). 

MOJiOAOcxlb [mobdas^t^, 
-z^d^] / -H youth, young age; 
<> He nepBOH ~h not in 
one's first youth. 

Mojiome [mAlozhi^] comp 


Mo.riOK|6 [maUko] n -a 

MOJiox [molat, -d] m -a, 
-OB hammer (/) a machine 
for beating, breaking, etc; 2) 
^port); napOBOH ~ steam- 

MOJioxHJiJKa [malAt^ilka] f 
-KH, -OK threshing-machine. 

MOJIOX I Hxb [malAt^it^] im- 
perf MOJio^iy, MOJioxHuib, p 
-HJi, imp -H thresh. 

mgjiox|6k [m3lAt6k, -g} m. 
-Ka, -KOB hammer {for driv- 
ing^ in nails, etc); mallet; 

MOJiolxb [mAlot^] imperf 
MeAK), MCJieuib, p -A, imp 


— 212 — 

MejiH, cjMOjioTb [smAlot^] 
perf grind, mill; 
<> ~Tb B3A0p col talk non- 

Moji6HH|biH [mAl6ch''nfy] a 
1. milk {attr), dairy; 2. milch 

M0jiHajiH3|biH [malch^'i^l*'!- 
viy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -u 

1. taciturn, reticent; 2. tacit, 
unspoken, silent. 

MOJiHaHH|e [mAlch^'an^'iya] 
n -H silence {not talking, 
etc); xpaHHTb —e keep si- 

^O' 060HTH '-CM pass over in 

MOJiM|aTb [mAlch^'at^] im- 
perf -y, -Huib, p -aji, imp 
-H keep silent / silence, be 

MOJI I b [moP] / -H, -eft 
(clothes-)moth; Hs-beAeHHbm 
~bK) moth-eaten. 

MOMCHT [mAm^'ent, -d] m 
-a, -OB 1. moment, instant; 

2. feature, peculiarity; point 
(m a report, etc); sto HHie- 
pecHbiH ~ that is an inter- 
esting point; 

<* xeKymHH — the present 



t^l^na] adv instantly, on the 
spot, immediately. 

MOHapxHJfl [mAnar^kh^'iya] 
/ -H, -fl monarchy. 

MOHFOJi [mAngol] m -a, 
-OB Mongolian. 

M0Hr6;ibCK|HH [mAngol**- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Mon- 

MOHeT|a [mAH^eta] / -bi, 

~ coin; 

<> npHHRTb HTO-JI. 3a HH- 

cxyio ~y take smth at its 
face value; (0T)n,jiaTHTb toh 
iKC ~0H pay smb in his 
own coin. 

MOHonojiHifl [manApol^'iya] 
f -H, -ft monopoly. 

MOHTa>K [mAntash, -zh] m 
-a. pi -H, -eft 1. technol 
assembly, mounting, install- 
ing; 2. montage. 

MOHxep [mAn''t''6r] m -a, 
-OB 1. fitter (a person who 
installs, etc, machinery); 2. 

MOpaji|b [mAral^j / -h, -eft 

1. morals, ethics; morality; 

2. moral, moral lesson; 

<> HHTaib ~b KDMy-ji. lec- 
ture smb. 

MOpajibHlbiH [mAral^niy] a 
sh f MOpajieH, -a, -o, -bi 
1. moral, ethical; 2. spirit- 
ual, mental; ~bifl Ayx mo- 

Mopr|aTb [mArgat^j imperf 
-aKD, -aemb, MOprH|yTb [mArg- 
nut*'] perf -y, -eiub, p -yji, 
imp -H blink, wink (at); 
<> He ~HyB rjiaaoM co/ with- 
out batting an eyelid. 

M6p;i|a [morda] / -bi, -' 
1. muzzle, snout; 2. col mug, 
ugly face. 

MOple [mor^'a] n -h, pi -h, 
-eft sea; Ha Mope at sea; y 
— H by the sea; by the sea- 
side; 3a MopcM overseas, 
beyond the sea; 
<> Kanjin b ~e a drop in 
the bucket. 

MOp|HTb [mAr^'it''] imperf 
-K), -Huib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. 
exterminate {vermin, pest. 

— 213 — 


etc); 2. exhaust, bore, tire; 
~HTb rojiOAOM starve, cause 
to starve. 

MOpKOBJb [mArkof^, -v^] / 
-H carrot(s). 

Mop6iKeH|oe [mArozhanaya] 
n -oro ice-cream. 

Mopos [mAros, -z] m -a 
(-y), -OB frost {extreme cold); 
<> ~ no KOHce noAHpaex col 
= it makes one's flesh 

MopoclMTb [marAS^it**] im- 
perf -HT drizzle; (AO>KAb) —HT 
it's drizzling; it drizzles. 

MopcK|6H [mArskoy] a -an, 
-6e, -He sea {attr), marine, 
nautical, naval; —annexoTa 
marines; -^an CBHHKa zool 
guinea pig; -^an aeesAa 200/ 

<> —OH BOjiK old salt; —aa 
6ojie3Hb seasickness. 

Mopui,MH|a [mArsh^'iina] / 
-bi, — wrinkle (m the skin). 

MopmJHTb [m6rsh^:it^] im- 
perf -y, -Huib, p -hji, imp-h, 
HaJMopmHTb [nAmorsh^^j 
per/.feiMopmHTb [smorsh'^.it^] 
perf 1. (HaMopmHTb): — HXb 
■no6 knit one's brow; 2. 
(cMopiUHTb) wrinkle, pucker, 

MopmlHTbCJi [m6rsh^:ittja] 
imperf -ycb, -HiiibCH. p -hjich, 

-HJiaCb, HaJMOpIMHTbCfl [nA- 

morsh^iittja] perf, ciMOp- 
ij^HTbcn [sm6rsh^:itt^sa] perf 
1. (HaMopmHTbCH) knit one's 
brow; 2. (cMopmHTbcn) screw 
up one's face, make a wry 
face; shrivel; oh CMopmHJiCH 
OT 66jih his face was distort- 
ed with pain. 

MOpMK [mAr^ak, -g] m -a, 
-OB sailor, seaman. 

M0CKBH4 [mAskv^ich^, -j**] 
m -a, -efl Muscovite, inhab- 
itant of Moscow. 

mock6bck|hh [mAskofsk^iy] 
a -an -oe, -He Moscow (a//r). 

MOOT [most, -zd] m-a(-a), 
pi -bi, -OB bridge {across a 
stream, etc); noATjeMBbiH -^ 

M0CT0B|iji [mastAvaya] / 
-OH, -bix roadway. 

MOTHB [mAf'if, -v] m -a, 
-OB 1. motive, cause, ground; 
2. mus tune. 

MOTop [mAtor] m -a, -ob 
motor, engine. 

motoi;hkji [matAtslkl] m -a, 
-OB motor-cycle. 

Mox [mokh, -gh] m Mxa 
(-a), pi MXH, MXOB bot moss. 

MoxHarlbiH [mAkhnatty] a 
sh f --, -a, -0, -bi 1. hairy; 
shaggy; 2.: ~oe nojioienue 
Turkish towel. 

MOHJa [mAch^'a] / -h urine. 

MOHaji|Ka [mAch^alka] /-kh, 
-OK wisp of bast {used in 
taking a bath). 

MOH|HTb [mAch^it''] imperf 
-y, MOHHiub, p -HJi, imp -h 
1. wet, make wet; 2. soak, 

MOHb [moch''] imperf Mory, 
M6>Keiiib, MoryT, p Mor, Mor- 
Jia, ciMOMb [smoch^] perf be 
able; oh cAeJiaex Bce, mtomo- 
JKCT he'll do all he can; oh 
M6H<eT noHTH c BaMH? can he 
go with you?; may he go 
with you?; 

<> MOJKCT 6biTb perhaps, 
maybe; Momei 6wTbH...; mo- 


— 214 


H He ysepeH he might be in 
town, but I'm not sure; hc 
MOHcex 6wTb! it's impossit)le!; 
you don't say! 

moui6hhhk [mAshen^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob swindler. 

MoiUHocTlfa [mosh^-.nas^t^, 
-z^d**] / -H, -eft technol out- 
put, capacity; power, horse- 
power; HOMHHaJlbHaH ~b 
rated capacity. 

M6iu,H|b!H [mosh^miy] a 
sh f Momen, -a, -o, -bi power- 

MOK) [moyu], Moeuib [mo- 
yosh, -zh] see Mbiib. 

MOK) [mAyu] dat of moh; 
see MOH. 

MOiocb [moyus^, -z^], m6- 
euibcfl [moyashs^a] see MbiTb- 


MOfl [mAya] proti f Moefl, 
MOeH, MOK), Moeft (Moeio), (o) 
Moeft see moh. 

MpaK [mrak, -g] m -a gloom, 
darkness, blackness; 
<C> noKpbiTO --CM HCHseecT- 
HocTH it is shrouded in 

MpaMop [mramar] m -a mar- 

MpaHH|biH [mrach^niy] a 
sh f MpaMCH, -a, -o, -bi 1. 
dark, gloomy, sombre; 2. 
gloomy, dismal. 

MCTHJib [ms^t^it^] imperf 
MLuy, -uib, p -ji, imp ~, 

OTOMCTlHTb [AtAmS^t^it^] per/ 

OTOMmy, -Huib, p -HJi, imp 
-H revenge oneself {upon), 
avenge; ~Tb Bpary take 
veng3ance on one's enemy. 
IviyAPlb'H [mudrly] a sh f 

— ', -a, -o, -bi wise, sagacious, 

MyjK [mush, -zh] m -a, pi 
-bH, -eft husband. 

MyiKecTBeHH|wH [muzhast- 
v^mniy] a sh f MymecTBCH, 
-a, -o, -bi manly, courageous. 

MyjKecTBJo [muzhastva] n 
-a courage, valour, fortitude. 

MyjKCKioH [mushskoy] a -5h, 
-6e, -He 1. male; man's, 
men's; gentlemen's; 2. ling 

MyiKHiiaja [mush^n'na] m 
-bi, — man, male. 

MyaeJH [muz^ey] m -h, -cb 

My3biK|a [muzika] / -h mu- 
sic (/) sweet sounds; 2) the 
art of producing such). 

My3biKajibH|biH [muztkal^- 
n*y] a sh f MysbiKajien, -a, 
-o, -bi music (attr), musical; 
~oe conpoBO^ACHHe accom- 
paniment; HMCTb ~bift cjiyx 
have an ear for music. 

My3biKaHT [muzikant, -d] 
m -a, -OB musician. 

MyKJa [mtjks] / -h, -^ tor- 
ment, torture; --h cobccth 
pangs of conscience; ^-h 
TBopqecTBa throes of creation. 

MyK|a [muka] / -h meal, 
flour; KapT6(j)ejibHaH ~a po- 

MyHAHp [mun^d^ir] m -a, 
-OB full dress coat. 

Mypaelefi [murAV^'ey] m -hi, 
-bCB ant. 

MycKyji [muskul] m -a, -ob 

Mycop [musar] /n -a 1. de- 
bris, rubbish, refuse; (75 gar- 
bage; 2. sweepings^ rubbish: 

~ 215 — 


KopsHHa fl,Jisi --a waste-pa- 

MycoponpoBOA ImusarsprA- 
vot, -d] m -a, -ob refuse 
chute; US garbage chute. 

MyTHlbiH [mutniy] a sh f 
MyieH, -a, -o, -u 1. turbid, 
muddy; 2. fig dull, lacklus- 

Myxja [mukha] / -h, ^ fly 
{an insect); 

<> ACJiaTb H3 — H CJIOHa ^ 

make a mountain out of a 

MyneHHle [much^en^iya] n 
-^n, -H torture, torment. 

MyHJHTb [much^it^l imperf 
-y (-aio), -Hiub (-aeiub), p -hji, 
imp -b (-aft), saiMyHHTb [za- 
much^it^] perf, HBJMyHHTb [iz- 
much^it^j perf 1. torture, 
torment; ero — -ht noAarpa 
he is martyr to gout; 2. har- 
ass, worry, tease. 

Mxa [mkha], mxob [mkhof, 
-v] see Mox. 

MHaJTbcji [mch^attsa] im- 
perf IvmyCb, MMHIUbCH, p -JICH, 

-Jiacb, imp MHHCb, ivwHTecb 
rush / speed along; -—tlch 
cjioMH rojioBy rush headlong; 
BpeMH M^HTCH time flies. 

Miii,eHH|e [msh^:en^iy8] n 
-H vengeance, revenge. 

Mmy [msh^m] see MCTHXb. 

Mbi [mi] pron pers pi 1st 
person nac, HaM, uac, HaMH, 
(o) Hac 1. we; 6e3 Hac without 
us; Hac TaM He dbiJio we 
weren't there; sry KHHry AaJi 
HaM OH it was he who gave 
us the book; Tbi rhacji nac? 
did you see us?; Bhktop ceft- 
^ac y Hac Victor is at our 

place now; oh 6hiJi c naMH 
he was with us; hto oh ro- 
BOpHJi Te6e o nac? what did 
he tell you about us?; 2. in 
combination with the prep c 
and another pron pers or noun 
denoting 'smb else and I': mm 
c 6paT0M my brother and I; 
y Hac c HUM ecTb 6HJieTbi he 
and I have tickets. 

Mbiji [mil], Mbijia [mfla] 
see MbiTb. 

MbijilHTb [mll^it^] imperf 
-K), -Huib, p -HJI, imp -b, Hai- 
MbijiHTb [nAmfl^it^] perf soap; 
■0 HaMbijiHTb rojioey KOMy-ji. 
col = give smb a good rat- 

Mbijijo [mlla] n -a, pi -a, 
~, -aM soap. 

MbiJicn [mils^a], Mbijiacb 
[mHas^, -z^] see Mbixbcn. 

MbijibHHu,|a [mtPn^itja] / 
-hi, ~ soap-box, soap-tray. 

MbijibHbiH [mtPniy] a soap 
{attr), soapy; 
<> -- nysbipb soap-bubble. 

Mbic [mis, -z] m -a, pi -u, 
-OB cape, promontory. 

Mbicjilb [mis^P] / -H, -eft 
thought, idea; nppBOAHTb ~b 
adhere to an idea; no — h 
^BTOpa according to the au- 
thor; eMy npHmJia b rojiosy 
~b a thought occurred to 

<> 66pa3 -—CH way of think- 
ing; (one's) views. 

MbiTb [mit^] imperf mok), 
Moeuib, p MhiJi, Mbijia, imp 
MOH, BbiMbiJTb [vlmit^] per/ 

BblMOK), BblMOeUIb, p -Jl, -Jia, 
imp BblMOH, nG|MbITb [pAmit^j 

perf wash {clean with water). 


— 216 — 

MbiTbcsi [m+ttsa] imperf m6- 

lOCb, MOeillbCH, p MblJlCH, Mbl- 

i/iacb, imp MOHCH, MOHxecb, 

BblMlblTbCH [vim*ttS9] pe/f 
-OKDCb, -OeUJbCJI, p -bIJICH, 

-biJiacb, imp -OHCH, -OHTecb, 
noiMbiTbCfl [pAmittsa] per] 
wash, wash oneself; ^ b Ban- 
He have / take a bath. 

MbiMJaTb [mich^at^] imperf 
-y, -Hiiib, p -aji, imp -h 1. 
low, moo, bellow; 2. fig col 
mumble, hem and haw. 

MbiiiijieHH|e [mtshPen^iya] 
n -H thinking, thought. 

Mbiuiuja [m+shtja] / -bi, ~ 
anat muscle. 

Mbiui|b [mish, -zh] / -H, 
-efl mouse; 
<> jiexyMaji ~b zool bat. 

M^rK|HH [m^akhk^'iy] a-an, 
-oe, -He, sh f mhfok, -a, -o, 
-H soft; gentle, sweet, mild; 
-~aH Me6ejib upholstered fur- 
niture; ~HH x;ie6 fresh bread; 
~HH xapaKTep sweet temper. 

MMji [m^al], Mfljia [m^ab] 
see MHTb. 

Mnjicfl [m^als^a], MHJiacb 
[m^alas^, -z^] see MHTbCH. 

mhch|6h [m^'i^snoy] a meat 
{attr)\ ~aH nnma animal 
food; ~faie KOHcepBbi tinned / 
canned meat. 

MHcjo [m^asa] n -a flesh; 
meat {food); 

<> nyiueHHoe ~o cannon- 

MjiTejK [m^'i^t^esh, -zh] m 
-a, -eft mutiny, revolt. 

MHTb [m^at^] imperf MHy, 
MHeujb, p MHJi, MHjia, imp 
MHH, HSMHJTb [\z^m^ki^\ per f 
H30MHy, H30MHemb, p -Ji, imp 
H30MHH, noMH|Tb [pAm^af*] 
perf noMHy, noMHemb, p -r^ 
imp noMHH, pasMnJTb [rAz**- 
m^at^] perf pasoMHy, paso- 
MHeiub, p -JI, imp pasoMHH, 
CMJi|Tb [s^'m^'at^j perf coMHy, 
coMHeiiib, p -ji, imp comhh 1. 
(pasMHTb) knead; 2. (HSMJiTb, 
noMHTb, CMHTb) crumple, 
rumple, muss. 

MHTbcsi [m^attja] imperf 


MHJiacb, H3MH{Tbcii [iz^m^'a- 

ttsa]per/ H30MHeTC5I, p -JICH, 

-.nacb, noJMHTbCH [pAm'^attja] 
perf, cMfl|TbC5i[s*'m^attja]per/ 
coMHeicH, p -;icH, -jiacb 1. get 
crumpled, become rumpled; 
2. (noMHTbCH) fig col hesi- 
tate, waver, display indeci- 

MH4 [m^'ach'', -j^] m -a, 
-eft ball {of rubber or leather)', 
Hrpaxb B — play ball. 


Ha I [na; in the first p re- 
tonic position — nA; in the 
second and other pretonic po- 
sitions — na; in a stressed po- 
st tiori — na] prep I i^'ith pr 

denoting 1. position, location 
on the surface of: Ha cxojie 
on the table; Ha 6yMare on 
paper; na noxojiKe on the 
ceiling BHcexb Ha noxojiKe 

— 217 


hang from the ceiling; 2. po- 
sition, location in some area, 
etc, at the scene of some action, 
etc: Ha ypajie in the Urals; 
Ha yjiHUe in the street; out- 
doors; Ha ceeepe in the north; 
on the north; Ha co6paHHH at 
a meeting; Ha npeAnpHHTHH 
in a factory, at a factory; 
3. means of communication, 
instrument of performing an 
action: exaib na noesAe go 
by train; exaib na MauiHHe 
drive / ride in a car; KaxaTbCH 
Ha KOHbKax skate; Hrpaxb na 
CKpHHKe play the violin; 

rOBOpHTb Ha (})paHUy3CK0M 

H3biKe speak French; 4. the 
time of an action: na jiecArou 
roAy CBoeft »h3hh in one's 
tenth year; na npoiujiOH ne- 
neJie last week; na toh hc- 
ACJie last week; na stoh hc- 
AeJie this week; na 6y;^yI^eH 
He^ejie next week; 5. the fact 
that smth is made with smth, 
that smth is used as a fuel, 
etc: BapeHbe na caxape jam 
made with sugar; ABHrarejib 
pa66TaeT na 6eH3HHe the en- 
gine works on petrol; 
II with ace denoting 1. move- 
ment directed to, towards smth: 


smth on the table; noeecHib 
q,To-Ji. Ha BepesKy hang smth 
on a line; noHTH na paSoiy go 
to work; noexaxb na roctok 
go (to the) east; go east- 
wards; noes;! na JleHHHPpaA 
a train to / for Leningrad; 2. 
a period of time, the time of 
an action: njian na roA a plan 
for a year; aa TpeiHH ;teHfa 

on the third day; na pOHC- 
AecTBo at Christmas; nasna- 
MHTb mo-Ji. Ha cpeAy [Aecnxoe 
um.n.] fix smth for Wednes- 
day [the tenth, etc]; nojio- 
menue na nepBoe Mapxa situ- 
ation as on the first of March; 
3. purpose, aim, etc: pacxoAbi 
Ha BoeHHbie nyjKAbi war ex- 
penditure; npaBO Ha TpyA 
[Ha o6pa30BaHHe u m. n.] 
right to work [education, 
etc]; na ^^o §to Te6e nyjKHO? 
col what do you need it for?; 
4 quantity, measure, limit, 
etc: KynHib khmf na nnxb 
py6jieH buy five roubles' 
worth of books; pa3AejiHTb 
Ha HecKOJibKo qacTeft divide 
into several parts; o6eA na 
HHTepbix dinner for five; h3- 
BecTHocTb Ha Becb MHp world 
renown; no abc khhfh Ha 
KajKAoro two books for each; 
npoAasaTb ^to-.t. na sec [na 
MCTp u m. n.\ sell smth by 
weight [by the metre, etc]; 5. 
quantative difference Sc ratio: 
Ha RHTb HejioBCK 66jibme[MeHb- 
mejfive people more [less]; 
na MecHU paHbuie [n63Hce] one 
month earlier [later]; onos- 
AaTb na AecHib MHHyi be ten 
minutes late; naceJienHe bo3- 
pocjio [yMeHbuiHjiocb] na oahh 
MHJiJiHOH the population in- 
creased [decreased] by a mil- 
lion; OAHH Ha TbiCHMy one in a 
thousand; 6. mode of action: 
roBopHTb Ha naMHTb speak by 
heart; BepHXb KOMy-Ji. na cjio- 
BO take smb's word [for smth); 
7. multiplier, factor, or divi- 
sor by; 



<> Ha MOHX rjiasax before my 
eyes; in my presence. 

Ha II fna] part imperative 
col here, here you are, take it. 

Ha... pref of verbs denoting 
1. direction of an action onto 
smth or to smth: Ha6p6cHTb 
[nAbros^it^] throw {on, over)\ 
HaKJieHTb [nAkl^'eit^] stick on, 
paste on; HaAasPiTb [nadA- 
v^it^] press, exert pressure 
on; 2. a full, intensive, or 
excessive character of an ac- 
tion: HaKH^aTb [nak^idat^] 
throw about; litter a place 
{with smth); 3. a small degree 
of an action'. naneBaxb [na- 
p^i^vat^] hum, croon; sing 
softly; 4. {with -ch) an action 
resulting in complete satis- 
faction: HaecTbCH [nAyestja] 
eat one's fill; 5. the perfec- 
tive aspect: nanoHib [na- 
pAit^] perf of noHTb. 

HaSejio [nab^ib] adv: nepe- 
nHcaxb — make a clean copy. 

HaSepe^HJan [nab^ir^izh- 
naya] / -oh, -bix embank- 
ment, quay. 

Ha^HBlaTfa [nab^ivat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aciub, HaSJHjb [nA- 
b^it^] perf -bib, -beiiib, p -hji, 
imp -eft stuff with, fill with; 
•0 HaSHTb pyKy na hcm-ji. 
col get the knack of doing 
smth; HaSHTb ocKOMHHy set 
one's teeth on edge {also fig); 
—arb Heny drive up the 

HagHplaib [nab^irat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, Ha6plaTb 
[nAbrat^] perf Ha6epy, na- 
6epemb, p -an, -ajia, -ajio, 
-aJiH, imp Ha6epH 1. gather, 

collect {a certain quantity of); 
2. recruit {workers, etc); 
<> ~aTb HOMep Tejie^ona. 
dial a telephone number; 
HaCpaib BOflbi B pox col ^ 
keep mum. 

Ha6HXb see HadHsaxb. 

HaSjiioflaxejibHlbiH [nabPu- 
dat^il^nty] a sh f m6j\\o]\i' 
xejieH, -a, -o, -u 1. observant, 
keenly watchful; 2. obser- 
vation {attr); ~biH nyHKx ob- 
servation post. 

Ha6jiK)Alaxb [nabl^udat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib 1. observe, 
watch; 2. take care (o/), look 
{after), keep an eye {on); 3. 
supervise, control, watch. 

Ha6jiK)fleHHie [nabl^ud^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -ft 1. observa- 
tion, watching; 2. superin- 
tendence, supervision, con- 
trol; 6bixb noA ~eM be under 
observation; be under con- 

Ha66p [nAbor] m -a, -oe 1. 
admission, enrolling, enrol- 
ment; recruitment, taking on 
{of workers, employees); 2. en- 
rolment, admitted candi- 
dates; 3. complete set, col- 
lection; ^ HHCxpyNienxoB tool 
<> ~ cjioB jumble of words. 

Ha6pacbiB|axbCH [nAbrast- 
vattja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 
Ha6p6|cHXbCJi [nAbros^ittja] 
perf -iiiycb, -CHuibCH, p -chji- 
CH, -CHJiacb, imp -Cbcn, -cb- 
xecb fall (upon), pounce (on); 
attack, assault. 

HaSpaib see Ha6Hpaxb. 

Ha6p6cHXbCH see Ha6pacbi' 


— 219 — 


HaeeflaTbCfl see HaBCAbi- 


HaBeflbiBJaxbCJi [nAV^ediva- 
tts9] imparf -aiocb, -aeiiibCH, 
HaeejljaTbCJi [nAV^edattsa] 
perf -aiocb, -aeiubCH co/ visit, 
pay a call. 

HaeepHO [nAV^erna] parenth 
probably, most likely; oh, 
--, 3a6oJieji probably he has 
fallen ill, he must have fall- 
en ill. 

HaeepCTaTb see HaBepcTbi- 

HaeepCTbiBlaxb [nAV^orsti- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, Ha- 
BepcTJaTb [nav^i^rstat^] perf 
-aro, -aeiub make up for, 
catch up on; HaeepcxaTb no- 
TepHHHoe speMji make up for 
the time lost; HaeepcraTb 
ynymeHHoe make up for the 
opportunities missed. 

Haeepx [uAV^erkh, -gh] adv 
1. up, upward(s); 2. upstairs, 
up the stairs. 

Haeepxy [nav^i^rkhu] adv 
1. above; 2. upstairs (on an 
upper floor). 

Haeec [uAv^es, -z] m -a, 
-OB penthouse, a sloping 
roof; awning. 

Haeecejie [nav'is^i^l^e] adv 
col a bit drunk. 

HaeecTH see HaBOAHXb. 

HaeecxHxb see HaBemaxb. 

Haeemlaxb [nav^i^sh^iat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, Haee- 
cx|Hxb [nav^i'^s^t^'it^] perf 
Hasemy, -Hiiib, p -iiJi, imp -h 
visit, pay a call. 

HaB|oAHXb [navAd^it^] im- 

'', -oflHUIb, 

perf -omy, 

p -OAHJI, 

imp -OAH, HaeeicTH [nav^i^ 

s^t^i] perf -Ay, -Aeiub, p Ha- 
BeJi, -Jia, imp -ah direct, head; 
aim (a gun, etc); ~0AHXb Ha 
cjieA put on the track; --'OAHXb 
Ha Mbicjib suggest the idea; 
make [smb) think {that...); 
<> --OAHxb nop^AOK introduce 
proper order; put to rights; 
•~OAHTb cxpax inspire fear; 
— 'OAHxb KpHXHKy criticize; 
— OAHTb cnpaBKH make in- 

HaBOAHeHH|e [navAdn^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h flood, inun- 

Haeos [nAvos, -z] m -a ma- 
nure, dung, muck. 

HaBOJioM|Ka [navalach^ka] 
/ -KH, -eK pillow-case. 

HaBcerAa [nafs^i^gda] adv 

HaecxpeHy [nAfstr^ech^u] 
adv: ABHraxbCH KOMy-Ji. ^ be 
moving to meet smb; oh 
nomeji efi — he went to 
meet her; — exajia MauiHHa 
a car was coming from the 
opposite direction; 
<> HATH — KOMy-ji. meet 
smb half-way. 

HaBbiK [navtk, -g] m -a, 
-OB habit, skill {in doing 

HaBHsaxb see HaBHSbmaxb. 

HaBflSHHBJbiH [nAV^ash'".i- 
viy] a sh f ^, -a, -o, -u 
1. obtrusive, importunate; 2. 
fig: -— an hach fixed idea, 
idee fixe. 

HaBHSMBJaxb [nAV^aztvat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, HaBsi|3aTb 
[nav^i^zat**] perf -JKy, naBH- 
x^euib, p -3aji, imp -jkh im- 
pose (one's ideas, etc, on smb). 


— 220 — 

HarH6|aTb [nag^ibat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, HarnlyTb 
[nAgnuf] perf -y, -euib, p 
-yji, imp -H bend (a tree, one's 
head, etc). 

HarH6|aTbCJi [nag^ibattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, na- 
rHJyTbCJi [nAgnuttsa] perf 
-ycb, -eiubCH, p -yjicH, -yjiacb, 
imp -HCb, -Hxecb stoop, bow, 

Harjiocxlb [naglas^t'', -z^d^] 
f -H impudence, insolence, 
effrontery, brazenness. 

HarjijbiH [nagliy] a sh f --', 
-a, -0, -bi impudent, insolent, 
brazen; ~ayi jio>Kb blatant lie. 

HarjiflAH|biH [nAgl^adniy] a 
sh f HarJiHAeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. 
visual {methods of teaching, 
aids, etc); 2. graphic, obvious; 
---oe AOKaaaTCjibCTBO visual 
evidence; graphic demonstra- 

HarnyTb see HarH6aTb. 

HarHyrbCfl see HarH6aTbC5i. 

HaroTOBe [nagAtov**!] adv 
in readiness, all set and 

Harpa;i|a [nAgrada] / -bi, 
-^ reward; award {for smth). 

HarpaAMTb see Harpa^AaTb. 

Harpa>KA|aTb [nagrAzhdat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Harpa- 
jtJMTb [nagrAd^'it^j perf na- 
rpa>Ky, -Huib, p -hji, imp -h 
1. reward, give a reward {to)\ 
award {a decoration, prize, 
etc); 2. fig endow with {tal- 
ent, etc). 

HarpcBJaTb [nagr**i^vat^] 
imperf -k\o, -aeiub, Harpe|Tb 
[uAgr^'et*'] perf -k>, -eiiib 
warm, heat; 

<> Harpeib pyKH col = line 
one's coat. 

Harpy>K|aTb [nagruzhat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Harpy|- 
3HTb [nagruz^it^] perf -my, 
HarpysHuib (-SHiijb), p -3hji, 
imp -3H 1. load (a ship, horse, 
etc); 2. burden, load {with 
work, etc). 

HaA [nat; in the first pre- 
tonic position — UAt, -d; in 
the second and other pretonic 
positions — nat, -d], HaAO 
[nada; in the first ; pretonic 
position — nadA] prep with 
instr denoting 1. position, lo- 
cation, or movement above or 
over smth over; above; -~ ro- 
poAOM over the town; — HaMH 
above us; naAO mhoh above 
me; 2. superiority, domina- 
tion, prevalence over; 3. the 
fact that an action is directed 
at smth; pa66TaTb — MeM-Ji. 
work at / on smth; saAyMbi- 
BaxbCH '^ qeM-ji. meditate 
on smth; ponder over smth. 

HaA..., HaAO... pref I of 
verbs denoting 1. addition: 
HaAcrpoHTb [uAtstroit''] raise 
{a building); build a super- 
structure; 2. partial character 
of an action: HaAopeaTb [na- 
dArvat^] tear slightly; naA- 
KycHTb [natkus^'it''] give a 
bite, nibble {at smth); 
II of nouns and adjectives 
denoting position, location 
above, over smth: HaAseMHbifi 
[uAdz^'emnty] overground; 
HaACTpoHKa [UAtstroyka] su- 

HaAeeiaxb [nad'^i^vat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuib, HaAeJTb [nA- 

221 — 


d^et'*] perf -ny, -Heiub, p -ji, 
imp -Hb put on {clothes, etc). 

HaAejKflla [nAd^ezhds] / -bi, 
'^ hope; noTepHTb BCHKyio 
— y Ha... lose all hope of...; 
HH MajieftuieH --bi not the 
slightest hope. 

HaACiKHlbiH [nAd^ozhniy] 
a sh f HaAe>KeH, -a, -o, -bi 

1. reliable, safe; dependable; 

2. reliable, trustworthy. 
HaflCTb see HaAeBaib. 
Hafle|5iTbC5i [nAd^eyattja] 

imperf -locb, -euibCH, p-HjicH, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCH, -fixecb 1. 
hope; 2. rely (on), trust. 

HaA36p [nAdzor] m -a 1. su- 
pervision, control; surveil- 
lance; 2.: caHHTapHbiH '- 
sanitary inspection; npoKy- 
popcKHH — ' the procurator's 
supervision; the procurator's 

HaAMeHH|biH [nAdm^enniy] 
a sh f HaAMeHeH, -a, -o, -u 
haughty, arrogant, supercil- 

HaAO I [nada] impers predic 
it is necessary; — npoHHxaTb 
siy CTaxbK) it is necessary to 
read this article; this article 
must / has to be read; CMy 
[eft u m. d.] -^ npoHHTaib 
3Ty CTaTbK) it is necessary 
for him [her, etc] to read 
this article; ~ 6biTb octo- 
p6>KHbiM one should be care- 
ful, one ought to be careful; 
MHe ~ HATH I muot / have 
to go; MHe ~ 6biJio hohth 
TyAa I had to go there, I 
should have gone there; ce- 
roAHH BocKpeceHbe, h CMy 
He — npHXOAHTb today is 

Sunday and he need not come; 
Te6e He — 6bijio sqepa npH- 
xoAHTb you needn't have 
come yesterday; you shouldn't 
have come yesterday; ~ 6biJio 
BHAeTb, KaK OHo6paAOBaJiCH! 
you should have seen how 
glad he was!; hto saM --? 
what do you want / need?; 
<> raK eMy h ~I col serves 
him right! 

HaAO II see naA- 

HaAo... see HaA... 

HaAoeAJaTb [nadayi^dat''] 
imperf -aK), -aeuib, HaAolecTb 
[nadAyes^t^] perf -eM, -euib, 
-ecT, -eAHM, -eAHxe, -eAHT, p 
-eJi, imp -eiiib 1. pester, 
bother; plague, annoy; bore 
{smb)\ 2. impers: euy naAoe- 
jio... he is sick and tired of... 

HaAOJiro [nAdolga] adv for 
a long time {arrive, leave, etc). 

HaAnMcjb [natp^is**, -z^]t/-H, 
-eft inscription; superscrip- 
tion {on a letter, etc). 

HaAyB|aTb [naduvat^] im- 
perf -slk), -aeuib, HaAyJTb [nA- 
dut^] perf -K), -eujb 1. in- 
flate, blow up, puff out; 2. 
col dupe, swindle; 
<> HaAyxb rySbi col pout one's 

HaAyTbCfl see AyTbcn. 

HaAyuiHTbCJi see jxymmbcn. 

HaeAHHC [nayid^'in^'e] adv 
in private, privately, tete- 

Haesmjarb [nayi^zh^iat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeujb, Hae|xaTb 
[nAyekhaf*] perf -Ay, -Aeuib, 
p -xaJi run {into, against), 
collide {with) {while driving 
or riding); Ha Hero naexajj^ 


222 — 

MaiUHHa he was run over by 
a car. 

HaeM [nAyom] m HafiMa 1. 
hire, hiring {of workers, etc); 
paSoxaTb no naftMy work for 
hire; 2. renting {of a room, 

Haexaib see HaesHcaxb. 

HajKaxb see HajKHMaxb. 

HaMiHMJaTb [nazhimat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, Ha^jaxb 
[nAzhat^] perf -My, -Meiiib, p 
-an, imp -mh 1. press (a but- 
ton, the door, etc); 2. fig col 
put pressure {on), bring pres- 
sure to bear {on); pull wires. 

Hasaji [nAzat, -d] adv 1. 
back, backward(s); 2.: xoMy 
~ ago {past); xpH ro^a TOMy 
~ three years ago; 
<> nepeeecxM nacbi ~ put the 
watch back; —! stand back! 

HasBaHHJe [nAzvan^iya] n 
-H, -H name {of a town, etc); 
title {of a film, etc); reorpa- 
(|)H4ecKHe ~H geographical 

HasBaxb see Hasbieaxb. 

nasjio [nazb] & nasjio [nA- 
zlo] adv out of / from spite; 
to spite {smb); 

<> KaK ^ as ill luck would 
have it. 

HasHaHJatb [naznAch^at^] 
imperf -ara, -aeuib, iiasHa- 
HJHTb [nAznach^it^] perf -y, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -b 1. fix, 
set (a price, term, etc); ap- 
point {a time, place, etc); 
~axb neHCHKD fix a pension; 
grant a pension; 2. appoint, 
nominate {for an office, etc); 
3. prescribe {medicine, treat- 

HasoHJiHBlbiH [nAzoyl^'iviy] 
a sh f ■~-^, -a, -0, -bi impor- 
tunate {person, thought, etc), 

Ha3UB|aTb [nazivat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, Ha3B|aTb 
[nAzvaf*] perf Haaosy, Haao- 
eeiiib, p -aji, -ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, 
imp HaaoBH 1. call {smb by 
some name, etc); name, give 
a name to; ee HaasajiH Ah- 
HOH she was named Anna; 
2„ name, mention, give the 
name of, call by name; oh 
Haaeaji ceSn he gave his name. 

HaH... pref forming superl 
and denoting the highest pos- 
sible degree of smth: HaHjiyq- 
uiHH [nailutshty] the best; 
HaHMenee KpacnsbiH the least 

HaHSojiee [naibol^'iya] adv 
used to form superl: — ynp6- 
HbiH the most convenient; -^ 
npocxoH the simplest. 

HaHBHJbiH [nAivnty] a sh § 
HaHseH, -a, -o, -bi naive. 

HaHSHaHKy [naiznanku] adv 
inside out, en the wrong 
side; sbiBopaqHsaxb -- turn 
inside out. 

HaHsycTb [naizus^t^, -z^d''] 
adv by heart, by rote; mh- 
xaxb -^ recite (from mem- 

HaHMCHee [naim^'en^'iya] adv 
used to form superl least. 

HauMeHOsaHHte [naim^'mA- 
van^'iya] n -a, -h name, de- 
nomination, designation. 

HaHCKocb [naiskas**, -z^) 
adv obliquely. 

HaHwa [nayma] see HaeM. 

HaH MM [nAym""!] imp of na- 
niik; see HauuMai^. 

— 223 — 


HaJiMy [nAymu], naHMeuib 
[nAym''6sh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of HaHHXb; see naHH- 

HaHTH see naxoAHTb. 

HaifTHCb see naxoAHTbCH 1. 

HaKaaaHHJe [nakAzan^iya] 
n -51, -H punishment, punish- 
ing; penalty {for a crime, 
etc); noHecTH —e be punished; 
<> HTO 3a -^•e! col what a 

HaKasarb see HaKasbiBarb. 

HaKa3biB|aTb [nAkazivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, HaKaj- 
saxb [nakAzat^] perf ->Ky, na- 
KaHceiiib, p -saji, imp ->kh 
punish, inflict penalty on. 

HaKanyHe [nskAnun'^il I 
adv the day before; 
II prep with gen on the eve 

HaKjiaAbiB|aTb [nAkladt- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, Ha- 
jio}K|MTb [nalAzhit^] perf -y, 
Haji6»:Hmb, p -hji, imp -h 1. 
put {on, over), superimpose; 
2. put {a certain quantity of 
into smth or on smth); 3. im- 
pose {a tax, fine, etc); 
<> najiomuTb Ha ce6fl pyKH 
col commit suicide. 

HaKjieBcxaTb see KJieBexaTb. 


HaKjioHHTbCfl see HaKJio- 


HaKjioHHOCxIb [nAklon- 

nas^t^, -z^d^] / -h, -efl incli- 
nation, leaning, propensity. 

HaKjioHlflxb [naklAn^at^] 
imperf -hk), -neiub, naKjio- 
H|HXb [naklAn^it^] perf -ib, 
HaKJioHHUib, p -HJI, imp -h 
tilt, bend. 

HaKjioHl^xbcsi [naklAn^'a- 
ttja] imperf -Hiocb, -HeiiibCH, 
HaKjioH|Mxbcji [nakUn^ittsa] 

perf -KDCb, HaKJlOHHUIbCH, p 
-HJICH, -HJiaCb, imp -HCb, 

-Hxecb stoop, bend; -—nxbCH 
K KOMy-ji. bend forward to 

HaKOHeu [nakAn^etj, -dz] I 
adv 1. at last; 2. finally; 
I! parenth after all; at last; 
<> — xo! at last! 

HaKonHXb see Konnxb. 

HaKOpMHXb see KOpMHXb 1. 
HaKpaCHXbCH see KpaCHTbCH. 

uaKpaxMajiHXb see KpaxMa- 


HaKpoiuuxb see KpoiuHXb. 

HaKpbielaxb [nakrtvat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, HaKp|bixb 
[nAkrt't^] perf -oio, -oemb, p 
-b'lji, imp -OH 1. cover {with 
a blanket, cloth, etc); overlay 
with a covering; 2. co/ catch 
in the act {of); catch smb 

<C> '-axb Ha cxoji lay the 

Hajiarjaxb [nalAgat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, HajiojKlHxb 
[nalAzhtt^] perf -y, Hajio- 
jKHUib, p -11 Ji, imp -H impose 
{a fine, tax, responsibility)', 
— axb sanpex prohibit, ban. 

najiaAHxb see Hajia>KHBaxb. 

Hajia}KH8|axb [nAlazhivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Hajia|- 
AHXb [nAlad^it^l perf ->Ky, 
-AHuib, p -AHJi, imp -Ab put 
right, adjust; repair, fix; 
— axb flejia put things right; 
set things going. 

Ha^ieeo [nAl^eva] adv left, 
to the left; on the left. 


224 — 

Hajierne [nal^i^kh^k^e] adv 
1. without luggage; 2. lightly 
clothed / clad. 

HajiCT [nApot, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. raid, attack; 2. thin 
coating; — b ropjie patch 
{in the throat); 3. fig touch 
(of sentimentality, etc). 

HajiHsjaTb Inal^ivat*'] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, HajiJHTb 
[nAl^i't^] perf -bib, -beiiib, p 
HajiHJi (-HJI), -HJia, HajiHJio 
(-HJio), HajiHJiH (-HJiH),/mp -eft 
pour {liquids); fill {with a 

HajiMHHJe [nAl^ich^iya] n 
-H availability; npH ~h jie- 
Her if money is available. 

HajiMHH|bm [nAl'^ich^'niy] I 
a: ~bie AeHbrH ready money; 
3a —biH pacqer for cash 

1 1 as a noun HaJiHHHJbie 
pi -bix ready money. 

Hajior [nAlok. -g] m -a -ob 
tax {on income, property, etc); 
noAoxoAHbiii — income-tax; 
'— c oSopora turnover tax; 
o6jio>KHTb -^-OM tax, impose 
a tax. 

HajioKHTb see HaKjiaAbmaib 
& HajiaraTb. 

HaM [nam] dat of Mbi. 

HaivieK [nAm^ok, -g] m -a, 
-ob hint, allusion. 

HaMeKJaxb [nam^i^kat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeu.ib, HaMCK- 
H|yTb [nam^'i^knut^] perf -y, 
-emb, p -yji, imp -h hint, 

HaMepeBJaTbcsi [nam^ir^i^- 
vattja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 
CH intend, plan, be going 
{to do smth). 

HaiviepeH [nAm^er^m] predic 
-a, -o, -bi: qxo sbi ~bi ^e- 
jiaTb? what are you going to 
do?; OHa —a ocMOxpeib ropoA 
she intends to do the town's 

HaMepeHHle [nAm^er^m^'ya] 
n -H, -H intention, purpose; 
A66pbie — H good intentions, 
good resolutions; TsepAoe — e 
fixed/ steady purpose; firm 
resolve; c sapaaee o6AyMaH- 
HbiM ~eM deliberately. 

HaMCTHTb see naivieqaTb. 

HaMeHJarb [nam^i^ch^at^j 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, HaMeJTHTb 
[nAm^et^'it^] perf -My, -THuib, 
p -THji, imp -Tb 1. plan, pro- 
ject; map out {concrete meas- 
ures, etc); schedule {for a 
certain day etc); 2. nominate, 
name, suggest (for an office). 

HaMH [nam'^i] instr of Mbi. 

HaMOpflHHK [nAmordn^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob muzzle {over 
the mouth of an animal). 

HaMopiuHTb see MopmHib 1. 

HaMopiuHTbCfl see MopmHTb- 

CH 1. 

HaMblJIHTb see MblJIHXb. 

HaHecxH see HanocHXb. 

HaHHMJaxb [nan^imat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, HaH^xb [nA- 
n'^at''] perf HaHMy, naftMeuib, 


HaHHjiH, imp HaHMH 1. hire, 
engage; 2. rent {a house, 

HaHoc|Hxb [nanAs^it''] im- 
perf HaHomy, HaHocHUib, p 
-HJi, imp -H, HaHec|xH [na- 
j^bjegb^bj-j pg^^ .y^ -euib, p 

HaHec, -Jia, imp -h 1. bring 
{a certain quantity of); 2. plot 



(on a map)\ 3. inflict {pain, 
wounds, etc)\ ^mh ocKop6jie- 
HHe insult; ~HTb ypoH cause 
damage; HaHecxH y^ap deal 
a blow {also fig); 4. impers: 
Hanecjio cnery much snow- 
has drifted; 

<0' -~HTb BusMTbi make calls, 
pay visits. 
HaHHTb see HaHHMaTb. 
HaoSopOT [nAAbAFot, -d] 
I adv 1. the wrong side out; 
back to front; 2. the other 
way round; the wrong way 

U parent h on the contrary; 
<> KaK pas ^ quite the re- 

HanaAlaTb [napAdat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, HanjacTb 
[nApas^'t^] perf -aAy, -aAeuib, 
p -aji, imp -aAH 1. attack, 
assault; 2. come over {of 
fear, etc); 3. come (across). 
HanaACHHle [napAd^en^'iya] 
n -H, -H 1. attack, assault; 
2. sport forwards. 

HanacTb see HanaAaxb. 

HanepCKOp [nap^ir^i^kor] 

prep with dat in defiance of. 

HanepCTJOK [nAp^orstak, 

-g] m -Ka, -kob thimble (for 


HanenaxaTb see ne^axaTb. 
HanHB|axbcji [nap^ivattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, na- 
n|HxbCJi [nAp^'ittja] perf 

-bibCb, -beUIbCH, p -HJICH, 

-HJiacb, imp -eficH, -efixecb 
1. have (some tea, milk, etc); 
quench one's thirst; 2. get 

HanHcaxb see nncaxb 1, 3. 

HanHxloK [nAp^itak, -gj m 

-Ka, -KOB drink, beverage; 
npoxjiaAHxejibHbie -~kh soft 

HanHXbcsi see uanHBaxbCH. 

HanjibiB [nApHf, -v] m -a 
influx (of visitors, etc). 

HanoMxb see noHXb. 

HanoKaB [napAkas, -z] adv 
for show. 

HanojiHHXb see HanojiHHXb. 

HanojiHlnxb [napAln^'at^] 
imperf -hk), -neiub, uanoji- 
H|HXb [nApoln^it^] perf -k>, 
-Huib, p -Hji, imp -H 1. fill, 
make full; 2. fig fill (with 
joy, etc). 

HanojioBHHy [napalAV^fnu] 
adv half (done, etc). 

HanoMHH|axb [napam^inat**] 
imperf -aw, -aeuib, HanoM- 
H|HXb [nApomn^it^] perf -k) 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. re- 
mind (cause to remember); 2. 
remind (smb of one's father, 
etc); imperf also resemble. 

HanpaBHXb see HanpaBJiHXb. 

HanpasHXbcn see HanpaB- 


HanpaBjieHH|e [napxAvl^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. direction 
(of movement, development, 
etc); 2. trend, tendency; ~e 
nojiHXHKH orientation of pol- 
icy; jiHxepaxypHoe — e lit- 
erary school; 3. order, permit 
(a document); ~e Ha pa66xy 
assignment to a job. 

HanpaBji|nxb [napxAvl^at^] 
imperf -hk), -neiub, nanpa- 
BJHXb [nAprav^'it^] perf -jik), 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -b 1. direct 
(a movement , ^development, 
etc); 2. send, direct (a person 
somewhere); 3, dispatch, send, 


— 226 — 

forward (a letter, telegram, 
etc); 4. fig&im, direct (one's 
actions, etc). 

HanpaBji|flTbCH [naprAv- 
l^attsa] imperf -hkdcb, -neiub- 
CH, HanpaBJHTbCH [nApra- 
v^ittsa] perf -Jiiocb, -HUibCH, 
p -HjicH, -HJiacb, imp -bcn, 
-bTecb make one's way {to), 
direct one's steps {to)\ be 
bound {for). 

Hanpaeo [nAprava] adv 
right, to the right; on the 

HanpacHO [nAprasiia] I adv 
1. in vain, for nothing; 2. 
wrongfully, unjustly; bh -^ 
TaK flyMaeie you are mis- 
II impers predic it is useless. 

HanpdcH|biH [nApr^snty] a 
sh f HanpaceH, -a, -o, -bi 
1. vain, futile; useless {effort, 
etc); 2. wrongful, unjust. 

HanpHMep [napr^im^er] par- 
enth for example, for in- 

HanpoKax [naprAkat, -d] 
adv for / on hire; B3HTb ~ 
hire {a car, etc); A^Tb ~ hire 

HanpoTHB [nAprof'if, -v] 

I adv 1. opposite; across the 
road; 2. on the contrary; 

II prep with gen opposite. 
Hanp«r|aTb [napr^i^gat^] 

imperf -aio, -aeuib, HanpjMHb 
[nApr^ach^] perf -5iry, 
-HH<euib, -HryT, p -ar, -nrjia, 
imp -HFH 1. strain, exert, 
tax to the utmost; —axb see 
CHJibi strain every nerve; 2. 
fig strain {one's voice, mem- 
ory, etc). 

HanpH>KeHH|e [napr^i^zhe- 

n^iya] n -h, 


strain; 2. p/zi/s tension; strain, 

HanpsiMeHH|biH [napr^i^- 
zhonntyj a [pa] sh f Hanpn- 
JKCH, -a, -o, -bi strained, 
tense; strenuous {work); in- 
tense {struggle, etc). 

HanpflMHK [napr^i^m^ik,-g] 
adv col 1. straight (without 
a detour); 2, fig frankly, 

HanpsiHb see HanpHraib. 

Hanyraib see nyraxb. 

Hanyrarbcfl see nyraxbCH. 

HanyflpHTbCfl see ny^pHTbCJi. 

HapaBHe [narAvn^'e] adv 
on a level {with); on an equal 
fooVmg {with), equally {with). 

HapBlaxb I [nArvat^j perf 
-y. -eiiib. p -aji, -ajia, -ajio, 
-ajin imp -h pluck, pick {a 
certain quantity of flowers^ 
apples, etc). 

HapBaib II see HapbiBaxb. 

HapeHHJe I [nAr^ech^iya] n 
-H, -H (local) dialect. 

HapeHHJe II [nAr^ech^iya] 
n -H, -H ling adverb. 

HapHCOBaTb see pHcoBaxb. 

Hapofl [nArot, -d] m -a (-y), 
-OB 1. people, nation; 2. peo- 
ple {considered indefinitely); 
xaM 6bi;io mhofo ~y there 
were many people there. 

HapoAHOcxIb [nArodnas^t'', 
-z^d''] / -H, -eft 1. national- 
ity, people; 2. national 
character {of poems, etc). 

Hapo^iHJwH [nArodniy] a sh 
f HapoAeH, -a, -o, -bi peo- 
ple's, popular, folk; —bift 
no3x national poet. 



HapoHHo [oAroshna] adv 1. 
on purpose, deliberately; 2. 
for fun. 

Hapy}KHOCT 1 b [n Ar uzhnas^t' , 
-z'^d''] / -H 1. appearance, 
look(s); 2. exterior, outside. 

HapyjKHbiH [nAruzhniy] I a 
1. external, outward; 2. os- 
tensible, affected {calm, etc); 
II as a noun Hapy}KH|oe 
n -oro "not to be taken" 
{on a bottle of medicine). 

Hapyui|aTb [narushat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeiiib, Hapyiii|HTb 
[nArushit^] perf -y, -Huib, p 
-HJi, imp -h 1. break, disturb 
{peace, silence, etc); 2. violate 
[a treaty, law, etc); infringe 
on {smb's rights, etc); Hapy- 
lUHTb KJiHTBy break one's 

HapyuieHH|e [narushen^iya] 
n -51, -ii breach {of law, obli- 
gation, etc); violation {of a 
'treaty, etc); — e o6ineCTBeH- 
Horo nopHAKa breach of the 

HapyiuHTb see HapymaTb. 

Hapb'iB [nArff, -v] m -a, -ob 
abscess, boil. 

HapbiBJaTb [narivat^] im- 
perf -aeT, HapBJarb [nArvat^] 
perf -ex, p -aji, -ajia, -ajio, 
-ajiy gather (to a head) {of 
an abscess); najieu. —aer 
there is a boil on my [his, 
etc] finger. 

HapflA 1 [nAr^at, -d] m -a, 
-OB dress, attire. 

HapflA II [nAr^at, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. warrant {for the re- 
ceipt of goods); 2. mil duty; 
fatigue; detail. 

HapaAHJbiH [nAr^adnty] a 

sh f HapHAeH, -a, -o, -bi 
smart, well dressed. 

Hapji^y [nar'^i^du] ac?o: — c 
on a level with, equally with; 
at the same time with; side 
by side with; — c sthm side 
by side with it; at the same 

Hac [nas, -z] gen, ace & pr 
of Mbl. 

Haca}KfleHHle [nasAzhd^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. planting; 
2. plantation {of trees). 

HaceKOMloe [nas^i^komaya] 
n -oro, -bix insect. 

HacejieHHJe [nas^i^l^en^iya] 
n -H population; inhabitants. 

HacejieHHbiM [nas^i^l^'onnty] 
a [pa] sh f HacejieH, nacejie- 
Ha, HacejieHo, HacejieHu pop- 
ulated; inhabited. 

HacH^nHJe [nAs'^il^iya] n -h, 
-H violence, brute force; coer- 
cion, constraint. 

KacKBosb [nAskvos^, -z^\ 
adv 1. through (and through); 
npoMOKHyTb ~ get wet 
through; 2. fig throughout; 
nporHHBUJHH — rotten 

HacKojibKO [nAskol^ka] adv 
1. as far as, so far as; 2. 
{in exclamatory sentences with 
comp) how much; ^ 3Aecb 
jiyMUje! how much better it 
is here! 

HacKopo [naskara] adv col 
hastily; AeJiaTb hto-ji. -- do 
things hastily, 

HacjiaflMTbCfl see Hacjianc- 

Hacjia>Kfl|aTbCfl [nasUzhda- 
ttsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 
HacjiaAlMTbCfl [naslAd^ittsa] 



perf Hacjia>Kycb, -riuibCH, p 
-HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp -hcb, 
-HTecb take pleasure (in), 
delight {in), enjoy. 

HacjiawAeHHle [nasUzhd^e- 
n^'iya] n -a, -h delight, 

HacjiCAHHK [nAS^'Ped^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob heir (also fig). 

KacjieACTBJo [nAs^'l^etstva] 
n -a inheritance, heritage, 
legacy {also fig). 

HacMepTb [nas'Tn^'irt*', -d''] 
adu 1. mortally, to death; 
2. fig to the last man, to 
the last ditch. 

HacMeui|Ka [nAs^m^eshka] 
/ -KH, -CK mockery, derision; 
sneer, gibe. 

HacMopK [nasmark, -g] m 
-a cold in the head; y pe- 
6eHKa — the child's nose 

HaCOpHTb see COpHTb. 

Hacoc [nAsos, -z] m -a, -ob 
pump {for raising liquids, 

Hacnex [nas^p^'ikh, -gh] 
adv in a hurry, hastily; any- 
how, carelessly. 

HacnjieTHHHaTb see cnjiei- 


HacTaHBJaTb [nAstaivat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, HacTo|jiTb 
[nastAyat*'] perf -k), -Huib, 
p -5iji insist; persist (m); 
'-axb Ha CBoeM insist on 
having one's own way. 

HacTOHHHBlbiH [nAstoych^i- 
vty] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 
1. insistent {person); persist- 
ent {man, efforts, etc); 2, ur- 
gent, pressing, insistent {de- 
mands, etc). 

HacTOJibKO [nAstol^ka] adv 
so, thus much. 

HacTOflTejibH|biH [nastAya- 
t^iPniy] a sh f HacTOHxejieH, 
■a. -o, -bi 1. insistent {de- 
mands); 2. urgent, pressing, 

HacTOMTb see HacxaHBaTb. 

HacTOflm'HH [nastAyash^.iy] 
a -an, -ee, -He 1. present 
{moment, etc); b ~ee speMH 
at present; 2, real, true, 
genuine; 3. (the) given {ar- 
ticle, paragraph, etc). 

HacTpaHB|aTb [nAstraivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, HacxpoHTb 
[nAstroit^] perf -lo, -HUJb, 
p -Hji, imp -ft 1. tune, tune 
up {musical instruments); tune 
in; 2. dispose {a person to a 
certain mood or attitude); 
-~aTb Koro-Ji. npoTHB kofo-ji. 
set smb against smb; — axb 
npoTHB ce6H antagonize, in- 
cur the dislike of. 

HacTpoeHH|e [nastrAye- 

n'^iya] n -h, -h mood, hu- 
mour, frame of mind; feeling, 
sentiments {of the public, etc). 

HacrpoHTb see HacTpaHsaTb. 

Hacxynlarb I [nastupat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, Hacry- 
ri|HTb [nastup^it''] perf -jiib, 
HacTynHuib, p -hji, imp -vi 1. 
tread {on); step {on); ~HTb 
KOMy-ji. Ha Hory tread on 
smb's foot; 2. {no perf) mil 
advance, be on the offensive. 

HacTynlarb II [nastupat^] 
imperf -aer, HacTynlMTb [nas- 
tup^it*'] perf HacryoHT, p -hji 
come {of morning, etc); set in 
{of a period, etc); fall (o/ 
silence, night). 

— 229 


HacrynHTb I see HacTynaxb 
I 1. 
HacxynMTb II see Hacxy- 


HacxynjieHH|e I [nsstupl^e- 
n^'iya] n -h, -h coming, ap- 
proach; c -~eM AHH at day- 
break; c ~eM Ho^H at night- 

HacxynjieHHle II [nastup- 
l^'en^iyg] n -h, -\Cmil offen- 
sive, attack; nepefixH b —- e 
assume the offensive. 

Hacyiij,H|biH [nAsush^:niy] a 
s/i/nacymeH, -a, -o, -u vital, 

HacHex [nAsh^:6t, -d] prep 
with gen concerning, as re- 
gards, about. 

HacHUXbiBJaxb [nAsh^:itt- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub num- 
ber, amount to. 

Hacb'maxb see Hacunaxb. 

Hacbin|axb [nastpat''] imperf 
-aio, -aeiiib, Hacb'injaxb [nAsl- 
pat^] perf -Jiio, -jieiiib, p -aji, 
imp -b 1. pour {sand, grain, 
etc); 2. fill up {with sand, 
grain, etc). 

Hacbin|b [nastp^, -b^] / -h, 
-eft embankment {of a road, 

Haxepexb see naxHpaxb. 

HaxHp|axb[nat^irat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiiib, Hax|epexb [na- 
t^i^r^et^] perf -py, -peuib, 
p -ep, -epjia, imp -pH 1. rub 
{smth with ointment, etc); 
2. rub sore; 6oxhhok naxep 
MHe Hory the boot has given 
me a blister; 3. polish 
{brighten by rubbing). 

HaxHCK [nat^'isk, -zg] m -a 
onslaught, charge. 

HaxoMHxb see xo^HXb. 

HaxomaK [natAsh^:ak, -g] 
adv on an empty stomach. 

HaxpeHHpoBaxb see xpeHH- 

HaxpeHHpOBaxbca see xpe- 

HaxarHB|axb [nAt^ag^ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, Hax5iH|yTb 
[nat^'i^nut^] perf -y, Haxa- 
Hemb, p -yji, imp -h 1. 
stretch (a rope, etc); draw 
{a bow, etc); 2. col pull on 
{stockings, etc); c xpy^oM na- 
xHHyxb Ha ce6H struggle into 
{tight clothes, etc). 

Hayrafl [naugat, -d] adv 
col at random, by guess-work. 

HayK|a [nAuka] / -h,-' sci- 

HayMJHxb [nauch^it^] perf 
-y, HayMHiub, p -hji, imp -h 
teach {smb a language, to do 
smth, etc); --HXb kofo-ji. 
FpaMOxe teach smb to read 
and write. 

HayHJHxbCJi [nauch^ittsa] 
perf -ycb, HayqHuibCJi, p 
-HJicH, -Hjiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb learn {a language, to 
do smth, etc). 

HayHH|biH [nAuch^nty] a 
sh f HayqcH, -a, -o, -w sci- 

HayuiHHK|H [nAushn^ik^i] 
pi -OB {sing HayiuHHK m -a) 
1. ear-flaps {to protect 
against cold); 2. headphones. 

Haxaji [nAkhal] m -a, -ob 
impudent fellow. 

HaxajibcxBlo [nAkhaPstva] 
n -a impudence, insolence, 

HaxMypHxb see XMypHXb. 


— 230 

HaxMypHTbCJi see XMypHXb- 


HaxoflJHTb [n9khAd''it^] im- 
perf Haxo>Ky, HaxoflHiiib, p 
-HJi, imp -H, HaH|TH [nAyt^i] 
perf -Ay , -fleiiib, p Haiiieji, 
Hamjia, imp -m 1. find {1} 
smth lost; 2) smb in a certain 
condition); 2. find, discover 
{new deposits, etc); ~HTb 
npHMeHCHHe find application 
(for); HaHTPi b ce6e chjim (be 
able to) muster sufficient 
courage; 3. consider, find, be- 
lieve; H HaxojKy, HTOOHnpaB 
I believe him to be right. 

HaxoAlHTbca [nDkhAd'^ittja] 
imperf HaxoM<ycb, HaxoAHUib- 
CH, p -HJIC5I, -HJiacb, imp 
-HCb, -Hxecb, HaH|THCb [nAy- 
f'ls*'] perf -AercH, p HamejiCH, 
Haiujiacb 1. be found, turn 
up; HauiJiHCb >KeJiaK)mHe some 
people volunteered (to do it); 
paSoxa HaflAexcH ajih ecex 
we will find work for every- 
body; there will be work for 
everybody; He HaftAexcn jih 
y Bac? do you happen to 
have..?; can you spare..?; 

2. {no perf) be, be situated; 

3. {no perf) be {in a certain 
^mood, state, etc); —HXbCJi noA 

Bne^axjieHHeM be under the 
impression {of, that). 

HaxoAlna [nAkhotka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. find; godsend, wind- 
fall; 2. fig boon, treasure. 

HaxoAHHBJbiM [nAkhot^ch^i- 
viy] a sh f — -, -a, -o, -bi 

HauHCHajiHsauHlii [ndtjiana- 
l^izatsiya] / -h nationaliza- 

Hau,H0HajiH3Hp|oBaTb [nd- 
t^ianal^iz^irovat^] perf & 
imperf -yio, -yeuib, p -osaji, 
imp -yft nationalize {indus- 
tries, etc). 

HauHOHa;ibHocx|b [natjiA- 
nal^nas^t'', -zM^] / -H.^-efi 

HauHOHajibH|biH [natjtA- 
nal^niy] a sh f HauHOHajien, 
-a, -o, -bi national; —bift 
OKpyr autonomous region. 

HaMHlsi [natjiya] / -h, -h 
nation, people. 

HaHajijo [nAch^ala] n -a, pi 
-a, -- 1. beginning, com- 
mencement; c caMoro —a 
from the very beginning; 
from the very outset, right 
fi^om the start; b — e qexBep- 
xoro soon aiter three; 2. pi 
principle, basis; Ha KOjijieK- 
xHBHbix -'ax on a collective 
principle; na Ao6poB6jibHbix 
~ax voluntarily, on a vo- 
luntary basis; 

<> nOJlOKHXb ^O HCMy-JI. 

start smth, initiate smth; 
mark the beginning of smth; 


usher in a new era; noA 
~-0M under the command of. 

HanajibHHK [nAch^'aPn^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob head, chief, 
superior; — cxanuHH station- 
-master; ~ uexa shop super- 
intendent; '-' luxaSa mil 
chief of staff. 

HaHajibHlbiii [nAch^al'nty] 
a 1. initial, first, opening; 
2. elementary, primary 
{school, etc). 

HaHajibCTB|o [nAch^al^'stva] 
n -a 1. authorities, higher 



quarters; the heads; 2. col 
chief, boss. 

HanaTb see Ha^HHaTb. 

HaneKy [nach^i^ku] adv on 
the alert, on one's guard. 

HanepHO [nach^irna] adv 
roughly; HanHcaxb ~ write 
out roughly, make a rough 
copy {of). 

HanepTHTb see nepTHTb. 

HaHHHJaTb [nach^'inat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, Hanjarb 
[nAch^at*"] perf -ny, -Heuib, 
p Haqaji, -ajia, naqajio, Ha- 
naJiH, imp -hh begin, start, 
commence; HaMaxb see c ua- 
Majia begin all over again; 
start anew; 

<> HanaTb c loro, hto «... 
to begin with, I... 

Ham [nash, -zh] I pron 
poss corresp to mh m -ero, 
-eMy, <^ (-ero), -hm, (o) -cm, 
Hauia /, Hauie n, HauiH pi 
our; ours; 

II as a noun h a m h pi -x 
our people {relatives). 

Haul I a [nasha] pron f -efi, 
-eft, -y, -eft (-eio), (o) -eft 
see Ham. 

Haii]|e [nasha] pron n -ero, 
-CMy, -e (-ero), -hm, (o) -cm 
see Ham. 

Hauieji [nAshdl], uauijia 
[nAshla] p of naflTH; see na- 


Haujejicsi [nAshols^a], na- 
uijiacb [nAshlas^, -z^] p of 
HaftiHCb; see HaxoAHXbCJi. 

uaujH [nashi] pron pi -x, 
-M, -— (-x), -MH, (o) -Hx see 

HaJiey [nayi^vu] adv in 
reality, when one is awake. 

He I [n^'e; in the first pre- 
tonic position — n^i^; in the 
second and other pretonic 
positions — n^i] part neg 1. 
denoting complete negation: 
He ceroAHH, a saBipa not 
today but tomorrow; sasTpa, 
a He ceroAHH tomorrow and 
not today; ne xoah xy^a 
don't go there; h ne xo>Ky 
xyAa I don't go there; h He 
6y]\y xoAHXb xyAa I won't 
go there; ne noHHManaxoro... 
not understanding this...; oh 
ymeji. He npocxHsmHCb he left 
without saying good-bye; h 
He HHcaxejib I'm not a writ- 
er; I'm no writer; aasxpa 
co6paHHH He 6yAex there 
will be no meeting tomor- 
row; KHHT xaM He 6biJio the 
books were not there; xaM ne 
6biAo KHHr there werenobooks 
there; y Menn ne 6biJio Bpe- 
MCHH I had no time; eMy ot 
sxoro He Jierne he is none 
the better for it; He... h He... 
neither... nor...; oh ne ycxaji 
H He 66jieH he is neither 
tired nor ill; 2. in conjunc- 
tion with an infinitive, de- 
noting inability, etc: CMy 
3X0X0 He CACJiaxb he won't 
be able to do this; ero He 
yanaxb one would not recog- 
nize him; 3. in conjunction 
with HCJibSH, HeBOSMOHiHO or 
the neg form tf MOMb, denot- 
ing affirmation: nejibsg ne 
jiio6HXb nymKHHa one can't 
but like Pushkin; h ne Mor 
He yjibi6HyxbCH I couldn't 
help smiling; 4. in conjunc- 
tion with the prep 6e3, denot' 


232 — 

ing partial affirmation: He 
6e3 HHTepeca not without 
interest; with a certain in- 

He II [n*'e] forming part 
of the pron HeKOro, Henero 
in conjunction with a prep: 
euy 6biJio He Ha mo jkhtl 
he had nothing to live on; 
HecKeM noroBopHTb (there's) 
nobody to speak to; He na 
Koro nojio^HTbCH (there's) 
nobody to rely upon; He k 
^eMy there's no need; He 3a 
MTo! don't mention it!, it's 
all right! 

He... pref of nouns and 
adjectives denoting 1. the 
opposite of what is expressed 
by the stem: nenopHflOK [n^i- 
pAr^'adgk, -g] disorder; nese- 
ce.TbiH [n*'iv**i^s*'6Uy] sad; 
2. a moderate degree of the 
opposite of what is expressed 
by the stem: nerjiynbift [n^'i^- 
glupjy] having common 
sense, sensible; Henjioxoft 
[n^iplAkhoy] rather good; 3. 
lack of what is expressed by 
the stem: neceMeftHbiH [n^is^'i^- 
m^eynty] having no family, 
single; necneuHajiHCT [n**!- 
sp^itjtAl^ist, -zd] layman 
(a non-professional man). 

He6|o [n^'eba] n -a, pi -eca, 
-ec, -ecaM sky, heaven; 
•O nofl OTKpbiTbiM ~0M in the 
open; 6biTb Ha ceflbMOM ~e 
col be in the seventh heaven; 
npeB03H0CHTb Ao --ec praise 
to the skies; c --a ceajiHTb- 
CH col fall from the moon. 

He6|o [nMba] n -a anat 

He6ojibiiil6H [n^ibAPshoy] 
a -an, -6e -He small, not 
big, not great; ~6e paccTO- 
HHHe short distance; --an 
BbicoTa low altitude; 
<> c ~HM odd, a little over. 

He6peiKHlbifi [n^'i^br^ezh- 
niy] a sh f He6pe)KeH, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. careless, negligent; 
2. casual {smile, handshake, 

He6biBa,nbiH [n^ibtvaliy] a 
unprecedented, unheard-of. 

HeeaKHO [n*'i^vazhn9] 1 adv 
poorly, indifferently; so-so; 
II impers predic 1. it is unim- 
portant; 2. it's all right, 
never mind. 

HeBe%A|a [n''i^v^ezhd9] m 
& f -bi, -— ignoramus. 

HeBe}KecTB|o [n**i^v^ezh9- 
stv'9] n -a ignorance {lack 
of knowledge, education). 

HeBejhJiHBJbiH [n**i^v''ezh- 
l^iviy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -u 
impolite, rude, uncivil. 

HeBepHJbifl [n^'i^v^'ernty] a 
sh f HesepeH, -a, -o, -bi (-bi) 

1. unfaithful, disloyal, false; 

2. incorrect, wrong. 
HeBecTJa [n^i^v''est9l / -u, 

-- bride; fiancee. 

HeBecTJKa [n^'i^v^estkg] / 
-KH, -OK daughter-in-law 
{son's wife); sister-in-law 
{brother's wife). 

HeBHHH|biH [n^i^v^inniy] a 
sh f HesHHeH, -a, -o, -u 1. 
innocent, guiltless; 2. ingen- 
uous, naive; 3. harmless, 
inoffensive; 4. virgin {attr), 

HeBMemdTejibCTBlo [n'T- 
vm''iShat''il''stv9] n -a non- 

— 233 — 


-interference, non-interven- 

HeBHHMaTejibHJbiH [n^'ivn^i- 
mat**il'*niy] a sh f HeBHHMa- 
TejieH, -a, -o, -bi 1. inatten- 
tive; careless, thoughtless; 
2. uncivil, unobliging; incon- 

HeB03M6»ll|bIH [n^'lVAZ- 

mozhniy] a sh f HCBoaMOHceH, 
-a, -o, -bi impossible. 

HeBpeAMM|biH [n^ivr^i^d**!- 
miy] a sh f ^, -a, -o, -bi 
unharmed, safe; ueji h — 
safe and sound. 

HeBbIHOCHM|blH [n^'ivinAs^'i- 
mty] a sh f -^, -a, -o, -bi 
intolerable, unbearable. 

Herjie [n^egd''!] adv (there 
is) no room, (there is) no 
place {to sit, put, etc); — 
B3HTb there is nowhere I 
can /could get it. 

Hero [n^i^vo] gen & ace of 
OH & oho; see oh. 

HeroAOBaHH|e [n^'igadAva- 
n**iy9] n -h indignation. 

HeroA^|fi [n^igAd^ay] m -h, 
-es scoundrel, villain. 

Herp [n^'egr] m -a, -oe 

HcrpaMOTHlbiH [n^i^gramat- 
niy] a sh f HerpaMOTen, -a, 
-o, -bi illiterate. 

HerpHTflHJKa [n^igr^'it^an- 
ka] / -KH, -OK Negro woman; 
Negro girl. 

HerpHTflHCK|HH [n**igr**it^an- 
sk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -He Negro. 

HeAaBHO [n^i^davna] adv 
not long ago, recently. 

HCAajieKo [n^'idal^'i^ko] I adv 
not far, near, close; 
II impers predic: eMy hath ^ 

he has a short way to go; 
Ao ropoAa '-' the town is 
not far away. 

HeAapoM [n^'i^daram] adv 
1. not for nothing, not with- 
out reason; 2. not without 
purpose; not in vain. 

HeAeHCTBHTejibH|wH [n^i- 
dMS'sn'^v^ifil^niy] a sh f 
HeAeflcTBHTe/ieH, -a, -o, -bi 
invalid, void, null. 

HeAeJil« [n''i^d''el**a] / -H, -b 
week; na sxoii — e this week; 
Ha npouiJiOH [na cjieAyio- 
men] — e last [next] week; 
Ha TOH ~e col next week. 

HeAO... pref denoting the 
partial character of an action, 
lack of completeness: hcao- 
Aaxb [n^idAdat^] give less; 
HeAo6paTb [n'^idAbrat*'] not 
get the full amount; hcao- 
apejibiH [n^idAzr^'eliy] unripe, 
green; HCAOoueHKa [n^idA- 
Atsenka] underestimation. 

HeAOBepHJe [n^'idAv^'er^iya] 
n -H distrust, mistrust. 

HeAOEOJlbCTBlo [n^'idAvol''- 
stva] n -a dissatisfaction, 
discontent, displeasure. 

HeAOJiro [n'^i^dolga] adv 
not long {of time). 

HeAOMoraHHie [n^idamAga- 
n^iya] n h, -h indisposition 
{a slight illness). 

HCAonycTHMlbiM [n^idapus^- 
t^imiy] a sh f --, -a, -o, -u 
inadmissible, intolerable. 

HeAopaayMeHHJe [n^'idarazu- 
m'^en'^iya] n -h, -fi misunder- 

HeAOCMOTp [n^idAsmotr] m 
-a o^'ersight; no --y through 
oversight / negligence. 


— 234 

imperf -ei impers 1. be miss- 
ing, lack, be wanting in; eMy 
—ex AeHer he is short of 
money; eMy — ct onbixa he 
lacks the experience; 2. miss 
{smb who is absent); 
<> 3Toro eme —Bajio! col 
that would be the limit! 

HeAOCTaTtoK [n^idAstatak, 
-g] m -Ka, -kob 1. lack {of), 
shortage {of), deficiency (m); 
3a -~K0M BpeMeKH for want 
of time; HcnbiTbieaTb —ok be 
short {of); 2. shortcoming, 
defect; ^aamecKm ~ok de- 

HeflocTOHHlbiH [n^idAstoy- 
niy] a sh f neAocTOHH, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. unworthy {of love, etc); 
2. worthless, unworthy; mean 
{action, etc). 

HeAOCxynHlbiH [n^idAstiip- 
nty] a sh f HeAocxyneH, -a, 
-o, -bi 1. inaccessible; 2. d'lf- 
iiculi {for understanding); be- 
yond comprehension; 3; out 
of reach of smb's purse. 

HefloyMeB|axb [n^idaum^i^- 
vat^i imperf -aio, -aeiub be 
puzzled, be perplexed. 

HefloyMCHHle [n^idaum^e- 
n*'iya] n -h, -h bewilderment, 

HCAOHex [n^idAch^ot, -d] 
m -a, -05 defect, shortcom- 

He;tpa [n^edra] pi HCAp: ~ 
seMJiH bowels of the earth; 
6oraxcxBa neAp (aeiviJiH) min- 
eral wealth. 

Hee [n^i^yo] gen & ace of 
OH a; see oh. 

HejKH|biH [n^ezhnty] a sh f 

He>KeH, -a, -o, -bi (-bi) 1. ten- 
der, loving, fond, affectio- 
nate; 2. sweet, gentle; ten- 
der {skin, etc); 3. delicate 
{creature, etc); 
<>~biH noji the fair sex. 

He3a6yA|Ka [n^izAbutka] / 
-KH, -OK forget-me-not. 

He3aBHCHM0Cx|b [n^IZAV^i- 

s^imas't^, -z^d^] / -h inde- 
pendence; sovereignty. 

He3aBHCHM|bIH [n^IZAV^l- 

s^imty] a sh f ~-, -a, -o, -bi 

HesaypHAHJbiH [n^izaur^ad- 
nty] a sh f HesaypnAen, -a, 
-o, -bi outstanding {talent, 
personality, etc); out of the 
common/ ordinary. 

He3aHeM [n^'ezach^im] adv 
col there is no need {to do 
smth); there is no point {in 
doing smth). 

nesAOpOBHlxbCfl [n^izdAro- 
v^ittja] imperf -xch, p -jiocb 
impers: Mne [hm a m. d.\ ~xch 
I [they, etc] don't feel well. 

He3Aop6B|biH [n^izdAroviy] 
a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi un- 
healthy {look, climate, etc); 

HesnaKOMleu, [n^iznAko- 
m^itj, -dz] m -ua, -neB stran- 
ger {not an acquaintance). 

tie3HaHMxejibH|biM [n^iznA- 
ch^it^il^'niy] a sh f He3Ha'ii5- 
xejien, -a, -o, -bi inconsider- 
able; negligible; small, slight. 

He3bi6jieM|biH [n^i^ztbl'^i- 
mty] a sh / ~, -a, -o, -bi 
firm, stable, unshakable {ba- 
sis, etc). 

HeH36e)KHlbiH [n^iizb^ezh- 
nty] a sh f HeH36e}KeH,-a, 

— 235 — 


-o, -bi inevitable, unavoid- 

Hei«MeHHlbiH [n^iizm^en- 
niy] a s/z/HeHSMCHeH, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. invariable; 2. unfail- 
ing {friend, etc). 

HeHcnpaBHlbiH [n*'iisprav- 
niy] a sh f HCHcnpaBeH, -a, 
-o, -H 1. defective, in disre- 
pair; 2. careless, unpunctual. 

Heii [n^ey] dat, instr & pr 
of OHa; see oh, 

HeHTpajiHTCT [n^iytral^'i- 
t^et, -d] m -a neutrality. 

HefiTpajibHlbiH [n^i^ytral^- 
niy] a sh f HeftTpajieH, -a, 
-0, -bi neutral {country, etc). 

HCKeM [n^ek^im] instr of 

HeKJHfi [n^'ek^iy] pron in- 
def -an, -oe, -He some, a 

HCKorfla I [n'ekggda] im- 
pers predic there is no time; 
MHe — I have no time. 

H^KorAa II [n^ekagda] adv 
in former times, in the old 

HeKoro [n^ekava] pron neg 
gen {no nom), dat HCKOMy, 
instr HCKeM, pr He o kom 
there is nobody one can...; 
-- nocjiaxb sa.BpaHOM there's 
Hobody we can send for the 
doctor; we have nobody to 
send for the doctor; HCKOMy 
HrpaTb c HHM there is nobody 
to play with him; He k KOMy 
o6paTHTbCH I [we, etc] have 
nobody to apply to; mhc He 
c KCM Hrpaxb I have nobody 
to play with; CMy ne o kom 
3a6dTHTbCH he has nobody 
to take care of. 

HeKOTOplbifi [n^eka^arty] I 
pron indef 1, some, certain; 
c ^bix nop for some time; 
B / Ao '-OH cieneHH to a cer- 
tain degree, to some extent-; 
\\ as a noun HCKOTop | bie 
pi -bix some, some people. 

HeKpojior [n^ikr-Alok, -g] 
m -a, -OB obituary (notice). 

HeKcxaxH [n^i^kstat^i] adv 
1. inopportunely, malapro- 
pos; 2. irrelevantly, ©Bit of 
place; not to the point; 
npHftxH ~' be unwelcome. 

HCKxc [n^^kta] pron indef 
indecl someone; ~ llexpoB 
a certain Petrov. 

He«yAa [n^ekuda] adv no- 
where {to 0.0, etc); CMy ~ 
noHXH he has nowhere / no 
place to go; 

<> flajibuie exaxb —I col 
that's the limit! 

HCJienlbiH [n^i^l^epiy] a sh 
f -— , -a, -0, -bi absurd, ri- 
diculous, incongruous. 

HCJioBKO [n^i^ldfka] I adv 
awkwardly, ill at ease; 
II impers predi-c it feels 
awkward {to do smth). 

Hejibsa [n^i^Pz^a] in^pers 
predic 1. it is impossible {to 
do smth); one cannot; hx — - 
ocxauoBHXb it is impossible 
to stop them; — jih ua^ 
noHXH xyaa cefliac? can we 
go there now?; — jih noMOMb 
CMy? is it possible to help 
him?; 2. it is not allowed, 
it is prohibited; one [you, 
etc] niustn't [shouldn't, etc] 
{do smth); sxoro AeJiaxb ^ 
it is not allowed to do it, 
one mustn't do i*t, na nero 


— 236 — 

^ nojiO)KHTbCH he cannot be 


-<> KaK -- jiyHuie in the best 

way possible; -— He CKaaarb 

one cannot help saying. 

HCM [n^om] p'r of oh & oho; 
see OH. 

HCMijio [n^i^mala] adv not 
a little, much; not a few, 
many; oh ^ nopa66Taji he 
has worked a great deal; 
ecTb ~ CTaieft na siy leMy 
there are many articles on 
the topic. 

HCMefljieHHO [n^'i^m^edl^'ma] 
adv immediately, at once, 
right away. 

HeMJeu [n^em^itj, -dz] m 
-ua, -ucB German. 

HeMCUKlHM [n''i^m''etsk''iy] 
a -aH, -oe, -He German. 

HeMHorJHH [n^'i^mnog^iy] 1 
a -an, -oe, -He 1. pi few; 
B —Hx cjiOBax in a few 
words; 2.: ~hm {used with 
comp) a little {larger, older, 

1 1 as a noun HeMHorJHe 
pi -Hx few people. 

HeMHoro [n^i^mnoga] adv 
1. a little, some; a few; 
little; Few; 2. somewhat, 
slightly; y Hero ~ 6oMt 
rojiOBa he has a slight head- 

HCMHOXKO [n^i^mnoshka] 
adv co/=HeMH6ro. 

hcmIoh [n^'i^moy] \ a sh f 
---, -a, HeMo, HCMbi 1. dumb 
{unable to speak); 2. mute 
{appeal, reproach, etc); 
11 as a HQun h e m | 6 ft m 
-ODO, -b'lx, HCM I an / -OH, 
-ux dumb person; 

<> ~afl Kapxa skeleton map; 
'-OH (J)HJibM silent film. 

newy [n^i^mu] dat of oh & 
OHo; see oh. 

HenaBM ,neTb [n^'mAv'id^it^I 
imperf -my, -AHiiib, p -^eJi 
hate; abhor, detest. 

HeHaBHCT|b [n^enav^'is^t^, 
-z^d^l / -H hate, hatred; 

HeHacTHJbiH [n^'i^nasniy] a 
sh f HenacTeH, -a, -o, -bi 
rainy, inclement, foul {weath- 
er, etc). 

Heo6xoflHMO [n'lApkhAd^i- 
ma] impers predic it is neces- 
sary; — npo4HTaTb aiy ciaTbib 
it is necessary to read this 
article; this article must / 
has to be read; eMy [eft 
u m. d.] -' npoHHiaTb sxy 
cxaibK) it is necessary for 
him [her, etc] to read this 
article; ~ Bce c^eJiaxb k se- 
nepy it is necessary that 
everything should be done 
by the evening; mhc ~ hath 
I must / have to go; MHe -^ 
6biJio noftiH xyAa I had to 
go there. 

HeoexoAHMJbiH [n^iApkhA- 
d^'imiy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -u 
necessary, indispensable. 


nAv^^nniyl a sh f Heo6biKHo- 
BeHeH, -a, -o, -bi extraordi- 
nary, remarkable. 

HeorpaHHHeHH|biH [n^iAgrA- 
n^'ieh^mniy] a sh f neorpa- 
HHqen, -a, -o, -bi unlimited, 
unrestricted; ^aH BJiacxb 
absolute power. 

HCOAHOKpdXHO [tt^'lAdttA- 

kratna] adv repeatedly, more 

— 237 

than once, over and over 

HeojKHiiaHHO [n'lAzhtdana] 
adv unexpectedly; suddenly. 

HeonpeAejieHH|biH [n^iApr^i- 
d^i^l^onnjy] a sh f Heonpe- 
flejiCHeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. indefi- 
nite, indeterminate; 2. vague, 

<> —aji $6pMa rjiarojia in- 

HeonpoBepmHMlbiH [n^iApra- 
v^i^rzhlmiy] a sh f ~, -a, 
-o, -bi irrefutable, undeni- 
able, incontrovertit)le. 

HeOCTOp6«H|bIH [n^IAStA- 

rozhniy] a sh f neocTopo- 
>KeH, -a, -0, -bi careless, in- 
cautious; imprudent, rash. 

HeoTJi6}KH|biH [n^iAtlozh- 
niy] a sh f HeoTjioH^eH, -a, 
-0, -bi pressing, urgent; --aH 
(MeAHUHHCKaH) noMomb first 

HeoTi>eMJieM|biH [n^iAtyem- 
Pimiy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 
inalienable; --an qacxb in- 
tegral part. 

Henajijei; [n^i^paPitj, -dzj 
m -bua, -buee Nepalese. 

HenajibCK|HH [n'i^paP- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Nepa- 

HenoSeflHMlbiH [n^ipab^'i^- 
d^imiy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 
invincible, unconquerable. 

Henor6;i|a [n^ipAgoda] / -bi 
foul weather. 

HenOABH3KH|blH [n^ipAd^- 
v'izhnty] a sh f HenoflBH>KeH, 
-a, -0, -bi immovable, mo- 
tionless, still; fixed, station- 

HenoAxoflflmJHH [n^'ipatkhA- 

d^ash^:iy] a -an, -ee, -hc, 
sh f ~, -a, -e, -H unsuitable, 

Hen6jiH|biH [n^'i^polniy] a 
sh f HenojioH, -a, -o (-6), 
-bi (-bi) incomplete; short 
{weight, etc); — hh paSoMHH 
ACHb short hours; no —um 
AaHHbiM according to prelimi- 
nary data. 

HenocpeACTBeHHibiH [n^i- 
pAsr^etjt^v^innf^T] a sh f ne- 
nocpeACTBCH, -a, -o, •-bi I. 
immediate, direct; 2. spon- 
taneous, ingenuous. 

H€nOCTOflHH|b!H [n^ip3StA- 

yanniy] a sh f nenoCTOHHeH, 
-a, -o, -bi inconstant, change- 
able, variable. 

HenpasHJibHO [n^i^pra- 

v^iPna] ac?u wrongly, errone- 
ously; in the wrong way;-- 
noHHTb misunderstand; -^ 
npoHSHocrixb mispronoun5,e. 

HenpaBHJibHJbiH [n^i^pra- 
v^il^'nty] a sh f HenpaeHjien, 
-a, -a, -bi 1. anomalous; 
2. erroneous, wrong, incor- 

<> ~biH rjiaroji irregular 

HenpeMCHHO [n^ipr'i^m^en- 
na] adv without fail; cer- 
tainly; OH — onosAaex he 
will certainly be late; he is 
sure to be late. 

He,npepbiBH|bifi [n^ipr^i®- 
rfvnty] a sh f HenpepbiBeH, 
-a, -o, -bi continuous, unbro- 
ken, uninterrupted. 

HenpHFOAHlbiH [n'lpr^igdd- 
niy] a sh f HenpHroAen, -a, 
-o, -bi unfit, ifseless; unsuit- 
able, ineligible. 


— 238 

HenpHKOCHOBeHHOCTJb [n**!-" 

pr^ikasnAv^ennas^t^, -z^d^] / 
-H inviolability; AHnjiOMaiH- 
qecKan --b diplomatic im- 

nenpHHymjieHHlbiM [n'^ipr^i- 
nuzhd^onniy] a sh f Henpn- 
Hy>KAeH, -a, -o, -bi natural, 
free and easy; -^bm paaro- 
Bop free and easy talk; 
small talk. 

HenpHCTynHJbiH [n^ipr^i- 
stupn^y] a sh f HenpHcxy- 
neH, -a, -0, -u 1. inacces- 
sible, impregnable; 2. unap- 
proachable, haughty. 

HenpHflxeji'ib [n^'ipr^iya- 
t*'il^] m -H mil enemy. 

HenpHflTHOCT|b [n''ipr''iyat- 
nss*'t*', -z'^d''] / -H, -eft trou- 
ble, annoyance, nuisance; 
KaKaH ~bl how annoy- 

HenpH^TUJbiH [n^ipr^'iyat- 
niy] a sh f HenpHHTen, -a, 
-o, -bi unpleasant, disagree- 
able, objectionable. 

HenpOMOKaeM|biH [n^ipra 
raAkayamiy] a sh / ~, -a, 
-0, -bi waterproof. 

He[>aBeHCTB|G [n^i^rav'm- 
stva] n -a inequality (/) in 
rights, circumstances, etc; 
2) math). 

Hepa366p*tHB{Mft [n^irAZ- 
borch^iviy] ashf '^, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. illegible {handwriting, 
etc); 2. not fastidious; 3. un- 

Heps [n^'erf, -v] m -a, -ob 
anat nerve; 

<> AeiicTBOBaTb KOMy-ji. na 
'-W get on smb's nerves, 

HepBHHHJaTb [n^crvH^'i- 

ch^at**] imperf -aio, -aeuib be/ 
feel nervous. 

HepBHlbiH [n^'ervnty] a sh 
f HepseH, -a, -o, -bi nerv- 
ous; --bift yseji nerve-knot. 

HepeiiiHTejibH|biH [n^ir^i®- 
shlf'il^niy] a HepernHxejieH, 
-a, -0, -bi irresolute, indeci- 
sive; ~biM xoHOM in a hesi- 
tating manner. 

Hepflxja [n^i^r^akha] m & 
/ -H, ~ col sloven. 

HecKOJibK|o I [n^eskal^'ka] 
num -Hx several; some, a 

<> B ~MX cjioBax in a few 

HecKOJibKO II [n^eskal^ka] 
adv somewhat, a bit. 

Hecjib'ixaHHbift [n^'i^sH- 

khannty] a unheard-of, un- 

HecMoxpfl [n^ismAtr^'a] prep 
with ace: — na in spite of, 
despite, notwithstanding; 
<> ~ HH Ha HXG in spite of 
everything, despite every- 

HeeoBepmeHHOJierHHH [n'l- 
sav^irshanAl^et^'n^iy] I a un- 
der age; 

11 as a noun Hecosep- 
lueHHOJiexHJHH m -ero, 
-HX minor {below 18). 

HecoBMecxHM|biH [n^isav- 
m^i^s^'t^imiy] a s/i / —, -a, 
-o, -bi incompatible. 

HecoMHeHHo [n^isAmn^en- 
na] parenth undoubtedly, 
beyond all question. 

Hecocxo^xejibH|biH [n'^isa- 
stAyafrPnty] a sh f neco- 
cxo^xejiCH, -a, -0, -bi un- 
founded, groundless, un- 



sound; — bih aqboji, uncon- 
vincing argument. 

HecfiM [n^i^s^t^i] imperf 
-y, -euib, p Hec, -Jia, imp 
-H, nolHecTH [pan^i^s^t^i] 
perf, cjHecTH [s^n^i^s^t^i] 
perf a concrete action, move- 
ment in a definite direction — 1 

[Cf HOCMTb 1] 1. (nOHeCTH) 

carry {on one's person, in 
one's hands); 2. (nonecxH) im- 
pers col: ox OKHa ~e.T xo^to- 
AOM there is a cold draught 
from the window; ot Hero 
-—eT Ta6aK6M he reeks of 
tobacco; 3. (noHecxH) bear, 
suffer, sustain {loss, punish- 
ment, etc); 4. {no perf) per- 
form {duties, etc); ^xh ^e- 
^ypcxBO be on duty; 5. {no 
perf) bring, cause, carry 
{death, sorrow, etc); 6. (cHe- 
cxh) lay {eggs, of hens, etc); 
<0> ~TM BSAOp col talk non- 

He.c|THCb [n^i^s^t^is^] im- 
perf -ycb, -eiubCH p HeccR, 
-jiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb, 
noi«ecTHCb [pan^i^s^t^is**] 
perf, cjHecTHCb [s^n'^i^s^t^is^j 
perf a concrete movement in 
a definite direction — I [cf 

HOCHXbCH 1] 1. (nOHeCXHCb) 

move at great speed; 2. {no 
perf) pass very quickly, fol- 
low in quick succession {of 
time, events, etc); 3. (cne- 
cxHCb) lay eggs {of hens, 

HecHacTH|biH [n^i^sh^:as- 
niy] a sh f Hecqacxeu, -a, 
-o, -bi unhappy, unfortunate, 


n -bH, -HH misfortune, dis- 
<> K — bK) unfortunately. 

Her [n^et, -d] I impers 
predic: y mchh -^ BpeivieHH 

I have no time; khhf xaM 
— the books are not there; 
xaM ^ KHHr there are no 
books there; b 6H6jiHoxeKe 
3XHX KHur '^ they don't 
have these books at the li- 
brary; Koro ceroAHH ~? who 
is absent today?; 

I I a word of negation or dis- 
agreement no; «Th H^euib 
c HaMH?» «Hex». "Are you 
coming with us?" "No, I'm 
not"; «Bbi He BH/iejiH axox 
4)HjibM?» «Hex, BHAeji». "Have 
you seen the film?" "Yes, 
I have"; xbi HAeiUb hjih ~? 
are you coming or not?; 
H Aocxaji KHHPy, a oh -' 
I got the book and he didn't; 
BOBce ~ not at all; -- eu;e 
not yet; 

<> ~ KEK — no trace of...; 
Hd -~' to nought, to nothing 
{of reducing, etc); Ha ~ h 
cyAa -^ prov ^ if there 
isn't any, we must do with- 

HeTpyAocnoc66H|biH [n^i- 
trudaspAsobniy] a sh f hc- 
xpyAOcnoc66eH, -a, -o, -m 
disabled, invalid. 

HeyAanja [n^tudach^a] f 
-H, -- failure; misfortune, 
bad luck; noxepnexb — y fail 
{in smth.); suffer misfortune. 

HeyAaHHJbiH [n'^iudach^'niyl 
a sh f HeyAaqen, -a, -o, -u 
unsuccessful; -—wh npHM^p 
unhappy example. 



Heyfl66HlbiH [n**iud6bnty] a 
sh f HeyA66eH, -a, -o, -bi 
uncomfortable, awkward; in- 
convenient (time, etc); 2. fig 
embarrassing {situation); 3. 
fig improper. 

HeyjKCjiH [n^iuzliel^i] part 
inter denoting surprise, dis- 
belief, etc really?, is it pos- 
sible?; '- 3T0 npaBAa? can 
it be true?; — - oh 3a6ojieji? 
can he have fallen ill? 

HeyKjijbw'iHH [n^iukl'^uzhiy] 
a -aH, -ee, -He, s/i/ — , -a, -e, 
-H clumsy, lumbering, awk- 

HeyMecTHJbiH [n^ium^esnly] 
a sh f HeyMecieH, -a, -o, -bi 
irrelevant, inappropriate, 
out of place. 

HeypoKaJH [n^iurAzhay] m 
-H, -eB bad harvest crop 

He4)TenpoB6A [n^'ift^'iprA- 
vot, -d] m -a, -ob pipeline, 

Het|)Tlb [n^efM^ -vM^] / 
-H (mineral) oil. 

Hexopouio [n^ikharAsho] I 
adv badly {opposite of well); 
U inipers predic it is bad, 
it is wrong; it is wicked; 
-- TaK AejiaTb it is wrong 
to do things like that. 

HexoTfl [n*'ekhat''9] adv 
unwillingly, reluctantly. 

HenanHHo [n^'i^ch^'ayana] 
adv inadvertently, acciden- 
tally; unintencionally. 

HCHero I [n''ech''iV9l pron 
neg gen {no nom), dat HeneMy, 
instr He4£M, pr He o mcm 
there is nothing to...; ~ qw- 
Taib (there is) nothing to 

read; eMy ~ MHTaib he has 
nothing to read; HeqeMy 
yAHBJiHTbCH (there is) nothing 
to be surprised at; neqcM 
HHcaxb (there is) nothing to 
write with; He c qeM hath 
K HeMy we have nothing to 
take to him; He o qeM roBO- 
pHTb (there is) nothing to 
talk about; we have nothing 
to talk about; 

<> ~ cKasarb! well!, well 
I declare! 

Henero II [n^'ech^'iva] pred- 
ic col it's no use {doing 
snith), it's no good {doing 
smth); there's no need {to do 
smth); —■ o6 stom paaroBa- 
pHBaxb it's no use talking 
about this; ~ eMy bojiho- 
BaxbCH there's no need for 
him to worry; he needn't 

HeHeM [n^ech'^im] instr of 
neqero I. 

HencMy [n^ech^imu] dat of 
Heqero I. 

HeneTHbifi [n^i^ch^otnty] a 
odd {of numbers). 

HCHTG [n^ech^'ta] pron in- 
def something; ~ BpoAe SToro 
something like this. 

HH I [n^'i] I part intens 
{used with a noun in the sing, 
often in con fund ion with omH 
or eAHKbiii) not a (single); 
Ha yjiHue hh jxymn there is 
not a soul in the street; 

y MCHH Hef HH OAHOH (|)paH- 

uyacKOH KHHTH I have not a 
single French book; 
W cf: HH.... HH... neither... 
nor...; hh h, hh oh hc no- 
meji xyAa neither he nor I 

241 — 


went there; hh tot hh Apy- 
roH neither. 

HH II [n^i] forming part 
of the pronouns HHKaKOH, hh- 
^ev^, hhkto, hhhto in conjunc- 
tion with a prep: h hc bh- 
AejiCR HH c KeM I didn't see 
anybody; BCe sto hh k i^eMy 
it is all no good; it is all 
xn vain; sto hh Ha mto He 
roAHTCH it is good for noth- 
ing; OH HH 3a MTO He peiiiHT 
sry sa^aMy he will never 
solve the problem. 

HHFAe [n'igd^e] adv no- 
where; ee — HeT she [it] is 
not to be found anywhere. 

HHrepH|eLi [n^ig^i^r^iyatj, 
-dz] m -fiua, -Hues Nigerian. 

HHrepHHCK'iHH [n^ig^'i^r^iy- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Nige- 

HHwe [n'izhi^] I cotnp of 
HH3KHH & corresp adv; 

II adv 1. below {in a text); 
2.: — no TeqeHHK) farther 
down the stream; 

III prep with gen below; 
HHTb FpaAycoB ~ HyjiH five 
degrees below zero; 

<> ~ HberO-Jl. AOCTOHHCTBa 

beneath smb's dignity. 

hhm(h|hji [n^izhn^'iy] a low- 
er {in position, elevation, 
rank, etc); —hh STajK ground 
floor; — eeTeqeHHe peKH lower 
reaches of the river. 

HH3 [n^is, -z] m -a (-y) 
bottom, lower part {of a col- 
umn, etc). 

hhskIhh [n^isk'iy] a -aa, 
-oe, -He, sh f hh30k, -a, -o, 
-H (-H) 1. low {1) wall, ceil- 
ing, etc; 2) temperature. 

prices, etc); 2. bad, low, poor, 
inferior; 3. base, mean', low. 

HH3MeHH0CT|b [n^iz^'m^iii- 
nas^'t*', -z^d^] / -h, -eft low- 
land, depression. 

hh30ct|i. [n^izas^t^, -z^d^] 
/ -H, -eft baseness, meanness; 
3T0 -— b it is despicable. 

hh3ui1hh [n^ish:iy] I superl 

of HH3KHH; 

II a -an, -ee, -ne elementary, 
primary {education, etc). 

hhrek [n^ikak, -g] adv: ^ 
He in no way, by no means; 
— HejibSH it is quite impos- 

HHKaKJoft [n^ikAkoy] pron 
neg -aH, -oe, -ne no {with a 
noun following); none; — hx 
BOspaH^eHHH no objections 
(whatsoever); «EcTb B03pa- 
>KeHHH?» «HHKaKHx!» "Any 
objections?" "None (what- 

HHKCM [n^ik^em] instr of 


HHKorfld [n^ikAgda] adv 
never {not ever). 
HHKoro [n^ikAVo] gen & 

ace of HHKTO. 

HHKOMy [n^ikAmu] dat of 


HHKTO [n^ikto] pron neg 

KCM, HH o KOM nobody, no 
one; ero — He BCTpeTHji no- 
body met him; HHKoro He 
6bijio AOMa no one was at 
home; oh ne j\aji khhfh HH- 
KOMy H3 HHX he gave the 
book to none of them; oh a 
HH o KOM He 3a66THJiacb she 
didn't take care of any- 


— 242 

HHKyAa [n^ikuda] adv no- 
where (to no place); 
<> ~ He roAHTCfl it won't 
do; -^ He rOAHUH worthless, 

HHM [n^im] I instr of oh 
& oho; see oh; 
II dat of ohh; see oh. 

HHMH [n^im^l] instr of 
ohh; see oh. 

HHCKOJibKO [n^iskol^lo] adv 
not at all, not in the least. 

HHT|Ka [n^itka] / -kh, -ok 
thread {used in sewing); Bi;e- 
Baxb -~Ky B HFOJiKy thread 
a needle; 
O Ha wHByK) ~Ky col hastily. 

HHTJb [n^t^, -d^l / -h, 
-eft 1. see HHTxa; 2, elect r, 
hot filament; 

O ~b paccKasa thread of a 

HHx [n^ikh,-gh] gen & pr 
of ohh; see oh. 

HHwero I [n^ich'i'^vo] col \ 
adv so-so, not bad; 
II predic it doesn't matter, 
it's all right, never mind. 

HHHero II [n^'ich^i^vo] gen 
of hhmto. 

HHH|eH [n^ich^ey] pron poss 
neg -bH, -be, -bH nobooiy's, 
no one's. 

HHHCM [n^ich^em] instr of 


HHH€My [n^'ich^i^mu] dat 
of hh»it6. 

hhh|t6 [n'^ishto] I pron 
neg -ero, -eMy, -to, -cm, hh 
o MCM nothing; anything {in 
neg sentences); ~t6 He mofjio 
yteiuHTb ee nothing could 
console her; y nero —ero Hex 
he has nothing, he doesn't 

have anything; 3to ^cm ne 
KOHMHjiocb it came to noth- 
ing; H He CnopHJI C HHM HH 

MCM I didn't argue about 

anythin^j with him; 

II as fl noun m indecl nought, 


HHHTOWHlbifi [n^ich^tozh- 
niy] a sh f HHHioHieH, -a, -o, 
-bi insignificant; paltry. 

HHHyxb [n^'ich^ut^] adv col 
not a bit, not at all; 
<> -^ He SbiBajio col not at all. 

HHHb|q [n^ich^ya] / -eft, 
-Hx sport a draw, drawn 

HHmeTJa [n^ish'':i^ta] / -b'l 
destitution, poverty. 

hmii;|hh [n^ish^iiy] I a -an, 
-ee, -He, sh f -^, -a, -e, -h 
beggarly, poverty-stricken; 
II as a noun h h m.|HH m -ero, 
-HX beggar, mendicant. 

HO [no] cj denoting contrast, 
restriction, etc but; xoth y>Ke 
nosflHO, HO H xony noryjiHTb 
though it is late, I want to 
go for a walk. 

HOBarop [nAvatar] m -a, 
-OB innovator. 

HOBUH|Ka [nAv^'inka] / -kh, 
-OK novelty. 

hobhhIok [nav^ich^ok, -g] 
m -Ka, -KOB col novice, be- 
ginner, tiro. 

H0B03ejiaHA|ei; [navaz^i^- 
lan^d^itj, -4z] m -u,a, -uee 
New Zealander. 

HOBoaejiaHACKlHH [navaz^'i^- 
lansk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -He New 
Zealand {attr). 

HOBopo>KAeHH|bifi [navarAzh- 
dMnnty] I a new-born; 
II as a noun HOBopo«- 

— 243 — 


AeHH|biH m -oro, -bix new- 
-born child. 

HOBOceji|be [navAs^ePya] n 
-bH, -HH house-warming party. 

H0B0CTp6|HKa [navAstroy- 
ka] / -HKH, -eK 1. newly 
erected building [works, etc]; 
2. new construction site. 

HOBOcrlb [novas^t^, -z^d''] 
/ -H, pi -H, -eft 1. news, 
tidings; 2, novelty; latest 

HOBuiecTBlo [nofshastva] n 
-a, -^ innovation, novelty. 

HOBlbiH [noviy] \ a sh f 
^, -a, -o, -bi (-bi) new, nov- 
el, modern; 

II as a noun h 6 b|o e n -oro: 
HTO -^-oro? what's the news?; 
<>H6BbiH rofl New-Year's day. 

Horjd [nAga] / -h, ace Hory, 
pi HorH, -~, -aM leg {of a 
man, animal); foot {of the leg); 
<> HjlTH / mararb b Hory 
keep step /pace {with); Bcxaxb 
c jieBOH ~H col get out of 
bed on the wrong side. 

HorjOTb [nogat^, -d^] m 
-TH, pi -TH, -Teft nail, finger- 
-nail; toe-nail. 

HO)K [nosh, -zh] m -a, -efl 
knife; nepomiHHbiH ^ pen- 

HOiKlKa [noshka] / -kh, -ck 
1. dim of Hora; 2. leg (o/ 
furniture); 3. 60/ stalk. 

HoxcHHUbi [nozhn^itsi] pi 
Ho^HHU (pair of) scissors. 

H03flp|a [nAzdrM] f -h, pi 
H63;ipH, -eii nostril. 

HOH [noy] see HbiTb. 

Hoji|b [nol^] m -H, -eft & 
Hyjijb [nuP] m -h -eft 1. 
math nought, zero; 2. nil; 

<> cBecTH K HyjiK) bring to 

Howep [nom^ir] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB 1. number {of 
a telephone, ticket, etc); 2. 
number, issue {of a period- 
ical); 3. room {at a hotel, 
etc); 4. size {in clothes, shoes, 
etc); 5. turn, item, number 
{of a concert, program, etc); 
6. fig col trick; BbiKHHyxb — 
do / play a trick; 
<> 3T0T ~ He npOHflex col 
that trick won't work here. 

HOpja [nAra]/ -bi, ace -y, pi 
Hopbi, -— , HopaM burrow, hole. 

HopBe}K|eu [nArv^ezhatj, 
-dz] m -ua, -ues Norwegian. 

HOpBeiKCK|HH [nArv^esh- 
sk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He Nor- 

H6pM|a [norma] / -bi, -' 1. 
norm, standard; npaBOBbie 
— bi legal regulations; 2. rate, 
quota {in production, etc); 
<> BOHTH B — y return to the 
normal {routine, way of life, 
size, etc). 

HopMajibH|biH [nArmaPnty] 
a sh f HOpMaJien, -a, -o, -bi 

1. normal, standard, regular, 

2. sane. 

HOC [nos, -z] m -a (-y), pi 
-bi, -OB 1. nose {on the face 
or muzzle); 2. prow {of a 
ship, airplane, etc); 3. beak 
{of a bird); 

<> OCTaTbCH C --0M col ^ 

be duped; Bemaxb ^ col be 
discouraged; sa^Hpaxb ~ col 
put on airs; coBaxb cboh ^ 
col poke one's nose, pry. 

hochjiIkh [nAs^ilk^i] pi -ok 
stretcher, litter. 


— 244 

HOCH^ibmHK [HAs'^ii^sh'^iik, 
-yl m -a, -ob porter {at a 
station, etc). 

HOCJHTb [nAs^it^] imperf 
HOiiiy, HccHiub, p -HJi. imp 
-H \cf HecTH 1] 1. carry {on 
one's person, in one's hands); 
2. wear (/) clothes, rings, 
etc; 2) a beard, etc); 3. bear 
{traces, marks, etc); 
<> ~MTb Koro-ji. Ha pyKax 
^ make much of smb. 

HOc|HTbcsi [nAs'^ittsa] im- 
perf HOIliyCb. HOCHlUbCH, p 
-HJICH. -HJiaCb, imp -HCb. 

-HTecb [cf HecTHCb 1] 1. move 
along /about very quickly; 
move very quickly {along the 
street, etc; about the town, 
etc); 2. col\ —riibCH c kcm-ji. 
make much of smb; —HXbCH 
c MbicjibKD cherish an idea. 

hockIm [nAsk^'i] pi -6b 
{sing HOC I OK m -Ka) socks 
{short stockings). 

HocoK I see hockh. 

hoc|6k II [nAsok, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB toe {of the foot, 
shoe, etc); Ha — Kax on tip-toe. 

Horla I [nota] / -bi, pi -u, 
^ 1. mas note; 2. pi music 
{musical score); 
O KaK no —aiM like clock- 

HOTJa II [nota] / -u, ~ 
dipt note. 

HOTau,H|fl [nAtatjiya] / -h, 
-H lecture, scolding. 

HOHJeBaTb [nach'^i^vat'^l 
perf & imperf -yvd, -yeiiib, p 
-eBaji, imp -yft spend the 

HOHjier [nAch^Pek, -g] m 
-a, -OB lodging for the night. 

HOHHOH [nAch^'noy] a night 

HOH|b [noch**, -j^] / -H, 
-efl night {mostly after mid- 
night); ocxaibCH Ha-HOMb stay 
overnight; bck) — b nanpo- 
Jie? all night through; b 
ABa ^aca — h at two a.m.; 
O nk HOHb before going to 
bed; na noHb rjiflAfl col at this 
time of night, so late at 

HOHbK) [noch^'yu] adv at / 
by night, in the nighttime. 

Homja [nosha] / -h, ~ 
burden, load {carried by a 

Hoijuy [nAshu] see HOCKTb. 

Hoiiiycb [nAshus*', -z^] see 


Hoto [noyu], Hoeuib [no- 
yash, -zh] see HbiTb. 

HOflSplb [nAyabr^] m -a 

HpaB [nraf, -v] m -a, pi 
-bi, -OB 1. disposition, tem- 
per; 2. {mostly pi) morals 
and manners, customs. 

HpaB|HTbcn [nrav^'ittsa] /m- 

perf -JlHDCb, -HUJbCH, p -HJlCH, 

-HJiacb. no:HpaBHTbcji (pAnra- 
v^'ittsa] perf: mhc [hm u m. d.] 
— HTCH 3T0 I [they, etc] like 
it; I am [they are. etc] 
charmed / delighted by it. 

HpaBCTBeHH|biH [nrafs^'t'*- 
v^'inniyj a sh f HpaBCTBCH, 
-a, -o, -bi moral {principles, 
action, etc). 

Hy)Kflla [nuzhda] / -b'l, pi 
HyH<Abi, ~ 1. want, indi- 
gence, poverty; ?. need, 
want, requirement; 6e3 ~bi 
without necessity. 

245 — 

HyMCAaJTbCH [nuzhdattsa] 
imperf -locb, -embcn 1. live in 
poverty, be hard up; 2. need, 
want, require. 

HyHCHO [nuzhna] impers 
predic it is necessary; — npo- 
MHTaxb 3Ty ciaTbK) it is nec- 
essary to read this article; 
this article must / has to be 
read; eMy [efl a m. d.] ^ 
npo^iHTaxb aiy cxaxbib it is 
necessary for him [her, etc] 
to read this article; -^ Bce 
CAeJiaTb K Benepy it is neces- 
sary that everything should 
be done by the evening; — 
6biTb 0CT0p6)KHbiM one should 
be careful, one ought to be 
careful; Tbi npocTy^HjiCH? -^ 
6biJio Ha^eTb najibTo have you 
caught cold? you should have 
put on your coat; MHe ~' 
HflTii I must / have to go; 
MHe — 6faiJio noHTH Ty^a 
I had to go there; I should 
have gone there; ceroAHH 
BocKpeceHbe, h eMy He ~ 
npHxoAHTb today- is Sunday 
and he need not come; Te6e 
He — 6biJio B^epa npHxoAHXb 
you needn't have come yes- 
terday; you shouldn't have 
come yesterday; ^ 6bijio 
BHAexb, KaK OH o6paAOBajic5i! 
you should have seen how 
glad he was! 

HyxH|biji [nuzhniy] a sh f 

Hy>KeH, -a, -o, -bi (-bi) neces- 
sary; CMy [eft u m. d.] ny- 
HieH 3X0X cjioBapb [--a sxa 
KHHra] he [she, etc\ needs 
this dictionary [book]; mxq 
BaM -^0? what do you want / 
need?; eMy ^o cxo pydjieft 
he wants / needs a hundred 
roubles; oh HyHieH 3Aecb he 
is wanted here. 

Hyjlb = H0JIb. 

Hbiji [nil], HMjia [n4l9] see 


HblpHyXb see HblpHXb. 

Hbip|flTb [nir^at^] imperf 
-HK), -Heuib,' HMpHJyxb [nlr- 
nut^] perf -y, -euib, p -yji, 
imp -H dive {into water). 

HWTb [nit^] imperf hok), 
Hoeuib, p HbiJi, HbiJia, imp 
HOH 1. ache, hurt; 2, col 
complain, belly-ache. 

Hibxjaxb [n^ukhat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, nOjHibxaxb [pA- 
n^ukhat^] perf smell [use the 
sense of). 

HnHHJHXb [n'an^ch^'it^l im- 
perf -y, -Huib, p -HJi, imp^-H 
nurse, take care of (a baby). 

HHHH|HTbcsi [n^an^'ch^lttsa] 
imperf -ycb, -HiiibCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 1. 
take care {of babies)-, 2. col 
fuss {over). 

HnHJJi [n^'an^a] / -h, -b 1. 
(dry-)nurse; 2. col nurse {in 


o I [o; in the first pretonic 
position — a; in the second 
pretonic position — d], o6 

[op; in the first pretonic 
position — hh\ in the second 
pretonic position — ^h] in a 

— 246 — 

stressed position — op, 6b], 060 
[oba; in the first pretonic po- 
sition — AbA] prep I with ace 
denoting contiguity, collision, 
etc: YAapHTbCH tojioboh o cie- 
Hy strike one's head against 
the wall; cnoTKHyxbCH o Ka- 
MeHb stumble over a stone; 
onepeTbCH o ctoji lean on 
the table; onepeTbCH o ABepb 
lean against the door; 
II with pr denoting the object, 
aim of a conversation, smb's 
solicitude, etc, or the subject, 
theme of a book, etc: ue^raTb 
o qeM-ji. dream of smth; 3a- 
66THTbCH o KOM-Ji. take care 
of smb; co>KajieTb o hcm-ji. 
regret smth; KHrira kocmh- 
MecKHX nyTemecTBHjix a book 
on /about space travels; jieK- 
UHH 06 3JieKTpHqecTBe a lec- 
ture on electricity; ohh 
roBopHJiH 060 MHe they spoke 
about me. 

o' II [o] int expressing a 
strong feeling or intensifying 
smth oh! 

o..., o5..., 060..., o6t>... 
pref of verbs denoting 1. the 
fact that the action applies 
to a number of or many peo- 
ple, things: o6eraTb [Ab^e- 
gat**] call on, see {many peo- 
ple, everybody)', visit, drop 
in at {many or all the shops); 
2. the fact of surpassing, 
getting the upper hand: 06- 
cKaKaTb [ApskAkat^] outgal- 
lop; o6birpaTb[Abtgrat*'] beat, 
win a victory over {at a 
game, etc); 3. damage caused: 
o6BecHTb [Abv^'es'^it*'] cheat 
(in weighing); 4. {with -ca) 

a mistake made: ocjibimaTbCH 
[AsHshattja] not hear aright, 
mishear; oroBopHTbCH [Aga- 
VAr^'ittja] make a slip (in 
speaking); 5. the imparting^ 
of a quality, feature, etc: 
ocjio>KHHTb [AslAzhn^'it^] com- 
plicate, render complex; 03e- 
jieHHTb [AZ^iPi^nMt^] plant 
trees and shrubs {in a town, 
street, etc); 6. the perfective 
aspect: orjioxHyxb [Aglokh- 
nut^] perf of rjioxHyxb. 

06 see o I, 

06... see 0... 

66a [oba] nam collect m & 
n o66hx, o66hm, ■— (o66hx), 
o66hmh, (06) o66hx, 66e f 

both; OHH ^ MOH ApysbH 

they are both my friends; oh 
jik)6ht o6eHX Ao^epeft he 
loves his two daughters; 
<> o6eHMH pyKaMH col readily, 
eagerly; CMOTpexb/rJiJiAeTb b 
~ col be on one's guard, 
keep one's eyes open. 

o6BHHeHH|e [Abv'^in^en^iya] 
n -a, -H 1. charge, accusation; 
no —K) B... on a charge of...; 
2. law the prosecution. 

o6BHHMxeJilb [Abv^in^'it^il^] 
m -H, -eft law prosecutor. 

06BHHHXb see 06BHHHXb. 

oSBHHJflXb [Abv^in^at''] /m- 

perf -HK), -Heillb, 06BHH|HXb 

[Abv^in^it^] perf -ib, -Hiub, 
p -HJi, imp -it 1. accuse, 
blame, put in the wrong; 
2. law accuse, charge, indict; 
bring charges against. 

o6roHH [AbgAn''i] imp of 
o6orHaxb; see o6roHHXb. 

oSroHH) [AbgAn^'u], o6r6- 
HHiiib [Abgon^ish, -zh] 1st Sc 

247 — 


2nd persons of o6orHaTb; see 


o6roH]HTb [AbgAn^at^] im- 
perf -HK), -Heiiib, oSorHJaTb 
[AbAgnat^] perf o6roHK), 06- 
roHHiub, p -aji, -ajia, -ajio, 
-ajiH, imp o6roHH 1. outrun, 
outspeed, outdistance, out- 
strip; leave behind, pass; 2. 
fig outstrip. 

oSAyMaxb see o6AyMbiBaTb. 

o6flyMbiB|aTb [Abdumivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, o6flylMaTb 
[Abdumat''] perf -aio, -aeuib 
consider, think over. 

66e [6b ^1] num f o6eHx, 
o6eHM, —• (o6eHx), o6eHMH, 
(06) o6eHX see 66a. 

o6eA [Ab^et, -d] m -a, -ob 
dinner; SBanbiH ^ dinner- 
-party;NAo ~-a before dinner; 
in the morning; n6cjie -~-a 
after dinner; in the afternoon. 

o6eA|aTb [Ab^edat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiiib, noioSeflaTb [pA- 
Ab^edat''] perf have one's 
dinner, dine. 

o6e3..., o0ec... pref of 
verbs denoting deprivation of 
smth, freeing of smth: o6e366- 
jiHTb [Ab^'i^zboi^It^] anaesthe- 
tize; o6ecKp6BHTb [Ab^i^skro- 
v^it^] drain of blood, bleed 

o6e3BpeflHTb see o6e3Bpe- 


oSesBpemHBJaTb [Ab^i^z- 
vr'^ezhtvat^} imperf -aio, 
-aemb, o6e3Bpe;i|HTb [Ab'^i^z- 
vr^ed^'it''] perf o6e3Bpe>Ky, 
-Huib, p -Hji, imp -b render 

o6e3bflH|a [Ab^'i^z^'yana] / 
-ti, -' monkey, ape. 

o6eH [Ab^ey] imp of o6HTb; 
see o6HBaTb. 
*o6epHyTb see o6epTbiBaTb. 
o6epHyTbCJi see o6opaqH- 


o6epTbiB|aTb [Ab^6rtiv9t^l 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, o6epH|yTb 
[Ab^i^^rnuf] perf -y, -eiiib, p 
-yji, imp -H 1. wrap up, do 
up in a wrapping; 2. fig 
turn {change the trend of); 
o6epHyTb B CBOK) n6jib3y turn 
to account / to one's own ad- 

<> oSepHyxb Koro-Ji. Bonpyr 
najibi^a col twist smb round 
one's little finger. 

oSecneHeHH ] e [ Ab^'i^sp^ech^i- 
n^iya] n -a. 1. providing 
{with), supplying {with); 2. 
guaranteeing, securing; ~e 
MHpa safeguarding of peace; 
3. maintenance {by the state, 
etc); 4. guarantee, security. 

o6ecneMeHHbiH [Ab^i^sp^e- 
ch^innly] a [pa] well-to-do. 

o6ecneHHB|aTb [Ab^i^sp'^e- 
ch^'ivat*'] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
o^ecnenlHTb [Ab^i^sp^ech^if] 
perf -y, -Huib, p -hji, imp -b 
1. provide {with), supply 
{with); provide for {smb); 2. 
secure, ensure, guarantee; 
o6ecneMHTb MHp bo bccm MHpe 
ensure world peace. 

o6eccHJi|eTb [Ab^i^s^sM- 
l^it^] perf -eio, -eeiub lose 
strengh, grow weak. 

o6eu;aHHle [Ab^'i^sh^ia- 

n^iya] n -h, -h promise {to 
do smth); KJiHTBCHHoe — e 
oath; ASTb — e promise, make 
a promise; cACpHcaTb / bu- 
noJiHHTb ~e keep a promise. 


248 — 

o6em|aTb [Ab**i^sh^:at^] 
perf & imperf -aio, -aeuib 

o6}Ka;iloBaTb [Abzhalavat'*] 
perf -yK), -yeiiib, p -oeaji, 
imp -yft lodge a complaint 

odweHb see o6>KHraTb. 

o6)KHr|aTb [Abzhigat**] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, o6>Ke4b [Ab- 
zhech''] perf o6oHcry, 060- 
>K>Keiiib, p o6>Ker, o6o>Krjia, 
imp o6o>KrH 1. burn, scorch, 
scald; 2. bake {bricks, pot- 
tery, etc). 

0636P [Abzor] m -a, -ob 
survey {of a subject)', review 
{of events, etc). 

o6HB|aTb [Ab^'ivaf] imperf 
-aio, -aeiub, o6H|Tb [Ab^it''] 
perf o6o6bK), o6o6beiiib, p -ji, 
imp o6eH upholster {furni- 
ture)', ~aTb jKejieaoM bind 
with iron. 

o6HBlKa [Ab^'ifka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. upholstering {the pro- 
cess of)', 2. upholstery. 

o6MA|a [AbMda] / -bi, ~ 
1. offence, insult, injury; 
HanecTH --y komv-ji. offend 
smb, hurt smb's feelings; 2. 
resentment, grudge; 6biTb b 
~e Ha Koro-ji. bear smb a 
grudge; aaiaHib — y nurse a 

<> HC B — y 6yflb CKasaHO 
col no offence meant; He 
Aaxb ce6fl b ~y stand up 
for oneself. 

o6HiieTb see o6H>KaTb. 

odHACTbcn see o6H>KaTbca. 

o6H}K!aTb [Ab''izhat''J im- 
perf -aio, -aeujb, oSiijileTb 
(Ab''id'*it''J pe/-/o6H>Ky, -Huib, 

p -e;i, imp -b 1. offend, hurt 
smb's feelings; 2. col treat 
badly and unjustly. 

o6H>K|aTbCJ! [Ab^'izhattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, o6h- 
fl|eTbCJi [Ab^'id^ittja] perf 

06H>KyCb, -HlUbCH, p -ejlCH, 

-ejiacb, imp -bCH, -biecb take 
offence, feel hurt; be offend- 
ed, feel angry. 

o6HJibH|biH [Ab^fl^niy] a 
sh f o6HJieH, -a, -0, -bi abun- 
dant , plentiful. 

o6HTb see o6HBaTb. 

oSKpaAy [ApkrAdu], o6Kpa- 
Acuib [ApkrAd**6sh, -zh] 1st 
& 2nd persons of o6oKpacTb; 
see o6KpaAbiBaTb. 

o6KpaAbiB|aTb [Apkradivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, 060- 
Kp|acTb [AbAkras^'t''] perf 
o6KpaAy, o6Kpa;ieiiib, p -aji 
rob (a house, etc)', ero o6o- 
Kpa;iH he had all his things 

o6jiaB|a [Ablava] / -bi, — 
round-up {of suspected per- 
sons, etc). 

oSjiaAlarb [AbUdat^l im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib possess, 
have; '^axb xopouiHM 3ao- 
p©BbeM enjoy good health. 

66jiaK|o [oblaka] n -a, pi 
-a, -OB cloud {in the sky); 
noKpbiBaTbCH --aMH be over- 

<> BHTaxb B ^dx be up in 
the clouds. 

o6jiacTH6H [AblAsnoy] a 
regional, district {attr). 

66jiacT|b [oblas^'t'', -z^d^] 
/ -H, pi -H, -eft 1. region, 
district {part of a country); 
2. field, province, sphere. 

— 249 


oCjiaHHJbift [obbch^niy] a 
sh f 66jiaqeH, -a, -o, -u 
cloudy {day, etc). 

ofijierHlaTb [AbPi^khch^at**] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, oSjier- 
KiHTb [Abl^i^khchMt''] perf 
-y, -Huib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. 
lighten {the weight, etc); 
2. facilitate, make easier/ 
easy; 3. relieve {pain); alle- 
viate {sufferings, etc). 

o6jiefleH } exb [ Abl^id^'i^n^et*'] 
perf -eio, -eeuib become cov- 
ered with ice. 

o6jiHB|aTb [Abl^ivat^] im- 
perf -aio. -aeiub, o6jiiHTb 
[AbPit**] perf o6ojihV), o6ojib- 
eiub, p 66jiiiji (-HJi), -HJia, 

66J1HJI0 (-HJI0), 66JIHJIH (-HJIH), 

imp -efl pour {water, etc) over 
{smb, smth); o6;iHTb ctoji Mep- 
HHJiaMH spill ink on the 

<> -—axb rpnsbK) kofo-ji. col 
sling mud at- smb; o6jiMTb 
npespeHHCM col treat with 

o6jiHrau,H|ji [Abl^^igatjiya] 
/ -H, -H bond {of a state 
loan, etc). 

66jihk [obl^ik, -g] m -a 
1. appearance, look; j2. cast 
of mind; MOpajibHbiH ^ mor- 
al make-up. 

odjiHTb see odjiHsarb. 

o6jiHq|aTb [Abl''ich''at^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, oSjiHHlHTb 
[Abl^ichMt^] perf -y, -riuib, 
p -HJI, imp -H expose and 
condemn, denounce. 

o6ji6}K|Ka [Abloshka] / -kh, 
-CK cover, wrapper; folder, 

o6jiOKaHHB|aTbCfl [AbUka- 

ch'^ivattja] imperf -aKx:b, 

-aeiUbCH, 06jl0K0T|MTbC51 [Ab- 

bkAt^ittsa] perf o6jioKOHycb, 

06jI0K6THUIbC5I (-HlUbCH), p 
-HJICH, -HJiaCb, imp -HCb, 

-Hiecb lean one's elbows 
{on); He —aTbcn! no lean- 

oGjiomIck [Ablomak, -g] m 
-Ka, pi -KH, -KOB 1. fragment 
{of smth broken); 2. pi de- 
bris, wreckage. 

o6MaH [Abman] m -a, -ob 
fraud deception; deceit; 
<> ^ speHHJi optical illusion. 

c6MaHyTb see o6MaHbiBaTb. 

o6MaH4HBlbiH [Abman^ch^'i- 
vty] a sh f ^, -a, -o, -bi 
deceptive, deceitful, deceiv- 

oSMaHbiBlaxb [Abmaniv9t'] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, oSMaHlyxb 
[AbmAnut^j perf -y, o6Ma- 
Heiiib, p -yji, imp -h deceive; 
cheat, swindle; o6MaHyTb 
Hbe-Ji. AOBepne betray smb's 
trust; oSManyTb HbH-ji. na- 
Ae^Aw disappoint smb's 

oSMejiexb see Mejiexb. 

o6MeH [Abm^'en] m -a, -ob 
exchange {of commodities, 
greetings, etc); 
O ~ eemecxB metabolism. 

o6MeHHB|axbCfl [Abm'en**i- 
vattja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 
CH, o(5MeHlflxbc« [Abm^i^- 
n'^attsa] perf -Hiocb, -HeiubcH 
exchange {opinions, greetings, 
etc); o6MeHHTbCH Bneqaxjie- 
HHHMH share one's impres- 

66MopoK [obmarak, -g] m 
-a, -OB faint, fainting-fit. 


250 — 

oeMyHflHpoBaHHJe [Abmun^- 
d^'irAvan^iya] n -h, -h uni- 

o6Harji|eTb [AbnAgl^et^] 
perf -eio, -eeiub become inso- 
lent / brazen. 

o6Hap6flloBaTb [AbnAroda- 
vat^] perf -yio, -yeiiib, p -o- 
BaJi, imp -yft promulgate, 
make public. 

o6»apyiKHB|aTb [AbnAruzhi- 
vat**] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
o6HapyjK|HTb [AbnAruzhit^] 
perf -y, -Hiiib, p -hji, imp -b 
1. find, discover, detect; 2. 
display, reveal, show; —aib 
CBOib- paj^ocTb betray one's 

o6HHM|aTb [Abn^imat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, o6H|flTb 
[Abn^'at*'] perf -HMy, -HMeiiib, 
p 66hhji, -Jijia, 66HJ1JIO, 66- 
HHJiH, imp -HMH embrace, 
clasp in the arms; put one's 
arms round. 

o6HHM|aTbC5i [Abn^imattja] 
irj^perf -aKx:b, -aeiiibCH, c6- 
HJnTbCfl [Abn^attja] perf 

-HMyCb, -HMeUIbCH, p -HJICH 
(-HJICH), -HJiaCb, -HJlOCb, -H- 
JlHCb, imp -HMHCb, -HMHTeCb 

embrace, hug one anoth- 

06HflTb see 06HHMaTb. 
06HHTbCfl see 06HHMaTbCH. 

o6o see o I. 

o6o... see o... 

o6o6m|aTb [AbApsh'':at'*] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, o6o6m|HTb 
[AbApsh^.it''] perf -y, -HUJb, 
p -HJi, imp -H generalize, 

c6o6bib [AbAb^'yu], o6o6b- 
eujb [AbAb*'y6sh, -zh] 1st & 

2nd persons of o6iiTb; see 


oScraTHTb see oSoramaxb. 

o6oramiaTb [AbagAsh^.at''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, o6ora- 
TJHTb [AbagAt^it^] perf o6o- 
ramy, -Hiub, p -hji, imp -h 
1. enrich {one's experience, 
knowledge, etc); 2. concen- 
trate, dress {ore, etc). 

o6orHaTb see o6roHHTb. 

oScFH^Tb see orHCaxb. 

o6ojpHTb see o6oflpHTb. 

o6o;ip!flTb [AbAdr^^t^] im- 
perf -5§IO, -HeiUb, 060Ap|HTb 

[AbAdr^it^] perf -k), -Hiub, p 
-HJI, imp -H encourage, reas- 

o6o«laTb [AbAzhat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb adore, wor- 

oSoKPH [AbAzhg'']] imp of 
o6>KeMb; see o6}KHraTb. 

o6o)Krjia [AbAzhgla] p of 
o6>KeHb; see o6>KHr^Tb. 

o6o)Kry [AbAzhgu], o6o- 
)K>Keuib [AbAzh:6sh, -zh] Jst 
& 2nd persons of o6»^eqb; see 

o6o3HaHiaTb [AbaznAch^'at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, o6o3Ha- 
HJHTb [j\bAznach^it^] perf -y, 
-Hiiib, p -HJI, imp -b 1. de- 
signate, mark (out); 2. {no 
perf) mean, signify. 

o6o3peBaTejilb [Abazr^i^va- 
t^il''] m -H, -eH reviewer; 
observer {of a newspaper, 

o6o3peHHle [AbAzr^'en^'iya] 
n -H, -H 1. review {literary, 
critical, etc); 2. theat revue. 

o66|h [Ab6i] pi -es wall- 

— 251 — 


o66hm [Aboim] dat of 66a. 

o66hmh [Aboim^'i] instr of 

o66hx [Aboikh, -gh] gen, 
ace & pr of 66a. 

060HTH see o6xoAHTb. 

060HTHCb see 06x0AHTbCH. 

o6oKpacTb see o6kp aAW- 


o6oji64|Ka [AbAloch^ka] / 
-KH, -eK 1. cover, jacket; 
2, technol jacket, casing; 
3.: cjiii3HCTaH ~Ka anat mu- 
cous membrane. 

o6ojibK) [AbAl^yu], o6ojib- 
euib [AbAPyosh, -zh] 1st & 
2nd persons of o6jiHTb; see 


o6oH^HH|e [AbAn^an^iya] n 
-H sense of smell. 

o0onpHCb [AbApr^is^, -z^], 
o6onpHTecb [AbApr^it^is^, -z*"] 
imp of onepeTbca; see ohh- 


o6onpycb [AbAprus**, -z^], 
o6onpeiiibC5i [AbApr'6shs^9] 
1st & 2nd persons of onepexb- 
ch; see onHpaxbcn. 

oSopaHHBJaTbCM [AbArach^i- 
V9ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeiiib- 
CH, o6epH|yTbC5i [Ab^i^rnu- 
ttja] perf -ycb, -euibCH, p 
-yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hiecb turn (rouad), turn one's 

o6opBaTb see o6pbiBaTb, 

oSopoHJa [AbArona] / -u 
1. defence; 2. mil defensive 
position; defences. 

oSopoT [AbArot, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. revolution, turn; 2. 
econ turnover; 3. turn (of 
speech), phrase; 4.: Ha ~e 
pn the back {of a page); cm. 

Ha — e P.T.O. (please, turn 


the affair took a bad turn; 
BSJiTb B ~ col put to task. 

o6opyAOBaHH|e [AbAruda- 
van^iya] n -h, -h 1. equip- 
ping, equipment; 2. equip- 
ment, furnishings, machinery. 

o6ocHOBaHH|e [AbasnAva- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. substantia- 
tion {of a theory, etc); 2. rea- 
son, basis, ground. 

oSocHloBaTb [AbasnAvat^] 
perf -yib, -yeiiib, p -OBaji, 
imp -yft substantiate {a the- 
ory, argument, etc). 

o6ocTpeHH|e [AbAstr^en^iya] 
n -H, -H aggravation {of con- 
tradictions, etc). 

oSocTpHTb see 060CTpHTb. 

060CTpHTbCSI see 060CTpHTb- 

o6ocTplflTb [AbAstr^at^] /m- 
perf -HK), -Hemb, o6ocTplMTb 
[AbAstr^it^] perf -kd, -Hiub, p 
-Hji, imp -H sharpen, bring 
to a head; aggravate {contra- 
dictions, etc); — HTb OTHome- 
HHH strain the relations. 

o6ocTp|flTbCfl [AbAstr^a- 
ttsa] imperf -hctch, 060- 
CTplHTbCfl [AbAstr'^ittsa] perf 
^HTCH, p -HJicH, -HJiacb 1. be- 
come more sensitive {of the or- 
gans of perception); 2. become 
aggravated, become acute. 

o6oK)AH|biH [AbAyudniy] a 
sh f o6oibAeH, -a, -o, -bi mu- 
tual, reciprocal; no ~0My 
corjiacHK) by mutual consent. 

o6pa6aTbiBlaTb [AbrAbati- 
vat^j imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
oSpaSoTlaxb [AbrAb6tat^] perf 


252 — 

-aio, -a«mb 1. work (up), pro- 
cess (a material for use); treat 
{with a chemical agent, etc); 
2. till, cultivate; 3. col work 
on, influence {a person, etc); 
perf also persuade, get (a per- 
son) to think [act] in a cer- 
tain way. 

oSpaAOBaTb see pajiOBaTb. 

o6paAOBaTbC5i seepaAoeaTb- 


66pa3 [6br9s, -z] m -a, -ob 
1. image {in the mind); 2. 
mode, manner; ~ >kh3hh 
way/ mode of life; 3.: KaKHM 
~0M? how?; HHKOHM ~0M by 
no means; HaAJieHcamHM ~om 
in the proper way, prop- 

oGpaalei; [AbrAz^etj, -dz] 
m -u,a, -uoB 1. sample, spe- 
cimen; HOBeftmero ~ua of 
the latest pattern; 2. stand- 
ard, model, pattern {to be 

o6pa30BaHH|e I [AbrazAva- 
n^'iya] n -h, -h formation 
{the process of). 

o6pa30BaHH|e II [AbrazAva- 
n*'iy9] n -h education {sys- 
tematic instruction); HapoA- 
Hoe ~e public education. 

o6pa36BaHH|MH [AbrAZova- 
niy] a [pa] sh f o6pa36BaH, 
-a, -0, -bi (well-)educated. 

o6pa30BaTb see oSpasoBbi- 

o6pa30BaTbC5i see o6pa36- 


o6pa36BbiB|aTb [AbrAzovt- 
vat*"] imperf -aio, -aemb, o6- 
paajoBaTb [AbrazAvaf*] perf & 
imperf -yio, -yeuib, p -OBaji, 
imp -yii 1. form, organize, 

set up (a committee, etc); 2. 
make up, constitute. 

o6pa36BbiB|aTbC5i [AbrAZo- 
vivattja] imperf -aeica, o6- 
pasloBaTbCM [AbrazAvattja] 
perf & imperf -yercji, p -o- 
BajiCH, -©Bajiacb form, ap- 
pear; be generated {come 
into being). 

o6pa3yMJHTbCsi [AbrAzum^i- 
ttja] perf -jiiocb, -HuibCH, p 
-HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp -bCH, -b- 
Tecb col come to see reason, 
come to one's senses. 

cSpasuoBWH [AbrAstjoviy] a 
model {attr), exemplary. 

o6paTHTb see o6pamaTb. 

o6paTMTbCfl see o6pamaTb- 
CH 1. 

o6paTHO [Abratna] adv 
back, backwards; xyAa h — - 
there and back; noesAKa xyAa 
H ^ round trip. 

o6paTH|biH [Abratniy] 1. re- 
verse {motion, etc); return 
{ticket, etc); --bift nyxb return 
journey, way back; 2. oppo- 
site {direction, meaning, etc). 

oGpamlaTb [AbrAsh^.af] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, o6paTlHTb 
[AbrAt^'it^j perf odpamy, 
-riiiib, p -HA, imp -H 1. turn 
{one's eyes, etc, on, to); 2. 
convert {to another belief, etc); 
3. convert {into), turn {into); 
<> ~aTb B GercTBO put to 
flight; ~aTb Ha ceSa BHHMa- 
HHc attract attention. 

oGpamjaTbCJi lAbrAsh'*:a- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 
o6paT|HTbC5i [AbrAt^'ittja] 
perf oGpamycb, -HUibCH, p 
-HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb i. apply {for help. 

253 — 


etc); address {^b)\ 2. {no 
per}) treat {a person or ani- 
mal in a specified manner); 
•— axbCH c KCM-Ji, xopomo 
[njioxp] treat smb well [bad- 
ly]; 3. {no perf) handle, op- 

<> —axbCJi B 6ercTBo take 
to one's heels, beat a hasty 

o6paiu,eHH|e [AbrAsh^.e- 
n^'iyg] n -h, -h 1. address 
{a speech); appeal {to the peo- 
ple, etc); 2. treatment {of 
people, animals); 3. handling 
{of tools, appliances, etc); 4. 
circulation {of commodities, 
etc); 5. ling address. 

o6pe3aTb see oSpeaaxb. 

oSpeslarb [Abr^i^zat''] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, oSpes'iaTb 
[Abr^'ezat^] perf o6pe>Ky, o6- 
pe>Kemb, p -aji> imp o6pe>Kb 
1. cut off; clip, pare; 2. {no 
imperf) col snub, rebuff. 

oSpeKJaxb [Abr^'i^kat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, oSpelnb 
[Abr^'ech^] perf -Ky, -Meuib, p 
d^pcK, -K;ia, imp kh doom, 
destine; ~axb Ha .HeyAany 
doom to failure. 

66pyH [obruch^, -j^] m -a, 
pi -H, -eft hoop (a circular 

o6pyuiHBlaxbC5i [Abrushiva- 
ttsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 
o6pyuilHXbC5i [AbrushUtja] 
perf -ycb, -Huibcji, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -bCH, -bxecb 1. 
collapse, fall in, cave in; 2. 
fig befall {of misfortunes); 3. 
fig col pounce {upon), attack. 

odpuB [Abrff, -v] m -a, -ob 

o6pbiB|axb [Abrtvat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, o6opB|axb 
[AbArvat^] perf -y, -eiiib, p 
-aji, -ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, imp 
-H 1. tear off {leaves, etc); 
pluck, pick; 2. break {a wire, 
etc); 3. fig col cut short; 
snub, rebuff. 

o6pflfl [Abr^at, -d] m -a, 
-08 rite, ceremony. 

oScjieAloBaxb [Aps^'l^eda- 
V8t^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiub, p -oBa.T, imp -yft 
inspect, inquire into; exam- 
ine {a patient). 

o6cjiy>KHBaHH|e [Apsluzht- 
van^'iya] n -h, -h 1. service 
{in a restaurant, hotel, etc; 
medical, etc); 2. maintenance, 
servicing {of cars, etc). 

o6cjiyjKHB|axb [Apsluzht- 
vat^l imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
o6cjiy>K|HTb [Apsluzh+t**] perf 
-y o6cjiy>KHmb, p -ilji, imp 
-H 1. serve, attend to; cater 
for; 2. (no perf) operate {ma- 
chine-tools, etc). 

o6cxaH6BK|a [ApstAnofka] / 
-H 1. furniture {in a room, 
etc); 2, conditions, situatioii; 
B ~-e ;ipy>K6bi in an atmos- 
phere of friendship. 

oScxoflxejibcxBlo [ApstAya- 
t^il^stva] n -a, — 1. circum- 
stance {an external condition); 
no ceMeHHbiM ~aM for fami- 
ly / domestic reasons; hh npH 
KaKHX —ax under no circum- 
stances, in no case; 2. ling 
adverb; adverbial modifier 
{of place, time, etc); 
O CMOxpfl no ~aM it depends; 
npH xaKOM cxeHCHHM '-' in 
.such a contingency. 



oScTojflTb [ApstAyat^] im- 
perf -ht: KaK --ht ^eJia? how 
do matters stand?; KaK ~«t 
BauiH Ae^ia? how are you get- 
ting on?; Bce ~ht 6jiarono- 
jiyqHo all is well. 

o6cTpeji [Apstr^el] m -a 
mil firing, fire; shelling. 

o6cTpejiHB|aTb [Apstr'^el^i- 
vat**] imperf -aK), -aeiiib, 
o6cTpejil«Tb [Apstr^i^l^af^] 
perf -HK), -jieuib fire at; shell; 

o6cyfl,HTb see o6cyH<AaTb, 

o6cy)KA|aTb [Apsuzhdat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, o6cyA|HTb 
[Apsud^it^] per/ o6cy>Ky, 06- 
cyAHiiib, p -HJi, imp -h discuss; 
consider {the pros and cons); 
debate {smth). 

oSyejb [obuf'', -v^l / -h 
foot-wear; shoes, boots. 

o6y3AaTb see o6y3flbiBaTb. 

oSyaAbiBJaTb [Abuzdtvat^] 
imperf -aw, -aeiub, odyBAJaTb 
[Abuzdat^] perf -an), -aeuib 
curb, restrain, keep in check. 

oSycjioBHTb see o6yc;i6BJiH- 

o6ycji6BjiHB|aTb [Abuslov- 
Pivat''] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
qSycjiOBlHTb [Abusl6v''it'']jc7er/ 
-JiK), -Huib, p -HJI, imp -b 1. 
stipulate, make a reservation 
for; 2. condition, determine; 
cause, bring about, call 
forth; make for {some develop- 
ment, etc). 

o6y4|aTb [Abuch'^at*'] /mper/ 
-ara, -aeiub, o6yH|HTb [Abu- 
ch^'it^l perf -y, o6yqHmb, p 
-HJi, imp -H teach, instruct, 

o6y4eHH|e [Abuch''en'*iy9] n 

-H instruction, training; Bce- 
66mee o6H3aTejibHoe —e uni- 
versal compulsory education. 

oSyHHTb see o6yqaTb. 

o6x6a [Apkhot, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. round {of a watchman, 
etc); 2. roundabout way; 

3. mil turning movement. 
o6xoA|HTb [ApkhAd^'it'*] f/n^ 

perf o6xo>Ky, o6xoAHUjb, p 
-HJI, imp -H, O0OHJTM [AbAyf^i] 
perf -Ay, -Aeuib, p o6omeji, 
o6oiijJia, imp -ah 1. go / pass 
round, round; mil turn (a 
flank); 2. give a wide berth 
to; 3. make one's round(s) 
{of a doctor, watchman, etc); 

4. spread (all over) (0/ news, 
etc); 5. fig avoid, leave out; 
pass over (a question, ete); 
6. col outspeed. 

o6xoA|MTbCH [ApkhAd^ittsa] 
imperf o6xoHcycb, oSxoAHiiib- 

CR^ p -HACH, -HJiaCb, imp -HCb, 

-Hxecb, o6oH|THCb [AbAyt'^is''] 
perf -Aycb, -AeuibCH, p 060- 
me/iCH, o6oiiijiacb, imp -AHCb, 
-AHxecb 1. treat {smb in a 
specified manner); 2. col cost, 
come {to); 3. manage {with), 
do {with); — HTbCH 6e3 do 

o6iLiHpHlbiH [Apshtrniy] a 
s/i /o6uiHpeH, -a, -0, -bi vast, 
extensive (a/so //g); ~oe 3Ha- 
KOMGTBO numerous acquaint- 

06 me... first element of 
compounds denoting 1. 'com- 
mon', 'single': *o6meropoACK6H 
[6psh'':igarAtjk6y] all-city 
{attr); townspeople's; 2. 'con- 
cerning everybody', 'charac- 
teristic of everybody': o6me- 

— 255 — 


o6H3aTejibHbift [6psh^:iAb^i^za- 
t^il^nty] compulsory for all; 
o6menpH3HaHHbiH [Apsh^'ii^- 
pr'iznaniy] universally re- 

o6me)KHTH|e [Apsh^:i^zhi- 
t^iya] n -h, -h 1. hostel {for 
students, etc); 2. everyday 

06lU,eH3BeCTHlbIH [Apsh^.i- 

izv^esniy] a sh f o6meH3Be- 
CTCH, -a, -0, -bi well-known, 
generally known. 

oSmcHapoAHibiH [Apsh^.inA- 
rddniy] a sh f 06meHap6;ieH, 
-a, -0, -bi public, national 
{property, cause, etc). 

o6meHH|e [Apsh^ien^'iya] n 
-H (social) intercourse; nm- 
Hoe -—e personal conl)act(s). 

o5mecTBeHHHK [Apsh^'.es^t^- 
v^m^k, -g] m -a, -ob pub- 
lic-spirited person; public 

©SmecTBeHHocT'ib [Apsh^:e- 
s^t^v^inas^t^, -z^d^] / -h 
eommunit^y, public; public or- 
ganizations; public opinion. 

o6mecTBeHH|biH [Apsh^:e- 
s^t^v^iniy] a 1. public, social; 
—biH CTpOH social system; 2. 
common {animal husbandry, 

66mecTB|o [6psb'':istv9] n 
-a, -- 1. society {l)a group 
of people; 2) a social system); 
2. econ company. 

66ii;|hh [6psh':iy] a -aa, 
-ee, -He, sh f ^, -a, -e, -h 
1. common {property, inter- 
ests, etc); general {princi- 
ples, crisis, etc); — hh 3HaK6- 
MbiH mutual acquaintance; 


joint efforts; 2. total {sum, 

<> ~ee MecTO commonplace; 
B -~eM on the whole; b ~eH 
cjioJKHOCTM in sum; He Hwexb 
HHHero --ero c... have noth- 
ing in common with...; have 
nothing to do with...; bear 
no resemblance to... 

niy] a sh f o6inHTejieH, -a 
-o, -bi sociable, companiable 

66mHocT|b [6psh^:n9s^t^ 
-z^d'^] / -H community {of in 
teres ts, ownership, etc). 

o6t>... see o... 

oSTjeAHHeHlMbiH [Abyid^i- 
n^onnty] a [pa] sh f ^, 0611- 
eflHHeHa, ofi-bCAHHeHo, 0611- 
eAHHeHbi united {forces, ete); 
amalgamated {organizations); 
joint {command, etc); combin- 
ed {efforts, etc). 

oS-besHHeHHle [Abyid^'in^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. unification 
{the process of); amalgama- 
tion^ merger, joining up; 2. un- 
ion, society. 

o^-bCflHHHTb see oS-beAHHHTb. 

o6T>eAHHHTbC5i see oS-beAH- 


oe-bejiHHlHTb [Abyid^in^at^] 
imperf -hk), -nemb, 06'beflH- 
HJHTb [Abyid^in^it^j perf -10, 
-Hiiib, p -Hji, imp -H unite 
{people, etc); SLxm Igamate {com- 
panies, etc); pool {resources, 
etc); combine {efforts, etc). 

oSTjejiMHlflTbCfl [Abyid^i- 
n^attsa] /mper/ -Hiocb, -nemb- 
CH, oS-bejiHHlHTbCJi [Abyid^i- 
n^'ittja] perf -ibcb. -HiiibCH, p 
-HJiCH, -Hjiacb, imp -HCb, -h- 
xecb unite, join hands {with). 



od-besAHTb see oe-beamaTb 1. 

oS-besjKlaTb [Abyi^zh^:at^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, oSbea- 
fllHTb [Abyez^d^it^] per/ o6b- 
eajKy, -Hiub, /? -hji, o6'bex|aTb 
[Abyekbat^] perf oe-beay, 
oSbeAeiiib, p -aji 1. travel 
(all) over; 2. (o6bexaTb) go 
round, make a detour round. 

oS-beKT [Abyekt, -gd] m -a, 
-OB 1. object (i) philos; 2) of 
study, admiration, etc); 2. 
unit, enterprise; mil objec- 

od-beKTHBHlbiH [Abyi^kt^iv- 
niy] a sh f o6beKTHBeH, -a, 
-o, -u 1. philos objective; 
2. unbiased, objective. 

oe-bCM [Abyom] m -a, -ob 
1. volume {1} math; 2) of out- 
put, etc); 2. fig extent. 

o^-bexaxb see o6be3>KaTb. 

06b51BMTb see 06bHBJIHTb. 

o6i>5iBjieHH|e [Abyi^vl^e- 
n^'iya] n -h, -h 1. declaration 
(the process of);' announce- 
ment, announcing; 2. an- 
nouncement, notice; adver- 

oC-bMBjilHTb [Abyi^vl'^at^l 
imperf -hk), -neiiib, oC-bsiBlHTb 
[Abyi*^v^it^] perf -jiib, o6bH- 
BHuib, p -TAJ], imp -H declare, 
announce; ~^Tb djiaro^ap- 
HocTb thank officially. 

oG-bflCHCHHle [Abyi^s^n^e- 
n^iya] n -h. -h explanation; 
<> ~e B jik)6bh confession of 

06l>SICHHTb see 06bHCHHTb. 

o6-bflCH|flTb [Abyr^s'^n^at''] 
imperf -hk), -nemb, oC-bJic- 
HlHTb [Abyi^s^'n^it^] perf -k>, 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -H explain; 

account for {smb's behaviour, 

o6bHTH|e [Abyat^iya] n -h, 
-H embrace; 6p6cHTbCH ko- 
My-Ji. B ~H throw oneself 
into smb's arms; 

<> C pacnpOCTCpTblMH ~S1MH 

With open arms. 

o6biBaTejiib [Abivat^il^] m 
-H, -eft Philistine (a smugly 
conventional person). 

oSbirparb see oSbirpHBaTb. 

o&birpbiBlaTb [Abtgfivat^ 
imperf -aio, -aemb, odbirpjarb 
[Abigrat^] perf -aio, -aemb 
beat, win a victory over 
[at a game, etc), 

o6biKHOBeHH|e [AbtknAv^e- 
n^iya] n -h: HMexb ~e be 
in the habit {of); no — K) as 
usual; npoTHB -~h contrary 
to one's habit. 

o6biKHOBeHHibiH [AbiknA- 
v^enniy] a sh f o6biKHOBeHeH, 
-a, -0, -bi usual, ordinary, 

66bicK [obtsk, -zg] m -a, 
-OB (forcible) search. 

o6biHalH [Ablch^ay] m -si, 
-CB custom, habit, usual 

cSbWHlbiH [Abtch^niy] a 
sh f o6bneH, -a, -o, -bi usual, 
ordinary, customary. 

o6n3aHHOCT|b [Ab^aza- 

nas^'t*', -z''d*'] / -h, -eft duty, 
responsibility; jie>KaTb hb 

— H Koro-Ji. be smb's duty / re- 
sponsibility; BMCHHTb KOMy-JI. 
B ---b make it smb's duty 
{to do smth); HcnojiHHiomHft 

— H ::cting {for another). 
o6fl3aH|HbiH [Ab^'azannty] 

a sh f -^, -a, -0, -bi obliged; 

— 257 — 



qacaM you must come here 
at 9 a. m.; 6biTb — hum ko- 
My.-Ji. be indebted to smb; 
H MHorHM -- CBoeMy yqHTejiK) 
I owe much to my teacher; 
qyBCTBOBaib ce6H ^-hhm ko- 
My-Ji. . feel obliged / indebted 
to smb. 

o6fl3aTejibHO [Ab^i^zat^il^- 
n9] adv without fail; by all 

o6fl3aTejibH|biH [Ab^i^za- 
t^il^'niy] a sh f o6H3aTejieH, 
-a, -o, -bi 1, obligatory; 
compulsory {education, etc); 
binding;. 2. col conscientious 

o6»3aTejibCTB|o [Ab'^i^za- 
t*'il''stva] n -a, — obligation, 
engagement; commitment {to 
do smth); 6paTb (na ccSh) —a 
undertake obligations; make 

oRec [av'os, -z] m OBca 

OBeu [AV^'ets, -dz] see OBu,a. 

OBjiaAeB|aTb [Avlad^i^vat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, oBjia- 
AJexb [AvlAd^et^] perf -ew, 
-eemb 1. seize, take posses- 
sion (o/); 2. master (ffl sub- 
ject, machinery, etc); become 
an expert {in). 

OBomlH [6v9sh^:i] pi -eft 
{sing oBou; m -a) vegetables. 

OBpar [Avrak, -g] m -a, 
-OB ravine. 

OBca [Afsa] see obcc. 

OBuja [Aftja] / -bi, pi 6b- 
Ubi, OBeu, OBuaM sheep {an 

OBUeBOACTBlo [Aftji^VO- 

tstva] n -a sheep-breeding. 

OBHaplKa [Afch^arka] / -kh, 
-OK sheep-dog; HeMeuKan — Ka 
Alsatian dog. 

orHSlaxb [Ag^ibat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, o6orH|yTb [AbA- 
gnut''] perf -y, -eiub, p -yji, 
imp -H go round, round; 

orjiaB;ieHH|e [AgUvPe- 
n^iya] n -h, -h table of con- 

orjiacHTb see orjiamaxb. 

orjiauijaTb [AglAshat*"] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, orjiac|HTb 
[AglAs^it^] perf orjiauiy, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -M an- 
nounce, read out. 

onfioxHyxb see rJioxHyxb. 

orjiymjaxb [Aglushat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, orjiymlHXb 
[Aglushtt'*] perf -y, -Huib, p 
-HJI, imp -H 1. deafen {smb); 
2. stun {of or with a blow). 

orjisiAexbCH see orjiHAbi- 
BaxbCH 2. 

orjinAbiB|axbCfl [AgPadtva- 
ttsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibcfl, 
orjiMfllexbCJi [Agl^i^d^ettja] 
perf orjiH>Kycb, -HiubCH, p 
-ejic5i,-4Jiacb,/mp-HCb, -Hxpcb, 
GrjiJiH|yxbCJi [Agl^i^nuttsa] 
perf -ycb, orjiHHeiiibCH, p 
-yjicq, -yjiacb, imp -licb, 
vHxecb 1. (orjiHHyxbCH) turn 
back {to look at smth); 2. 
(oFJiHAexbCH) look round / 

<> He ycneji orjiJiHyxbCfl, 
KaK... = before he could 
say Jack Robinson... 

orHeonacH|biH [Agn^'iApas- 
nty] a sh f orneonaceH, -a, 
-o, -bi inflammable {sub- 
stance, etc). 



t^iP] m -H, -eft fire-extin- 

orHfl [Agn^a], orHcfi [aq- 
n^ey] see oroHb. 

oroBapHBjaTb [AgAvar^i- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, oro- 
Bop|MTb [AgavAr'^it^'J perf -k), 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. stip- 
ulate, make a reservation 
for; 2. col slander, speak 
ill of. 

oroBoplKa [AgAvdrka]/ -kh, 
-OK 1. reservation, stipula- 
tion; 2. slip of the tongue. 

oroHb [Agon^] m ofhh, pi 
OFHH, oFHeft I. fire {active 
burning); 2. light (a lamp, 
etc); 3. mil fire; 

«0* H3 OrHfl Ad B nOJlblMSI 

^ out of the frying-pan into 
the fire; npoHTW — h BOAy 
= go through thick and 

oropofl [AgArot, -d] m -a, 
-OB kitchen garden; 
<> KaMeiueK b hch-ji. --^ 
a dig at smb. 

oropHlaTb [AgArch^at^] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, oropM|HTb 
[AgArch^'it^] per^ -y, -Huib, 
p -HJI, imp -H pain, grieve. 

oropMMTb see oropqarb. 

orpaSHTb see rpa6HTb. 

orpaflla [Aflrada] / -bi, — 
fence (round a house, garden, 

crpaHMMeHH|b,iH [AgrAn^i- 
ch'^mnty] a \pa] sh f orpaHH- 
MeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. limited, 
scanty [funds, means, etc); 
2. narrow-minded. 

orpaHHHHB|aTb [AgrAn^'i- 
ch^'ivat*'! imperf: -aio, -aeujb, 

orpaHMq|HTb [AgrAn^ich^'it^] 
perf -y, -Hiub, p -hji, imp 
-b limit, restrict; —axb ce6a 
BO BceM stint oneself in 

orpoMHlbiii [Agromniy] a 
sh f orpoMeH, -a ~-o, -bi 
enormfflus. huge. 

orpbi3|oK [Agrizak, -g] m, 
-Ka, -KOB col bit, end; ~0R 
KapaHAama pencil stump. 

orypjeu, [Agur^'etj, -dz] m 
-ua, -uoB cucumber. 

OAajiKHBJaTb [Adalzhivat^] 
imperf -aw, -aeuib, oaoji- 
jKJMTb [AdAlzhtt^] perf -y, 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -H lend 
{money, etc). 

GAeBJaTb [Ad^i^vat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, ofle|Tb [Ad^ef*] 
perf -Hy, -neuib, p -Ji, imp 
-Kb dress, clothe. 

ojieB{aTbCJi [Ad^'i^vattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 
OAeiTbCJi [Ad^ettja] perf 
-nycb, -neuibCH, p -jich, 
-jiacb, imp -HbCH, -HbTecb 
1. dress (oneself); — axbCH 
BO mo-ji. put smth on; 2, 
{no perf) dress {well, badly 

OAeiKflla [Ad^ezkda] / -bi 
~ clothes; garments; ^6p 
MCHHaH —a uniform. 

ojiepiRaTb see 0Aep>KHBaTb 

o;iep}KHB|aTb [Ad**erzht 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
o;jep>KlaTb [Ad^'i^rzhat^] perf 
-y, oAepJKHUib, p -aji, imp 
-h: 0Aep>KaTb Bepx [no6eAy 
u m. n.] gain the upper 
hand [victory, etc]. 

oAexb see oAesaxb. 

OA^TbCfl see OAeBaibCH 1. 

— 259 — 


ofleflji|o [Ad^i^yab] n -a, 
'- blanket [for covering in 
bed); cieraHoe -~o quilt. 

oflHH [Ad^'in] I num card 
& pron indef m oAHoro, oj\- 
HOMy, — (oAHoro), oahhm, 
(06) OAHOM, oflHa /, oflHo n, 
OAHH pi 1. one {not many); 
o^Ha KHHra one book; o;^- 
HH qacbi one watch, one 
clock; OAHH HOHCHHUbi one 
pair of scissors; 2. a cer- 
tain, a one; one thing; ~- 
MejiOBCK CKasaji mhc, mto... 
one / a man told me that...; 
oflHo BpeMH at one time, at 
some point; time was when. . .; 
3. one (0/ us, etc); -^ h3 hhx 
one of them; 

li as an adjective 1. alone, by 
oneself; h noHAy -~ I'll go 
alone; TbiMOJKeiiib c^ejiaTbSTo 
~? can you do it alone /by 
yourself?; can you do it on 
your own?; 2. the same; mh c 
HHM OAHoro MHeHHH he and I 
are of the same opinion- ~ 
H TOT JKe the same; one and 
the same; 3. only; nothing 
but; OH HbeT oaho mojioko 
he drinks only milk /nothing 
but milk; b KOMHaTe 6biJiH 
OAHH AeTH there were only 
children in the room; 
III as a noun 1. oa h | 6 n 
-oro: 3T0 OAHO h to H<e it 
is the same thing; 2.: oah^ 
3Aecb, ApyrHe TaM some are 
here, others are there; 
<> -- Ha ~ 1) in private, 
privately; 2) face to face 
[in fighting); (see) kuk — 
unanimously; --' sa ApyrHM 
one after another; one after 

the other; oahhm cjiobom in 
one word; to sum it all up; 
in short; no OAHOMy by 
ones, one by one. 

OAHHaKOB|biH [Ad^lnakaviy] 
a sh f ^, -a, -0, -H iden- 
tical; the same. 

OAHMHaAuaxbiH [Ad^inatsa- 
tiy] num ord eleventh. 

0AHHHaAUaT|b [Ad^inatjat^, 
■d''] num card -h, -bio eleven. 

oahh6k|hh [Ad^inok^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He, sh f -^^ -a, -o, 
-H 1. solitary, lonely; 2. un- 
married, single. 

OAHHOHecTBlo [Ad^lnoch^i- 
stva] n -a solitude, loneli- 
ness; oKaaaTbCH b ^e find 
oneself in isolation. 

©AH la [Adna] / -oh, -oh, 
-y, -OH (-OK)), (06) -OH see 


OAHaKAw [Adnazhdi] adv 
once, one day; — yxpoM 
[se^epOM, HoqbK)] one morn- 
ing [evening, night]. 

oAHaKo [AdnakaJ I cj de- 
noting contrast, incongruity 
with the previous statement 
but; still; and yet; 
II parenth however. 

OAHH [Ad^n^i] pi -X, -M, 
~ (-X), -MH, (06) -HX see 


OAHHM [Ad^'n^im] instr ofj 
OAHH & OAHo; see oahh. 

oahIo [Adno] n -oro, -OMy, 
-6 (-oro), -HM, (06) -6m see 


OAHO... first element ofj 
compounds pertaining to the 
numeral 'one': oaho66khh [Ad- 
nAbok^iy] one-sided; oaho- 
KOJieiiHbifi [AdnakApeynty] 


-- 260 

single track {railway); ofl- 
HOCJiojKHbiH [AdnAslozhniy] 
monosyllabic; oAHonojiKxzHbift 
[AdnApoPusnty] unipolar. 

oflHoro [AdnAvo] gen & ace 
of OAHH & OAHo; see oahh. 

oflHOM [Adnom] pr of oahh 
& oAHo; see oahh. 

oAHOMy [AdnAmu] dat of 
OAHH & OAHo; see oahh. 

OAHOo6pa3HiwH [AdttAAbraz- 
niy] a sh f OAHoo6pa3eH, 
-a, -o, -bi monotonous {with- 
out variety), 

oAHop6AH|biH [AdnArodniy] 
a sh f OAHopoAen, -a, -o, -bi 
1. homogeneous, uniform; 2. 

oahoctop6hh|hh [AdnastA- 
ron^n^iy] a sh f OAHocTopo- 
HeH, -H, -e, -H one-sided 
{also fig); unilateral. 

GAodpHTb see oAo6pHTb,, 

OAo6p|aTb [AdAbr^at^] itn- 
perf -HK), -Heuib, OA66p|HTb 
[Adobr^it^] perf -lo, -nmb, p 
-HA, imp -H approve, endorse; 
approve of. 

OAOJieBlaxb [Adal^i^vat^] 
imperf -aw, -aemb, OAOtiieTb 
[AdAl^'et**] perf -eio, -eeuib 
li overpower, overcome 
{one's enemy); 2. fig col 
cope with {a book, work, 
etc); 3. fig overcome {ojf 
fear, etc). 

oAOJi>KeHH|e [AdAlzhen^iya] 
n -H, -H favour (a kind, 
obliging, or generous act). 

oAOjijKHTb see OAaA>KH- 


oAyeaHHHK [Aduvan^ch^'ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob dandelion. 
OAbiUiK|a [Adishkd] / -h 

short breath / wind; cxpaAaxb 
— OH be short-winded. 

0}KHB|aTb [Azhivat''] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuib, 0}KH|Tb 
[Azht't^] perf -By, -Bcuib, p 
omnJi, -Jia, 6>khjio, imp -bh 
come back to life, revive. 

0}KHAaHH|e [Azhtdan'^iya] 
n -H, pi -H, -H 1. waiting; 

2. expectation, anticipation; 

3. pi expectations; oCManyrb 
MbH-Ji. — H disappoint smb. 

OKHUJaTb [Azhtdat**] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuib I, wait for; 
2. expect, anticipate; 3.: mo 
Hac -^aei? what is in store 
for us? 

O^KHTb see 0>KHBaTb. 

OKor [Azhok, -g] m -a, -ob 
burn {an injury). 

03a66MeHH|uH [AZAboch^m- 
niy] a [pa] sh f 03a66MeH, 
-a, -o, -bi preoccupied {with 
one's thoughts); worried, anx- 

osarjiaBHTb see oaarAaBJiH- 

oaarjiaBjiHBlaTb [AZAglav- 
l^'ivat''] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
osarjiaBlHTb [AZAglav^it''] 
perf -AK), -Hmb, p -ha, imp 
-h entitle {a book, etc). 

03aAaHHB|aTb [AZAdach^'i- 
V9t^] imperf -ara, -aeuib, oaa- 
AaMiHTb [AZAdach''it^] perf -y, 
-Huib, p -HA, imp -b puzzle, 

osejieHHTb see oaeAeHHTb. 

03ejieH|«Tb [Az^il^i^n^'at*'] 
imperf -hk3, -neuib, oseAC- 
H|HTb [Az^il^'i^n^'it^] perf -k>, 
-Huib, p -HA, imp -H plant 
trees and shrubs {in a townt 
street, etc). 

— 261 


63eplo [oz^ira] n -a, pi 
osepa, oaep, oaepaM lake. 

oauMJbie [Az^imiya] pi -bix 

o3Jio6jieHH|e [AzUbl^e- 

n'iya] n -a bitterness, ani- 

osHaMeHJOBaTb [Aznam^i- 
HAvat^] perf -yio, -yeiiib, p 
-OBaji, imp -yfi mark (a holi- 
day, etc, with new successes, 

osHawiaTb [AznAch^at''] im- 
perf -aex mean, signify, de- 

03h66 [Aznop, -b] m -a 
chill, fit of shivering. 

03fl6HyTb see 3H6HyTb. 

0Ka3aTb see oKasbiBaxb. 

OKasdrbcsi see OKasbieaTbCH. 

OKasbiBJarb -fAkaztvat*"] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, 0Ka|3aTb 
[AkAzat^] perf -}Ky, OKancemb, 
p -3aji, imp ->kh; —- axb co- 
flCHCTBHe render assistance; 
OKasaxb ycjiyry do a service; 
oKasaxb npcAnoMxeHHe give 
preference to; — axb conpo- 
THBJieHHe put up resistance; 
OKasaxb Hecxb do an honour. 

0Ka3biB|aTbCJi [Akaztvattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiiibCH, oKa]- 
saxbcii [AkAzattsa] perf 
-}Kycb, OKajKeiubCH^ p -sajicn, 
-sajiacb, imp -H<HCb, -»Hxecb 
1. find oneself {in some place 
or condition); 2. turn out, 
prove (to be), be found 
(that...); —aexcH, qxo... it 
appears that... 

0KaHHHB| axb [Akan^ch^'i- 
vat**] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
OKOHHiHTb [Akon^ch^it^] perf 
-y, -Huib, p -H.n, imp -H fin- 

ish, end; be through with; 


cHiex] graduate from an 
institute [a university]. 

oKaHMUBlaxbcn [Akan^ch'i- 
vattsa] imperf -aexcH, okom- 
HH;xbCJi [Akon^ch^ittsa] perf 
-XCH, p -JiCH, -.lacb end, fin- 
ish; terminate, be over. 

OKeaH [Ak^'i^an] m -a, -ob 

OKKynHp|oBaxb [Akup^fra- 
vat^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiub, p -oeaji, imp -yft oc- 
cupy (a country, etc). 

OKJiafl[Aklat, -d] m -a, -ob 
pay, (rate of) salary. 

oKjieHBJaTb [AkPeivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, oKjielHib 
[Akl^eit^] perf -k), -Huib paste 
over {with); -—axb KOMHaxy 
o66hmh paper a room, 

OKHJo [Akno] n -a, p/ oKHa, 
OKOH, oKHaM window. 

OKOJio [okala] I adv near, 
near by; 

II prep with gen denoting 
1. proximity, nearness near, 
close to; ^ AOMa near the 
house, close to the house; oh 
6hiJi —- MeHH he wasnear me; 
he was beside me; 2. approx- 
imateness of an amount 
about; '— cxa KHJiOMexpoB 
about a hundred kilometres. 

OKOH [okan] see okho. 

oKOHHaHHle [AkAn^ch^a- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. finishing, 
termination; no ~h yHHsep- 
CHxexa on graduating from 
the university; 2. end {of a 
book, etcj; 3. ling ending. 

OKOHHaTejIbH|UH [AkAn^- 

ch^'at^il'niy] a sh f OKOHna- 


262 — 

TCJieH, -a, -o, -u final, con- 


oKon [Akop, -b] m -a. -ob 
mil trench, entrenchment, 

OKopoK [okarak, -g] m -a, 
pi -a, -OB ham, gammon. 

OKoneHeTb 566 KoneHeTb. 

OKpaHH|a [Akraina] / -bi, 
~ outskirts {of a city, 6ic); 
outlying districts {of a coun- 

OKpaCHTb 566 KpaCHTb 1. 

OKpaclKa [Akraska] / -kh, 
-OK 1. painting (0/ a roof, 
6tc); 2. coloration, colour, 

0Kp6nH|yTb [Akr^epnut^] 
perf -y, -euib, p OKpen, ok- 
penjia, imp -h, KpenlHyxb 
[kr^epnut^] /mper/ -ny, -He lub, 
p ~, -jia, imp -HH become 
strong {also fig). 

OKpecTHOCT|b [Akr^'esnas^t'', 
-z^d^] / -H, -eft environs, 

OKpyr [okruk, -g] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB region, district {a 
territorial divi5ion for admin- 
istrative or other purposes). 

OKpy»jaTb [Akruzhat**] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, OKpym|MTb 
[Akruzhlt^] perf -y, -Hmb, p 
-HJi, imp -H 1. surround, 
enclose; hedge in; 2. mil 
surround, encircle; 3. {no 
perf)'. ero ~ajiH HHiepecHbie 
jiioAH he was among inter- 
esting people. 

OKpy}KeHH|e [Akruzhen^'iya] 
n -H 1. encirclement; 2. en- 
vironment, surroundings. 

OKpyjKHTb see oKpyjKaxb 
1, 2. 

OKpyjKHOCT 1 b [ Akruzhnas^'t^ , 
-z^d^l / -H, -eft circumfer- 
ence; Ha ;;Ba KHJiOMerpa b 
— H within a radius of two 

0KTH6p|b [Akt^abr^l m -a 

6KyH|b [okun'^l m -h, pt 
-H, -eft perch {a fish). 

OKyploK [Akurak, -g] m -Ka, 
-KOB (cigarette) end, (cigar-) 

ojienlb [Apen^] m -h, -eft 

ojioBJo [olava] n -a tin {a 

OH [on] pron pers sing 3rd 
person m ero, eiviy, ero, hm, 
(o) HCM {after a prep Hero, ne- 
My. Hero, hhm), ohe /, oho n, 
OHM pi: «rAe BopHC?» «0h 
66jiph». "Where's Boris?" "He 
is ill"; «rfle CTyji?» «0h b ko- 
pHA6pe». "Where's the chair?" 
"It is in the corridor"; «r;te 
Bhktop?» «Er6 hct ji6Ma». 
"Where's Victor?" "He isn't 
in"; «rfle Be;ip6?» «Er6 B3a- 
Jia 3HHa». "Where's the buck- 
et?" "Zina took it"; r^e 
HsaH?, qxo c hhm? where's 
Ivan? what's the matter 
with him?; npHCMHHK He pa- 
66TaeT; hto th c^eJiaji c hhm? 
the radio doesn't work, what 
l;ave you done with it?; «rAe 
AHHa?» «OHa 6ojibHa». 
"Where's Anna?" "She is ill"; 
«rAe KHHra?» «OHa na noJi- 
Ke». "Where's the book?" "It 
is on the shelf"; «rjxe HHHa?» 
«Ee HCT AOMa». "Where's Ni- 

263 — 

na?" "She isn't in"; r^e khh- 
ra?; ee HHrAe Hex where's the 
book? it is not to be found 
anywhere; r^e Jlena?, mto 
c Heft? Where's Lena? what's 
the matter with her?; pyMKa 
He nHuieT; mo tli CAejiaJi 
c HeS? the pen doesn't write, 
what have you done with 
it?; npHHecH Be;ip6, oho na 
KyxHe fetch the bucket, it 
is in the kitchen; jxau euy 
CTanaH boaw give him a glass 
of water; 3to Ay6, eMy cxo 
jiei this is an oak, it is one 
hundred years old; sto QAe- 
jiaHo HM it is done by him; 
3T0T K;iy6 nocTpoen kojixos- 


the club has been built by 
the collective farmers, and 
they are proud of it; Bhktop 
He 66jieH, He CecnoKOHcn o 
HCM Victor is not ill don't 
worry about him; a^h efi 
cxaKaH BOAbi give her a glass 
of water; sxo apcbhhh py- 
KOHHCb, eft ABe xbiCHUH Jiex 
this is an ancient manuscript, 
it is two thousand years old; 
3X0 HanHcano eio it is writ- 
ten by her; noesAKa 6biJia 


BOJien eio the trip was very 
interesting and he is pleased 
with it; OHH b xoft KOMHaxe 
they are in that room; qxo 
c HHMH? what's the matter 
with them?; hm CKaaajiH, 
qxo... they were told that...; 
qxo xu 3Haemb o hhx? what 
do you know about them? 

ona [Ana] pron / ee, eft, 
ee, eft (eio), (o) neft {after 

a prep nee, neu, nee, hch) 
see OH. 

OHH [An^f] pron pi hx, hm, 
HX, HMH, (o) HHX {after a 

prep HHX, HHM, HHX, HHMh) 

see OH. 

OHO [Ano] pron n ero. eMy, 
ero, HM, (o) HeM {after a prep 
Herd, HeMy, nero, hhm) see 


OOH [o-6n] abbrev (/) 
(OppaHHaauHH OSTjeAHHenHbix 
HauHft) UNO (United Nations 

ona3AbiB|aTb [Apazdtvat^] 
imperf -aio, -aenib, ono3- 
AJaxb [ApAzdat^] perf -aio, 
-aemb be late; be overdue; 
onosA^Tb Ha noesA [b uiKOJiy 
u m. n.] be late for the train 
[for school,, etc]. 

onac|atbCji [ApAsattsa] //n- 
perf -aiocb, -aenibCH flar, be 
apprehensive {of). 

onaceHH|e [ApAS^en^iya] n 
-fl, -ft fear, misgiving; bm- 
sbiBaxb ^-H excite apprehen- 

onacHOCT|b [Apasnas^t^, 
-z^d^] / -H, -eft danger, per- 
il; noABepraxb -~h expose 
to danger; endanger, jeopard- 

onacHJbiH [Apasntyj.a sh f/ 
onacen, -a, -o, -bi dangerous, 

onepja [op^ira] / -u, ^ 

onepaxHBHlbiH [Ap^irAt^fv- 
niy] a sh f onepaxiiBeH, -a, 
0, -bi 1. operative, effective, 
efficient; 2. nied surgicalj 
3. mil strategical; opera- 
tion(s) {attr). 


— 264 — 

onepduH|ji [Ap^l®ratsty9] / 
-H, -ft operation {surgical, 
military, financial, etc). 

onepejiHTb see onepe>KaTb. 

onepe)K|aTb [Ap^ir^i^zHat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, onepe- 
fl|HTb [Ap^ir^i^d*"!!**] perf one- 
pe5Ky, -Huib, p -HJi, imp -h 
1. pass / get ahead {of), 
outstrip; 2. forestall, antici- 

onepexTla [Ap^i^r^6t9] / -bi, 
~ musical comedy. 

onepexbcji see onHpajbCH. 

onepHp|oBaTb [Ap^i^r^ira- 
vat''] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiiib, p -OBaji, imp -yft op- 
erate {1} on a patient', 2) with 
facts, etc). 

oneHaxlKa [Ap''i^ch*'5tka] / 
-KH, -OK misprint. 

oniijilKH [Ap^'ilk^i] pi -OK 

onHp|aTbCfl [Ap^irattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibcn, one- 
plexbCJi [Ap^'i^r^'ettsa] perf 
o6onpycb, o6onpeuibCH, p 
onepCH, -Jiacb (onepjiacb), 
-jiocb (on&pjiocb), -jiHCb (on^p- 
jiHCb), imp oConpHCb, o6o- 
npHxecb lean {upon), rest 
{upon) {also fig). 

onHcaHH|e [Ap^isan^iya] n 
-H, -ft description {of a fact, 
phenomenon, etc); account {of 
a trip, etc). 

onHcaxb see onftcbiaaxb. 

onHCbiBJaxb [Ap^isivat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, onMc|dxb 
[Ap'^is^f'l perf ooHUiy, onft- 
meuib, p -aji, imp onHuiri 1. 
describe, depict; 2. make an 

6nuc|b [op^'is*', -z^] f -h, 

-eft list, catalogue, schedule; 
inventory {of books, etc). 

onjiaxja [Aplata] / -bi pay- 
ment, remuneration; noAen- 
HaH ^a pay by the day; 
cAejibHan ^a payment by the 

onjiaxHXb see onjiaqHBaxb, 

onjiaHHB|axb [Aplach^ivat**] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, onjiajxHxb 
[ApUt^it''] perf -qy, onjia- 
xHuib, p -XHJi, /mp -xrf repay, 
pay {for goods services)', 
~axb pacxoAbi meet the 

onji6uiHocx|b [Aplosh- 

nas^t^, -z^'d''] / -h, -eft mis- 
take, blunder {caused by over- 
sight or negligence). 

onoBeii;|dxb [Apav^'i*- 

sh'^'.at^] imperf -aio, -^euib, 
onoBecx|Hxb [Apav'^i^s^'t^it*'] 
perf onosemy, -riuib, p -hji, 
imp -H notify, inform. 

ono3flaHH|e [ApAzdan^iya] 
n -H, -ft being late; delay, 
retardation; 6e3 --h in time; 
c —CM Ha nojiqac^ half an 
hour late. 

onosfldxb see onasAbieaxb. 

on6MH|HXbC5i [Apomn^ittsa] 
perf -KDCb, -Huibca, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 1. 
come to one's senses; 2. think 
better of it; come to one's 

onopja [Ap6ra]/ -m, ^ sup- 
port {a person or thing that 

^ xoHKa '-bi fulcrum; Hafi- 
XII xowKy ~'bi gain a foot- 

onno3HuH|fl [ApAz^'itsiya]/ 
-H, -ft pol opposition." 

— 265 — 


onnoHeHT [ApAn^ent, -d] 
m -a, -OB opponent {in a 
debate, etc). 

onnopryHHSM [Apsrtu- 

n^izm] m -a opportunism 
{the policy of adapting work- 
ing class interests to the inter- 
ests of the bourgeoisie). 

onpaBJa [Aprava] / -bi, — 
setting, mounting, casing; 
rim {of spectacles, etc). 

onpaBAaHH|e [AprAvda- 
n^'iya] n -a, -h 1. justifica- 
tion; 3T0 He --e tiiat is no 
excuse; 2. law acquittal. 

onpaB;iaTb see onpaeAbi- 

onpaBAaTbCH see onpaB;;bi- 

onpaBAUBJaTb [Apravdt- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, on- 
paBA|aTb [AprAvdat^] perf 
-aio, -aeuib 1. justify; war- 
rant; —axb ce6H 1) justify 
oneself; 2) prove its value 
{of a new method, etc); pay 
(for itself); 2. law acquit, 

onpaBAbiB|aTbC5i [Apravdi- 
vattsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 
CH, ^npaBA|aTbcj! [ApfAvda- 
ttsa] perf -awcb, -aeiubCH 
iT justify oneself; ~aTbCH 
nepcA KCM-ji. set oneself 
right with smb; 2. come true, 
realize {of hopes, etc); prove 
to be correct. 

onpeflCJieHHle [Apr^'id^'i®- 
Pen^iya] n -h, -h 1. deter- 
mination, determining; defi- 
nition, defining, 2. ling at- 
tribute, modifier. 

onpeAejieHHJbiH [Apr^id**!^- 
l^onniy] a {pd\ sh f onpe^e- 
jieneH, -a, -o, -u 1. definite 

{answer^ meaning, etc); 2. cer- 
tain {unspecified). 

onpej;ejiHTb see onpeAe-nnxb. 

onpe;ieji|«Tb [Apr^id^i^- 
l^at^] impe-rf -hk), -neiiib, 
onpeAejilHTb [Apr^id^i^Pit^j 
perf -K), -Hiiib, p -HJi, imp 
-H 1. define; determine; 2. de- 
termine, fix (precisely). 

onpoBepr|aTb [Aprav^i^r- 
gat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, on- 
poBeprHJyTb [AprAv^ergnut^] 
perf -y, -eiub, p onpoeepr 
(-y/i), imp -a refute, disprove 

onpoBep}KeHH|e [Aprav^'i^r 
zhen^iya] n -a, -h refutation 

OnpOKHAblBJaTb [AprAk-1 
dWat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib 
onpoKHH|yTb [AprAk^'inut'' 
perf -y, -eiiib, p -yji, imp -i 

1. overturn, upset, tip over 

2. fig upset, frustrate. 
onpOMeTMHBJbiJi [AprA 

m^'et^ch^iviy] a sh f — , -a 
-0, -bi rash, hasty. 

onpoc [Apros, -z] m -a, -ob 
interrogatory, inquest, refer- 
endum; poll {to find out the 
opinion of the population). 

onpflTHJbiH [Apr^atniy] a 
sh f onpflxeii, -a, -o, -bi neat, 

onxoM [optam] adv whole- 

onySjiHKOBaxb see ny6jiHK0- 

onycKiaxb tApuskat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, onycx|MXb 
[Apus^f'it''] per/onymy, ony- 
cxHUJb, p -HJI, imp -H I. low- 
er, put down; drop {one's 
eyes, a coin in the slot, etc); 
onycxHXb rojiosy hang one's 


— 266 — 

head; 2.: onycTHTb nHCbMo 

post a letter; 3. omit, leave 


<> onycTHTb pyKH ^ lose 


onycK|aTbCfl [Apuskattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiiibCH, ony- 
cxlHTbCM [Apus^t^ittse] perf 
onymycb, onyCTHiiibCH, p 
-HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb 1. lower, sink, go 
down; 2. fig degenerate, de- 
teriorate [morally). 

onycTHTb see onyeKaxb. 

onycTHTbCH see onycKaTbCH. 

onycTouijaTb [ApustAshat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, onycTO- 
iii|HTb [ApustAshtt^] perf -y, 
-HiiJb, p -HJi, imp -H devas- 
tate, ravage, lay waste. 

onyxjaTb [Apukhaf*] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, onyxH|yTb 
[Apukhnut^] perf -y, -eiiib, p 
onyx, onyxjia, imp -h swell 
{of a part of the body). 

6nyxoji|b [opukhai^] / -h, 
-efi swelling, tumour. 

onwT [opU, -d] m -a, -ob 
1. experience, knowledge, 
prpficiency; mchtchckhh — 
knowledge of life.; oSmch --^om 
sharing of knowledge [expe- 
rience]'; nepcHHMaTb neft-ji. ^ 
adopt smb's methods; 2. ex- 
periment, test. 

6nbiTH{biH [opttniy] a sh f 
onbiieH, -a, -o, -bi 1. expe- 
rienced; 2. experimental. 

onbsiHeTb see nbHHexb. 

onflTb [Ap*'at^, -d*'l adv 
again, once more. 

opaHjKeBbiH [Aranzhaviy] a 
orange {colour). 

opaHiKepe|si [Ardnzhi^r^eya] 

/ -H, -H hothouse, conserva- 

opaTop [Aratar] m -a, -ob 
orator, speaker. 

opraH [organ] m -a, -ob 1. 
organ {1} of perception, di- 
gestion, etc; 2) a newspaper^ 
magazine); 2. body, agency 
{of government, legislation, 
etc); cjieACTBeHUbie ~bi inves- 
tigating authorities. 

opraHHsaxop [Argan^izatar] 
m -a, -ob organizer. 

opraHHaauHifl [Argan^iza- 
tstya] / -H, -ft 1. organizing, 
organization; 2. organization 
(a public, political, or gov- 
ernment body- or its struc- 
ture); OpraHH3au,HH 06i>eAH- 
HCHHbix HauHH (OOH) the 
United Nations Organization 

opraHH3M [ArgAn^izm] m 
-a, -OB organism. 

opraHH3|oBaTb [Argan^'izA- 
vat**] perjf & imperf yio, 
-yeuib, p -oBaJi, imp -yS or- 
ganize; arrange (a meeting, 

6pj?eH [ord^'m] m -a, pi -a, 
-OB order {a decoration); — ' 
«3HaK noMeTa» the Badge of 

opfleHOHGc|eu [Ard^'mAno- 
s^its, -dz] m-ua,-u,eB person 
decorated with an order 

opeji [Ar^ol] m opjia, pi 
opjibi, opjioB eagle. 

opex [Ar^'ekh, -gh] m -a, 
-OB nut; nut-tree. 

opHrHHajibH|biH [Ar^ig**!- 
nal^'niy] a sh f opHrHHajien, 
-a, -o, -hi 1. original, genu- 

— 267 


ine, authentic; 2. new, novel, 
original, unortiiodox. 

Oi HeHTHp|OBaTbCSI [Ar**i- 

yi^nt^iravattja] perf & imperf 
-yKDGb, -yeiubCH, p -OBajicn, 
-OBajiacb, imp -yficH, -yHiecb 
Grient(ate) oneself; — osaTbCH 
Ha MecTHocTH find one's 
bearings; —oBaTbCH Ha... 
be guided by..., pattern 
one's beJiaviour [policy] on... 

opKecTp [Ark^estr] m -a, 
-OB orchestra {1) a group of 
musicians; 2) instruments). 

opjia [Aria], opjioe [Arlof, 
-v] see opeji. 

opocHTb see opomaxb. 

opouilaTi. [ArAshat^] imperf 
•aio, -aeujb, opOGlHTb [afa- 
B^it^] perf opomy, -i5mb, p 
•HJi, imp -H water, irrigate. 

opyAHJe [Arud^'iya] n -h, 
■H 1. instrument, implement, 
tool; 2. fig instrument, tool; 
3. mil gun, piece of ord- 

opyiKH|e [Aruzhiya] n -h 1. 
arm, weapon; arms; weapons; 
or-HecTpejibHoe ~e fire- 
-arm(s); 2. fig weapon; 
-^ SpJiuaTb —CM rattle the 

op(J)orpa(j)H|5i [ArfAgraf'iya] 
/ -H orthography, spelling. 

oca [Asa] / ocbi, pi ocu, 
oc, ocaM wasp. 

ocaAJa [Asada] / -u siege 
{of a fortress, etc). 

ocaAHTb see oca^^axb. 

ocaAJOK [Asadak, -g] m -Ka, 
pi -KH, -KOB 1. sediment, 
deposit; 2. fig feeling of re- 
sentment; 3. pi precipitation 

aKTHBHbie ~KH Fadioactivtt 

ocawAlaTb [ASAzhdat^'l im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, ocaA HTb 
[ASAd^it*'] perf ocaJKy, -Huib, 
p -HJI, imp -H 1. lay siege 
to, besiege; 2. fig col beset, 

ocaHK|a [Asanka] / -h car- 
riage, bearing. 

ocBaHBJaTb [Asvaivat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, ocBOlUTb 
[Asvoit^] perf -k), -Huib, p 
-HJi, imp -H 1. master (a sub- 
ject, machinery, etc); become 
an expert in; ~aTb npoH3- 
BOACTBo Hero-ji. organize pro- 
duction of smth; 2.: ^axb 
uejiHHHbie 3eMJiH bring hew 
lands under the plough. 

ocBaHB|aTbcsi [Asvaivattsa] 
imperf -aK)Cb, -aeuibCH, 
ocBolHXbCH [Asvoittsa] perf 

-K)Ct>, -HIHbCH, p -h:)1CH, 

-Hjiacb imp -HCH, -Hxecb get 
familiar with {one's work, 
surroundings, etc); oh y>Ke 
ocBOHjiCH he feels quite at 
ocBeAOMHTbCfl see ocbcaom- 


ocBeAOMJilflxbCfl [as^v'*!- 
dAmPattsa] imperf -niocb, 
-HeuibCH, ocBeflOM|HTbCfl [as^- 
v^edam^ittja] perf -juocb, 
-HUibCH, p -HJicH, -HJiacb in- 
quire, make inquires (about). 

ocBexHTb see ocBeu;axb. 


imperf -aio. 




X|HXb [as** 

Bemy, -HUib 
light up, 

v'^in^it^] perf 
p -HJi, imp 


{rainfall or snowfall); paAHo- [fig elucidate, throw light on 


— 268 

ocBeiu,eHHte [As^v^i^sh^.e- 
n^iya] n -h 1. light, light- 
•ing, illCimination; 2. fig elu- 
cidation, interpretation. 

0CB060AMTejIbHbiH [AsvabA- 

d^it^iPniy] a liberation {move- 
ment, war, etc). 

ocBo6oAHTb see ocbo6ohc- 

ocBo6ox(A|aTb [AsvabAzh- 
d^t^] imperf -aio, -5eiiib, 
ocBo6oA|HTb [AsVabAd^it'^i 
perf ocBodoJKy, -i^iiib, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. liberate; emanci- 
pate; set free; 2. free {from 
taxation, obligation, etc); 
excuse {from classes, etc); 
exempt; 3.: —axb kofo-ji. ot 
saHHMaeMOH aojijkhocth re- 
lieve smb of his post; ocbo- 
6oAHTb OT o6H3aHHocTeH re- 
lease from duties; 4.: —axb 
noMemeHHe vacate the prem- 

^ --eHHbiH ccKperapb napi- 
opraHHsauHH [npo({)coK)3HbiH 
padoTHHK. u in. d.] full-time 
secretary of a party organi- 
zation [trade'union official, 

ocBOHTb see ocBaHsaTb. 


oceji [as^oI] m ocjia, pi 
ocjib'i, ocjioB donkey, ass. 

oceHHHH [As^en*'n''iy] a 

6ceH|b'[6s^m''] / -h autumn; 
US fall. 

oceHbK) [6s^m'*yu] adv in 

oceTp [As^otr] m ocerpa, 
ocexpoB sturgeon {a fish). 

oceTpAHla [As''i^tr''ina] / 
•u sturgeon {the [les'h of). 

ocHH|a [As^'ina] / -bi, ^ 
asp, aspen. 

ocHHOBbiH [As^in9vty] a 

<> flpOKaXb KaK ~ JIHCT 

tremble like an aspen leaf. 
ocKOJiloK [Askolak, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB splinter, frag- 

OCKOp^MTb see 0CK0p6jIHTb. 

0CK0p6jiiaTb [AskArbl^at*"] 
imperf -hio, -^euib, ocKop- 
6|HTb [AskArb^if*] perf -jiib, 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -H insult, 

ocjia [Aslal, OCJIOB [Aslof, 
-v] see oceji. 

GCJia6eB[aTb [Asbb^'i^vat^I 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, ocjia- 
djexb [AsUb^et*'] perf -^lo, 
-eemb 1. weaken, grow weak/ 
feeble; 2. slacken, relax {of 
attention, strain, etc). 

ocjia66xb see ocJiadeBaxb & 

ocjia6HXb see ocJia6jiHXb. 

ocjia6ji|«xb [AslAblMt^] im- 
perf -HK), -HeiUb, 0CJia6|HXb 

[Aslab'^it*'] perf -jiio, -Hiiib, 
p -HJI, imp -b 1. weaken; 
2. relax {one's attention, ef- 
forts, muscles, etc). 

ocjienHxejibH|biH [As^'l^i^- 
p^it^'il^'nty] a sh f ocjienn- 
xejiCH, -a, -o, -bi blinding; 
dazzling {also fig). 

ocjienHTb see ocjienjiHXb. 

ocjienji|«xb (As^l^'i^pl^at**] 
imperf -^lo, -neuib, ocjie- 
n|Mxb [AS^l^'i'^p^'it''] perf -jiib, 
-Huib, p -Yin, imp -H I. blind, 
make blind; 2. dazzle (also 

ocjienHyxb see cjiennyxb. 

269 ~ 


ocjiojKHeHHJe [AslAzhn^e- 
n'^iya] n -h, -h 1. complica- 
tion (stnth that makes things 
more difficult, etc); 2. com- 
plication, after-effect {of a 

ocMaTpHB|aTb lAsmatr^i- 
vaf*] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
ocMOTpjexb [AsmAtr^et^] perf 
-K), ocMOTpHiub, p -eJi, imp 
-H examine, view, survey; 
see {an exhibition, etc); in- 
spect {a building, luggage, 
etc); do {a city). 

0CMejiHB|aTbCfl [As^m'^el^i- 
V9ttj9] imperf -aiocb, -aeiub- 
CH, ocMejilHTbCM [As'^m^cl'^i- 

ttjS] perf -K)Cb, -HlUbCH, p 
-HJIC5I, -HJiaCb, imp -bCH, 

-bxecb dare {do smth); take 
the liberty {of saying, etc), 
venture {a remark, etc). 

ocMOTpeTb see ocMaxpHBaTb. 

ocHoela [Asnova] / -bi, pi 
-bi, '-' 1. base, basis, foun- 
dation; npHHHTb 3a —y as- 
sume as a basis; 3ajio:»cHTb 
~y lay (down) the founda- 
tions; 2. pi principles, funda- 
mentals; 3. ling stem. 

ocHOBaHH|e [AsnAvan^iya] n 
-H, -H 1. foundation {the pro- 
cess of); 2. foundation, base 
{of a wall, building, etc); 
foot {of a mountain); 3. 
grounds, reason; 6biTb jih- 
lueHHbiM BCHKoro ~H be abso- 
lutely unfounded; c noji- 
HbiM --eM with good reason, 

ocHOBarejibHlbiH [AsnAva- 
t^'il'^nty] a sh f ocHOBaiejieH, 
-a, -o, -bi 1. well-grounded; 
2. solid, sound, thorough. 

ocHoeaTb see ocHosuBaTb. 

ochobh|6h [AsnAvnqy] a 
fundamental, basic, princi- 
pal; — an Macca khhf the 
bulk of the books; 
O B ~6m on the whole in 
_ the main. 

i ocHOBbiBlaTb [Asn6viv9t^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, och|o- 
Barb [AsnAvat^] perf -yib, 
-yeuib, p -OBaji 1. found 
{a city, etc); 2. base {research, 
etc, on smth); sto hh na mcm 
He ocHOBaHO it is unfounded. 

oc66eHHO [Asob^inna] adv 
1. especially, particularly; 2. 
unusually, more than, usual; 
<> He — not very (much). 

oc66eHHOCTib [Asob^mas'^t^, 
-z^d''] / -H, -eft peculiarity, 

<> B — H especially, in par- 

ocoCeHHJbiH [Asob^'mnty] a 
sh f {no m), -a, -o, -u parti- 
cular, special; peculiar {man- 
ner, etc); 

<> HHHero —ore nothing in 
particular, nothing much. 

oc66[uH [Asobiy] a special, 
specific, peculiar, particu- 
lar; —oe MHeHHe dissenting 

6cn|a [ospa] / -u smallpox; 
BCTpHHan —a chicken-pox. 

ocnapHB|aTb [AsparMvot^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiijb, ocno- 
pJHTb [Aspor^it''] perf -k), 
-Hijjb, p -HJi, imp -b 1. dis- 
pute {a matter, rights, etc); 
call in question; 2. {no perf) 
contend, contest. 

ocTa|BaTbCfl [AstAvattga] 
imperf -ibcb, -eiubCH, p -Baji- 
CH, -Bajiacb, into -BaHCH.-Bafl- 


270 — 

Tecb, ocT|aTbCfl [Astattsa] 
perf -anycb, -aHeuibCH, p 
-ajicH, -ajiacb, imp -anbCH, 
-aHbjecb 1. remain, stay; 2. 
be left {of a certain amount, 
etc); y nac ociaJiocb naib 
MHHyT we have five minutes 
to go; H^TH ocrdjiocb He- 
MHoro there is only a little 
way to go; 3.: no6eAa ocxa- 
jiacb 3a HaMH the victory was 
ours; 3a hhm ocxajiocb AccHib 
py6jieH he owes me ten rou- 

<> ocraTbCji HH c hcm suffer 
a fiasco; He ocTaeTCJi HMHero 
jipyroro, KaK... nothing else 
is left but... 

ccraEHTb see ociaBJiHib. 

ocTaBjil«Tb [AstAvl^at''] im- 
perf -HK), -^eiiib, ocTaelHTb 
[Astav^it^] perf -jiio, -Huib, 
p -HJi, imp -h \. leave {delib- 
erately or through careless- 
ness)', 2. reserve, keep {for 
future use)', 3. abandon, for- 

<> ~«Tb B noKoe leave 
alone; KaMHji na KaMHe ne 
ocxaBHTb leave no stone 

ocxajibHloH [AstAl^'noy] I a 
the rest of; ~6e BpeMH the 
rest of the time; ^-b'le ahh 
the rest of the days; 
II as a noun 1. o c t a Ji b- 
HJbie pi -b'lx the others, the 
re?t; 2. ocTajibHJoe n -oro 
the rest; Bce •~-6e every- 
thing else; b ~6m in other 

ocTaHaBJiHB|aTb [AstAnav- 
l^ivat''] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
ocTaHOBJMTb [AstanAv^it''] 

perf -jiK), ocTaHoBHiiib, p -hji, 
imp -H stop, bring to a stop; 
—-axb BsrjiHA Ha kom-ji. rest 
one's gaze on smb. 


navl^ivattja] imperf -aiocb, 
-aembCH, ocxaHOBlHxbcsi [Asta- 
UAV^ittja] perf -Jiibcb, ocxa- 


imp -itcb, -Hxecb 1. stop, 
come to a stop; come to a 
standstill; 2. put up, stay 
{at a hotel, etc)', 3. dwell 
{on a subject, etc); 
<> KM nepcfl HCM He —-axbCH 
stop at nothing. 

ocxaHOBHXb see ocxanaBJiH- 

ocxaHOBHXbcsi see ocxanaB- 


ocxaHOBJKa [AstAnofka] f 
-KH, -OK 1. stop, stoppage; 
2, stop, station; KOHe^HaH 
~Ka terminal, terminus; 
<> ~Ka 3a... all that is want- 
ed is... 

ocxax|oK [Astatak, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB 1. remainder, the 
rest, remnant; ~kh CAbi 
le It -overs of food; 2. math 

ocxaxbCJi see ocxaBaxbCH. 

ocxeperjaxbcsi [As^'t^ir^i'^ga- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 
ocxepe|HbCJi [As^f'i^r^ech^s^a] 
perf -rycb, -JKeuibCH, -ryxcH, 
p ocxepercH, -rjiacb, imp 
-FHCb, -FHxecb beware (o/j, 
be careful {of)\ be careful 
not to (catch cold, etc); be 
on one's guard {against). 

ocxop6)KH|biH lAstArozhniy] 
a sh f ocxop6>KeH, -a, -o, -bi 
careful, cautious. 

— 271 — 


ocTplMTb [Astr^it^] imperf 
-K), -Huib, p -HJi, imp -H, 
ciocTpMTb [sAstr^'it^] perf joke, 
make jokes. 

ocxpoB [6str9f,,-v] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB island, isle; Heo6H- 
TaeMbifl ~' desert island. 

ocTpOTJa [Astrota] / -bi, pi 
-bi, — , -aM witticism, witty 

ocTpoyMHJbiH [AstrAumnty] 
a sh f ocTpoyMCH, -a, -o, -bi 

1. witty; 2, clever, ingenious. 
6cTp|biH [ostriy] a sh f ^, 

-a, -o, -bi 1. sharp {pin, cor- 
ner, pain, etc); keen (knife, 
interest, etc); acute {pain, 
corner, etc); ~-oe cjiobuo wit- 
ticism; —oesaMcqaHHe point- 
ed remark; ~oe nojion^eHHe 
critical situation; 2.: ~oe 
6jik)Ao savoury dish; -~-biH 
coyc piquant sauce. 

ocTbiB|aTb [Asttvat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, ocTbiJTb 
[Asttt^l perf -Hy, -neuib, p 
-ji, imp -Hb 1. get cold, cool; 

2. fig cool, lose interest. 

ocyAHTb see ocys^AaTb. 

ocyjKAlaTb [Asuzhdat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, ocyAlMTb 
[Asud'^it^] perf ocy>Ky, ocy- 
AHUib, p -HJI, imp -H 1. law 
convict, condemn; ero ocy- 
AHJiH na TpH roAa he was 
sentenced to three years of 
prison; 2, condemn, censure, 

ocymecTBHTb see ocyme- 


ocymecTBJiJHTb [Asush^:i^- 
stvl^at^] imperf -hk), -^euih, 
ocymecTBliiTb [Asush^:i^- 

-HJi, imp -H carry out, real- 
ize; fulfil, put into practice; 
implement {a decision, etc); 
exercise {control, etc); ~HTb 
pe>KHM SKOHOMHH practise 
economy; ocymecTBHTb cBoe 
HaMepeHHe make good one's 

ocbinarbcn see ocbmaxbcn. 

ocbin|aTbC5i [Asipattja] im- 
perf -aexcH, ocbinlaTbcji [ASt- 
p9ttj9] perf -JiexcH, p -ajiCH, 
-a„iacb 1. crumble {of plaster- 
ing, etc); 2. fall {of flowers, 

OCb [os'', -Z^] / OCH, pi 

ocH, oceft 1. axis; 2. technol 
axle, pin. 

ocfi3aHn|e [As^i^zan^iya] n 
-H sense of touch. 

OT [ot; in the first preton- 
ic position — At, Ad; in the 
second pretonic position — 
at, ad; in a stressed posi- 
tion — 6t, od], OTO fota; in 
the first pretonic position — 
AtA] prep with gen denoting 

1. the starting poirit of a 
movement from; ox OiMCKa ao 
ToMCKB from Omsk to Tomsk; 
nojiymirfa nncbMO ox Koro-Ji. 
receive a letter from smb; 

2. side: Hanpaso ox AOMa to 
the right of the house; on 
the right of the house; cnpa- 
Ba ox Bac on your right; 

3. cause or reason: 6AeAHbiH 
ox cxpaxa pale with fright; 
njiaKaxb ox paAocxH cry for 
joy; yMepexb ox roAOAa die 
of hunger; 4. a state, condi- 
tion, etc, against which some 
precautions, etc, are taken: 
cexKa OT KOMapoB mosquito- 


— 272 — 

-net; jieKapcTBo or rpHnna 
remedy for the flu; 5. the 
fact that a thing forms part 
of smth or belongs to smth: 
KpbiiiiKa OT KacTpiojiH the lid 
of a saucepan; a saucepan 
lid; 6. date: «npaBAa» ot 4 
anpejiH "Pravda" of Ap/il 4, 
"Pravda" dated April 4; 
<> OT pyKH by hand (of writ- 
ing, etc). 

oT..., OTO..., ottj... pref of 
verbs denoting 1. movement 
away from smth: otdejKaTb 
[Adb^'i^zhat^] run off (a few 
steps, etc); OT-bexaib [At- 
yekhat^] drive off (a short 
distance, etc); 2. detachment, 
separation: OTBHHTiiTb [At- 
v^in''t'it^] unscrew; 3. com- 
pletion, cessation of an action: 
OTueecTii [Attsv^i^s't'i] finish 
blossoming; OT^ejKypHTb [Ad^- 
d^'i^zhur^il*'] come off duty. 

0T6epH [Adb^'i^r^i] imp of 
OTo6paTb; see 0T6HpaTb. 

0T6epy [Adb^i^ru], OT^e- 
peiub [Adb^i^r*»6sh, -zh] Jst 
& 2nd persons of OTo6piTb; 
see oT^HpaTb. 

or6HB|aTb [Adb^ivat^] im- 
perf -aib, -aeuib, 0T6JMTb [Ad- 
b'lt^] perf oToCbK), oTo6beiiJb, 
p -HJi, imp -eft 1. break 
off (with a hammer, etc); 
2\ beat off, repulse (an at- 
tack, etc); 3. col take away 
(the smell, taste); 
<> 0T6HTb oxoTy col discour- 
age (from doing smth). 

0T6HplaTb [Adb^iraf*] im- 
perf -aio, -aeujb, OTo6p|aTb 
[AtAbrat**] perf oT6epy, ot- 
Oepeiub, p -aji, -a;ia, -ajio, 

-ajiH, imp 0T6epH 1. take 
away (against a person's 
will); 2. choose, select. 

0T6HTb see oTdHsaTb. 

0T6dp [Adb6r] m -a 1. se- 
lection, selecting; 2. biol 

oxGopHlbiM [Adbornty] a 
1. select, choice; 2. col: ~bie 
Bbipa>KeHHH refined expres- 
sions; ~aH pyraHb vile abuse. 

OTCpacbiBJaTb [Adbrasfvat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, OT6p6- 
cJHTb [Adbros^'it^] perf ot- 
6p6iiiy, -Hiiib, p -HJI, imp -h 
1. throw (to a side, back, 
etc); toss away; 2. mil hurl/ 
throw back; 3. fig give up, re- 
ject, dismiss (ideas, theories, 
etc); 4. fig: ~aTb TCHb throw 
a shadow. 

OT6p6c|bi [Adbrosi] pi -ob 
garbage, refuse; waste matter. 

0T6biB|aTb [Adbtvat''] im- 
perf -5k), -6euib, 0T6|biTb 
[Adbtt*"] perf -y^y, -yjieuib, 
p -b'lji, imp -yAb 1. depart, 
leave; 2.: '-aTb HaKaaaHHe 
serve one's sentence. 

OTBdrja [Atvaga] / -h cour- 
age, valour. 

OTBa)KH|biH [Atvazhniy] a 
sh f oTBan^eH, -a, -o, -bi cour- 
ageous, brave. 

OTBesTH bee OTBoaiiTb. 

OTBeprjaTb [Atv^i^rgat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, OTedpr- 
HJyTb [Atv^ergnut''] perf -y, 
-euib, p OTBepr (-yji), OTBepr- 
jia imp -H reject, turn down. 

OTBepHyTbCJi see otbop^mh- 


OTBepCTHJe [Atv^'ers^'t^'iyaJ 
n -H, -H opening, hoi?; sjpt 

— 27a — 


(for coins, etc); BxoAHoe ^-e 
inlet; BbixoflHoe ~e outlet. 
OTBecHJb/H [Atv^'esniy] ash 
f oTBeceH, -a, -o, -u plumb; 
steep, sheer. 


OTBCT [Atv^'et, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. answer, reply; b ~ 
Ha... in reply to... [also see 
<>]; 2,: npHSBaxb k ~-y call 
to account; 
<> B ~ Ha... in response to... 

OTBeTHTb see oTBeqaib 1, 2. 

tsf'v^inas^t^, -z^d^] / -h re- 
sponsibility; 6paTb qro-Ji. na 
CBOK) ~b do smth on one's 
own responsibility, take smth 
upon oneself; npHBjieKaxb k 
'-H call to account. 

OTBeTCTBeHH|blfi [Atv^Ctst''- 

v^mnty] a sh f OTBexcxBen, 
-a, -o, -bi 1. responsible; 2. 
important, crucial; ~-biH mo- 
MCHT crucial point. 

OTBeH|aTb [Atv^i^ch^'at^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, OTBexJHTb 
[Atv^et^it**] perf oxBeny, 
-HU!b, p -HJi, imp -b 1. an- 
swer, reply; 2. be responsi- 
ble (for); --axb tojioboh 3a 
Mxo-Ji. stake one's life on 
smth; 3. {no perf): — axb 
Tpe6oBaHHHM [HasHa^eHHio 
u m. n.] meet the require- 
ments [purpose, etc]; ~axb 
HHxepecaM... accord with the 
interests of... 

oxBJieK|axb [Atvl^i^kat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, oxBjie|Hb 
[Atvl**ech^] perf -Ky, -weuib, 
p oxBJieK, -KJia, imp -kh dis- 
tract, divert {attention, etc). 

OTBJieKlaxbcsi [Atvl^i*^ka- 

tts9] imperf -aiocb, ^eiubCH, 
oxBJie|HbCH [Atvl^ech^'s^a] 
perf -Kycb, -MeuibCH, p ox- 
BJieKCH, -KJiacb, imp -KHCb, 
-KHxecb 1. be distracted / di- 
verted; digress {in talking or 
writing); 2. abstract oneself 

OXEJieieHHiblH [Atvl^i^- 

ch^onnty] a {pa\ sh f oxBJie- 
MCH, -a, -o, -bi abstract (tfifea, 

oxBjieHb see oTBJieKaxb. 

oxB.ieqbCft seeoxB.JieKaxbCH. 

dXB0A|HXb [AtvAd^it^] im- 
perf OXBO^y, OXBOAHUJb, p 
-HJi, imp -H, OXBe|cXH [At- 

oxBeji, -j\a, imp -ah 1. lead, 
take {to some place, in a cer- 
tain direction); -— HXb soficKa 
withdraw the troops; 2.: 
~HXb BOAy drain; oxBecxH 
rjiasa look aside \also see OJ; 
3. parry {a blow); 4. fig re- 
ject {a candidacy); 5. allot, 
destine {land, premises for 

<> ~Hxb pojib assign a part; 
OTBecTH Ayuiy unburden one's 
heart; oxBecxH rjiasa Koiviy-Ji. 
= deceive smb. 

oxBoalHXb [AtvAz^it^] im- 

imp -H, OTBcajxH [Atv^i^- 
s^t^'i] perf -y, -euib, p ox- 
Bes, -Jia, imp -h take away 
{in a vehicle). 

oxBOpaHHB|axbcsi [AtvAra- 
ch^ivattsa] imperf -aracb, 
-aeuibCH, 0TBepH|yxbCH [At- 
v''i^rnuttj9] perf -^Cb, -euibCH, 
p -yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb I. avert one's face / 


— 274 — 

eyes; look the other way; 2. 
fig break (with smb). 

OTBpaTHTeJlbH|blH [AtvrA- 

t^it^'il^nly] a sh /oTEpaTrite- 
jieH, -a, -o, -bi disgusting, 

OTBpameHHie [AtviAsh^ie- 
n^iya] n -h aversion, disgust, 
repugnance; BHyiiiaxb ~e fill 
with disgust; nHTaxb -^e k... 

OTBbiKJaTb [Atvlkat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, OTBbiKH|yTb 
[Atviknut^] perf -y, -euib, p 
OTBbiK, oTBWKJia, imp -H fall 
out of the habit of, lose the 
habit of. 

OTBJISaTb sec 0TBH3bIBaTb 
OTBSJSaTbCfl see 0TBH3bI- 

0TBfl3biB|aTb [Atv^'aztvat^l 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 0TBsi|3aTb 
[Atv^i*^zat^] perf -my, ot- 
BflH<eiiib, p -3aji, imp -jkh 
untie, unfasten [separate 

0TBn3biB|aTbcsi [Atv^aziva- 
ttj9] imperf -aioGb, -aeiubCH, 
0TBfl|3aTbCfl fAtv^i^zattja] 
perf ->Kycb, 0TBHH<embCH, p 
-3ajicH, -sajiacb, imp -M<HCb, 
->KHTecb 1. come untied, come 
loose, get undone; 2. fig col 
get rid (of); 3. fig cot leave 
alone, leave in peace; stop 

OTraitaxb see OTra;ibiBaTb. 

OTraAbiB|aTb [Adgadtvat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, OTrafljaTb 
[AdgAdaf*] perf -aio, -aeuib 
guess (a riddle, etc). 

OTroBapHB|aTb [AdgAvar^i- 
V9t''l imperf -aio, -aeuib, ot- 
roBoplMTb [AdgavAr^it*'! perf 

-K), -rfuib, p -HJi, imp -H dis- 
suade talk out {of). 

OT;ia|BaTb [AddAvat**] im- 
perf -K), -euib, p -saji, imp 
-Baft, OTA|aTb [Addat^l perf 
-aM, -aujb, -acT, -aAHM, -aAH- 
Te, -aAyT, p oTAaji, -a;ia, 6t- 
Aajio, OT^ajiH, imp -avi 1. re- 
turn, give back; 2. give up, 
hand over, relinquish; 3. fig 
give up, sacrifice, devote 
wholly; 4. send, put (a child 
to school, a kindergarten, etcy^ 
5. col let have (in selling)-, 
6.: —BaTb npHKasaHHe issue 
an order, give an order; 
— BaTb npeAnoMxeHHe show 
preference (to), give pref- 
erence (to); 7. (no perf) 
taste (of), savour (of); smell 


<> -^Baib ;i6ji)KHoe KOMy-ji. 
[HeMy-ji.] do justice to smb 
[smthl; --BaTb noA cya pros- 

oTAajieHHibiH [AddAl^onniy] 
a [pa] sh f oTflajieH, -a, -o, 
-bi remote, distant. 

OTjiaTb see oT^aBaTb 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6. 

OTAeji [Ad^d^ell m -a, -ob 
(office) department; — Ka;;- 
poB personnel / staff depart- 

OTAejieHH|e [Ad^d^i^Pe- 
n^iys] n -h, -h 1. separation 
(the process of)', 2. compart- 
ment, section; MauiHHHoe ~e 
engine room / compartment; 
--e nHCbMCHHoro CTOJia pi- 
geon-hole (in a desk); 3. de- 
partment, (local) branch (of 
a bank, etc); — e mhjihixhh 
local militia station; 4» part 

^ 275 — 


(of a concert, etc); 5. mil sec- 
tion; US squad. 

OTACJlHTb see 0TA6JlHTb. 

OTAejibH|biH [Ad^d^el^niy] a 
separate; ~biH bxoa private 
entrance; — bie jiHua individ- 

OTflejiiaxb [Ad^d^i^l'at^] 
imperf -hk), -neuib, 0Tfleji|HTb 
tAd^d^i^l^it^] perf -ib, otac- 
jiHuibi p -HJi, imp -H separate, 
detach, disjoin; — HTb 3a- 
HaseCKOH [neperopoAKofi] cur- 
tain [partition] off. 

OTflOXHyTb see oT^bixaxb. 

OTAbix [oddjkii, -gh] m 
-a rest, repose; relaxation 
{amusement)', rest and recre- 

OTAbix|aTb [Addikhat^] /m- 
perf -mi, -aemb, 0TA0XH|yTb 
[AddAkhnut^] perf -y, -euib, 
p -yji, imp -H rest, have a 
rest; -^axb y'MopH spend one's 
holidays at the seaside. 

oxei; [At^ets. -dz] m oTua, 
pi OTiibi, OTUOB father {of a 

OTeHecTBeHH|bifl [At^'ech*'!- 
s^t^v^inniy] a home {attr) 
{industry, etc); Toeapbi ~or,o 
npoHSBOACTBa home-made 
<0^ ~aji BOHHa patriotic war. 

OTeHecTBlo [At'ech^'istva] n 
-a native land, fatherland. 

0T3QBI1 [AdzAv^i] imp of 
OTosBBTb; see oTSbiBaxb, 

OXSOBHCb [AdZAV^is^, -Z^], 

OXSGBHXeCb [AdzAv^'if'is^, -z^] 
imp of oxosBaxbCH; see ox3bi- 



[AdzAV^osh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 

persons of oToasaxb; see ox- 


OXSOByCb [AdzAvus^, -z^], 
OXSOBeUlbGH [AdzAV^6shs^8] 
1st & 2nd persons of oxosBaxb- 
ch; see ox3biBaxbC5i. 

6x3biB [odztf, -v] m -a, -ob 
opinion, reference; review 
{of a book, article, etc); aaxb 
xopoiiiHH — /o KOM-ji. give a 
good reference to smb. 

ox3biB|axb [Adzivat^l im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, oxo33|axb 
[AtAzvat^l perf 0T30By, ofab- 
fieujb, p -aji, -ajia, -ajio, -aJiH, 
imp 0X30BH 1. take / call 
aside; 2. recall {an ambassa- 
dor, etc). 

oxswEJaxbCJi [Adztvattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, oro- 
3B|axbcji [AtAZvattja] perf 

0X30ByCb, OXSOBCUIbCH, p -3J\- 

CH, -ajiacb, -ajiocb (-a.nocb), 
-ajiHCb (-ajiHCb), imp 0x3o- 
BHCb, oxsoBHxecb 1. answcr 
{when one is called); 2. speak 
(0/ smb, smth, in a specified 

0X3bIBHHB|bIl! [Adz+fch^i- 

viy] a sh f ~, -a, -0, -bi re- 
sponsive, sympathetic. 

oxKas [Atkas, -z] m -a, -ob 
refusal, repudiation; He npH- 
HHMaxb ~a not to take "no" 
for the answer; oxBexHXb —om 
deny (a request); 
<> pa66xaxb 6e3 ^a run 
smoothly {of an engine, etc); 
flo —a 1) to overflowing / sa- 
tiety; 2) as far as it will 
go {of a screw, etc). 

oxKa3axb see oxKasbmaxb. 

oxKa3axbcsi see oxKa3bi- 



— 278 — 

OTKdsbiBJaTb [Atkazlvat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, OTKaajaTb 
[AtkAzat^] perf oTKa^Ky, ot- 
Ka>Kemb, p -aji, imp oTKajKH 
1. deny (a pleasure, etc)\ re- 
fuse (a request, etc); —aib 
KOMy-ji. B qcM-Ji. deny smb 
smth; 2. 'col not work; nacoc 
OTKaaaji the pump wouldn't 

^ ^arb ce6e bo eceivi stint 
oneself in everything; eiviy 
HCJibsn oTKasaTb e Be^jiHBo- 
CTH [ocTpoyMHH u m. n.] 
there's no denying that he 
is polite [witty, etc]; He ot- 
Ka^KHTC B jiK)6e3HOCTH be 
so kind {as to). 

0TKa3bIB|aTbCJI [AtkaZfV9- 

ttj9] imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 
0TKa3|aTbc$i [AtkAzatts9] perf 
OTKaJKycb, 0TKa>KembCH, p 
-ajiCH, -ajiacb, imp oTKa- 
jKHCb, 0TKa>KHTecb 1. refuse, 
decline, repudiate; —axb- 
CH OT CBorix CJIOB eat one's 
words; go back on one's word; 


deny one's signature; OTKa- 
saTbCJi Haoxpea refuse point- 
-blank; 2. relinquish, give up; 

■~aTbCH OT npHTHSaHHH Ha... 

renounce one's claims to.,.; 
OTKaaaTbCH ot aojdkhocth re- 
sign one's post; ^aTbCJi ot 
6opb6bi give up struggle. 

oTKjiaAbiBlaTb [Atkladivat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, oTJioKJHTb 
[AtlAzhft''] perf -y, otjio- 
jKHUib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. put / 
lay aside; 2. hoard, put by; 
3. put off, delay, postpone; 
oTJio>KHTb napTHK) adjoum a 
game (of chess). 

OTKjiHK [6tkl''ik, -g] m -a, 
pi -H, -OB 1. -response (a feel- 
ing); HaftTH lUHpoKHH ~ meet 
with a warm response; 2. pi 
comments {on a political 
statement, etc). 

OTKJIHK I axbcsi [AtkPikattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, ot- 
KJiHKHJyTbCfl [Atkl^iknutts9] 
perf -ych, -euibCH, p -yjiCH, -y- 
jiacb, imp -HCb, -HTecb 1. an- 
swer {when one is called); 2. 
fig respond {to an appeal, 


OTKJioHJflTb [AtklXn^^at^] 
imperf -hk), -neiiib, otkjio- 
HJHTb [AtkUn^it^] perf -ib, 

OTKJlOHHIUb, p -HJI, imp -H 

1. deflect; 2. fig decline (a 
request, proposal, etc). 

otkoc [Atkos, -z] m.-a,-0B 
slope {of a hill, etc); 
<> nycTHTb noA ^ derail. 

OTKpoBeHH|biJf [AtkrAv^^n- 
nty] ashf oTKpoBeneH, -a, -o, 
-bi frank, outspoken, candid. 

0TKpbiB|aTb [Atkrivaf*] //n- 
perf -kK), -^eiub, OTKp|biTb 
lAtkrtt^l perf ^oio, -oeuib, p 
-biji, imp -6ft 1. open (a door 
window, etc); — aTb HacTe>Kb 
open wide; 2. inaugurate {an 
exhibition, monument, etc); 
open {a theatre, meeting, etc); 
3. discover {a new land, de- 
posit, etc); 4. let out, reveal 
{a secret); 

<> OTKpbiTb flyuiy KOMy-ji. 
open one's heart to smb. 

OTKpbiTH|e [Atkrtt^iys] n 
-fi, -ft 1. opening (//le process 
of); inauguration- 2. discov- 
ery {scientific, geographical). 

^277 — 

OTKpMTlKa [Atkr+tks] /-kh, 
-OK postcard; picture post- 

OTKpbiT|biH [Atkrttty] a[pa] 
sh f ^, -a, -o, -bi 1. open {1) 
window, etc; 2) country, etc; 
3) car, etc); 2. frank, open- 

<> ^oe rojiocoBaHHe open 

OTKpblTb see OTKpblBaTb. 

OTKyna [Atkuda] adv \. in- 
ter where from; ^ bm npH- 
exajiH? where do you come 
from?; ^ sbi 3to SHaexe? 
how do you (happen to) know 
it?; 2. rel from which; 
<> ~ HH BosbMHcb col ^ Sud- 

OTKyncpHB|aTb [Atkupar^i- 
vat''] imperf -aro, -aeuib, ot- 
KynoplHTb [Atkupar^it^] perf 
-K), -Huib, p -HJi, imp 'U un- 

OTKycHTb see oTKycbisaTb. 

OTKycbiB|aTb [Atkusivat^l 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, axKycliiTb 
[Atkus^'it^] perf oTKymy, ot- 
KycHuib, p -vLJi, imp -h bite 

OTJiefl [AtPey] imp of ot- 
jiHTb; see oTjiHsaxb. 

OTJlHB [AtPif, -V]m -a, -OB 

ebb {also fig); ebb-tide. 

OTjiHRJaTb [Atl^ivat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeujb, OTJi|HTb 
[AtPit^J perf oTojibK), oxo- 
jibeiub, p -HJI, imp -efl 1. 
pour off / out (a certain quanr 
tity of some liquid); 2. found, 
cast in mould. 

OTJiH4|aTb [Atl^'ich'aJ^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, OTJiHH|HTb 
(AtPich^it^'J perl -y, -Hiub, p 

-HJI, imp -H distinguish, tell 
{one from another). 

0TJiH4|aTbC5i [Atl^ich^attgaJ 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, ot- 
jiHH|HTbc$i [Atl^ich**ittsa] perf 

-yCb, -HIUbCH, p -HJICH, -H- 

jiacb, imp -HCb, -Hiecb 1. {no 
perf) differ {from); 2. {no 
perf) be notable {for), be re- 
markable {for); 3. distinguish 
oneself {also ironically). 

OTJiMHHle [Atl^ich^iya] /I -H, 
-H 1. difkrence, distinction; 
2. merit, distinguished serv- 
ices; AHnjioM c —eM honours 

<> B ^e ox... as distinct 

CH 3. 

oxjiHHH|biH [Atl^ich^niy] a 
sh f oxjiMMeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. 
different {from); 2. excellent, 
perfect; ~oe Hacxpoenne high 

oxjiojKHXb see oxKjiaAUBaxb. 

oxMejijb [otm^iP] / -H, -efi 
(sand-)bar, shallow, shoal. 

oxMeHHxb see oxMCHHXb. 

oxMeH|HXb [Atm^i^n^at^] 
imperf -hk), -Jieujb, oxMeHJl^xb 
[jvtm^i^nMt^] perf -ib, oxm^- 
HHuib, p -HJI, /mp -H abolish, 
repeal, abrogate; cancel; re- 
verse, disaffirm. 

oxMCXHXb see oxMenaxb. 

cxMexlK-a [Atm^etka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. mark, notch; 2. mark, 
grade {at school). 

oxMenlaxb [Atm^'i^ch^at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, oxMex|MXfa 
[Atm^'et^it^] perf oxMe^y, 
-uiub, p -liJii imp -b 1. mark, 


— 278 — 

note; mark off {with a tick, 
marker, etc); 2. mention {fa- 
vourably or unfavourably); 
cjieAveT OTMexHTb, hto... it 
should be noted that...; 3. 
mark, celebrate. 

OTMOpajKHBlaxb [AtmAra- 
zhiv9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
OTMoposiHTb [AtmAroz^it^j 
perf 0TM0p6>Ky, -Hiiib, p -hji, 
imp -hi oTMoposHTb ce6eD;e- 
KH [hoc u m. n.] get one's 
cheeks [nose, etc] frostbitten. 


1, 2. 

OTHHMlaxb [Atn^imat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, OTHfl[|Tb [At- 
n^k\^\perf oTHHMy.orfiHMemb, 


imp OTHHMH 1. take (away) 
{smth from smb); 2. col sub- 
tract; 3. col amputate; 4. take 
{time, energy, etc); 
<> — axb OT rpyAH wean {a 
baby); HCJibsn oTHMTb y Hero 
[y Hce u m. d.\ ocTpoyMHH 
[cKpoMHOCTH u m. n.\ it can't 
be denied that he [she, etc] 
is witty [modest, etc]. 

OTHOCHTeinbHO [AtnAS^It^ll''- 

na] I adv relatively; 

II prep-with gen concerning, 

relative to, about. 


t^il^'niy] a sh f oxHOCHxejieH , 
-a, -0, -bi relative {position, 
success, etc). 

oxHoc|HXb [AtnAS^it^] im- 
perf OXHOUiy, OXHOCHlUb, p -HJI, 

imp -H, oxHeclxH [Atri^'i^s^'t^i] 
P^^f -y, -euib, p oxHec, -jia, 
imp -H 1. take {smth some- 
where on feat); 2. carry away 

{by the wind, current); 3. at- 
tribute {to), ascribe {to); h 
He oxHomy sxy KHHry k mhc- 
jiy HHxepecHbix I don't think 
/ consider the book to be 

oxHoclHxbCfl [AtnAs^ittja] 
imperf oxHomycb, oxHocHmb- 
CH, p -HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb, oxHec|xMCb [Atn^i^- 
s^t^is^] perf -ycb, -eiiibCH, p 
oxHeccH, -jiacb, imp -HCb, -h- 
xecb 1. treat {smb kindly, 
badly, etc); 2. regard {in a 
certain light); --HXbCH cepb- 
e3Ho take seriously; KaK Bbi 
oxHocHxecb K sxoMy? what do 
you think of it?; 3. {no perf) 
concern, have to do {with); 
9X0 K jiejiy He oxhochxch it's 
neither here nor there; sxo 


K... it applies equally to...; 
4. {no perf) date {from); axo 


KorAa... it dates back to the 
time when... 

oxHoujeHH|e [AtnAshen^iya] 
n -H, pi -H, -H 1. attitude {to 
smb, smth); 6e3AyuiHoe ~-e 
callous attitude; 6=jiaro}Kejia- 
xejibHoe ^e good will; Jiio- 
66BHoe ---e k A^Jiy enthusiasm 
about one's work; 2. pi re- 
lations; 6bIXb B XOpOUIHX ~HX 

be on good terms; 3. relation, 
connexion; 4. (official) letter; 
<> B 3X0M ~H i'n this respect; 
no ~io K... in respect to... 

oxHHXb see oxHHMaxb. 

0X0 see ox. 

oxo... see ox... 

oxo6paxb see ox6Hpaxb. 

oxo6bio [AtAb^'yul, oxo6beuib 

— 279 -- 


[AtAb^yosh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of 0T6HTb; see ot6h- 

OTOBCibfly [AtAfs^udu] adv 
from everywhere, from every 

OTOflBHrjaxb [Atadv^igat^] 
imperf -ara, -aeuib, otoabh- 
HJyTb [AtAdv^inut^l perf -y, 
-eiiib, p -yji, imp -b 1. move/ 
push aside; 2. fig col put off 

0T03BaTb see OTSbmaib. 

OTosBaxbcsi see OTSbmaTb.cH. 

OTOJlbK) [AtAl^yu], OTOJIbeiUb 

[AtApyosh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of oTjiHTb; see otjih- 


OTonjieHHle [AtApPen^iya] 
n -H heating {in a house, etc). 

OTonpH [AtApr^i] imp of 
OTnepexb; see oinHpaxb. 

OTonpy lAtApru], OTonpeuib 
[AtAprMsh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of oxnepeTb; see ot- 

OTOpBarb see OTpbieatb. 

oTopBaxbCJi see oipbiBaxbCH. 

oxocjiaxb see oxcbijiaxb. 

oxnafllaxb [AtpAdat^] im- 
perf -aex, oxnajcxb [Atpas^t^] 
perf -Aex, p '-ji 1. fall off / 
away; 2. become unnecessary, 
pass; Bonpoc ~aex the ques- 
tion no longer arises; Heo6- 
xoAHMOcxb oxnajia there is no 
need for it any longer. 

oxnepexb see oxnupaxb. 

oxneHax|oK [Atp^i'^ch^'atak, 
-g] m -Ka, -kob imprint, im- 
press {also fig); ~ok najibua 
finger-print; HaKJiaAbiBaxb 

~0K leave a mark, imprint. 

oxnHp|axb [Atp^irat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiijb, oxnepjexb 
[Atp^i^r^et^] perf oxonpy, 
oxonpeuib, p oxnep, -jia, 6x- 
nepjio, oxnepJiH, imp oxonpH 
unlock; unbolt; open {a door, 

oxnjiaxMxb see oxnjiaqHBaxb. 

oxnjiaHHBJaxb [Atplach^i- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, ox- 
njiaxlHxb [AtplAt^it^] perf ox- 
njiaqy, oxnjiaxHuib, p -hji, 
imp -H pay back, repay. 

oxnop [Atpor] m -a rebuff, 

"oxnpaBHxb see oxnpasjiHXb. 

oxnpaBHxbCii see oxnpaB- 


oxopaBjijaxb [AtprAvl^at^] 
imperf -hhd, -nemb, oxnpa- 
BJHXb [Atprav^it^] perf -jik), 
-Hiiib, p -HJI, imp -b send, dis- 

oxnpaBji|flxbCfl [AtprAvl^a- 
ttj9] imperf -Hiocb, -HeiiibCH, 
oxnpaB|HxbCM [Atprav^ittja] 
perf -jiiocb, -HiubCH, p -hjich, 
-Hciacb, imp -bCH, -bxecb set 
off / out, go {to a place); no- 
e3A —HexcH b AecHXb the 
train leaves at ten; -— HXbCH 
noesAOM go by train. 

oxnpdsAHOBaxb see npasA- 


oxnycK [otpusk, -zg] m -a, 
pi -a, -OB holiday, leave, 
leave of absence; — - no 6o- 
jiesHH sick-leave; ACKpexHufi 
— maternity leave. 

oxnycKJaxb [Atpuskat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, oxnycx|HXb 
[Atpus^t^it^] perf oxnymy, 
oxnycxHuib, p -hjt, imp -h 


— 280 

1. let go, let off; release; set 
free; 2. slacken, loosen {one's 
grip, a rope, reins, etc); 3. 
grow {a beard, moustache, etc); 
4. sell, serve; issue {supplies 
from a warehouse); ~aTb cpe;i- 
CTBa allocate funds {for con- 
struction, etc); 

<> --arb ccTpoTW col crack 
jokes; --aTb KOMnjiHMeHTbi 
col pay compliments. 

OTpaSaTbiBiaxb [AtrAbati- 
vat^i imperf -aio, -aeiiib, ot- 
pa^oTJaTb [AtrAbotat''] perf 
-aio, -aemb 1. clear / repay by 
working; work off {a debt); 

2. work {for a certain period); 

3. {no imperf) col finish (one's 
work); 4. master {by practis- 

orpaBHTb see oipaejiHTb. 

OTpasjilflTb [AtrAvl^at^] im- 
perf -HK), -nemb, oxpaelHTb 
[AtrAV^it^] perf -jitb, orpa- 
BHUJb, p -HJi, imp -H poison 
{also fig). 

oTpawlaxb [AtrAzhat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, oxpaalHTb 
[AtrAz^it''] perf OTpa^^y, -Huib, 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. repulse, re- 
pel, parry; 2. reflect {1) light, 
heat, etc; 2) an image, etc; 
3) life, reality, etc). 

oxpacjijb [otras^l''] / -h, -eft 
branch, field, sphere. 

oxpejtaKxMpoBaxb see pe^aK- 


oxpeaaxb see oxpeaaxb. 

oxpesl^xb [Atr^'i'^zat^] im- 
perf -aio, -keuib, oxpeajaxb 
[Atr^ezat**] perf orpewy, ot- 
p6}Kemb, p -aji, imp oxpe>Kb 
1. cut off, snip off; 2. col 
snub, cut short. 

oxpeKlaxbCJi [Atr^i^kittsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, ox- 
pel Hbcn [Atr^ech^'s^a] perf 
-KyCb, -MSlIIbCH, -KyxcH, p 
OTpeKCH, -KJifiCb, imp -KHCb, 

-KHTecb renounce {one's be- 
liefs, a wicked son, etc); dis- 
own, repudiate; 
<> oxpeHbCfl ox npecxojia ab- 
oxpeMOHXHpoBaxb see pe- 


oxpeHbCfl see oxpeKaxbCH. 

oxpHuaHH|e [Atr^itsan^iya] 
n -H 1. denial, negation; 2. 
ling negation. 

oxpHudxejibHlbiH [Atr'itja- 
t^ii^'niy] a sh f oxpHuaxejien, 
-a, -0, -bi 1. unfavourable 
{estimate^ opinion, etc); neg- 
ative {answer, etc); 2. nega- 
tive {character, results, etc); 
3. phys negative. 

oxpHujaxb [Atr^itjat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib deny, dis- 
claim; ^axb CBOK) BHHy 1) de- 
ny one's guilt; 2) law plead 
not guilty. 

oxpbiB|axb [Atrivaf] im- 
perf -aw, -aemb, oxopB|axb 
[AtArvat**] perf -y, -euib, p 
-aji, -ajia, -^Jio, -ajiH, imp -h 
1. tear off / away; 2. interrupt, 
disturb; oxopBaxb kofoji. ot 
pa66xbi distract smb from 

oxpbiB|axbcsi [Atrivattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, oxo- 
pBlaxbCfl [AtArvattja] perf 
-ycb, -eujbCH, p -ajicH, -ajiacb, 
-ajiocb (-ajiocb), -ajiHCb (-a- 

JlHCb), imp -HCb, -Hxecb 1. 

tear off, come off {of a but- 
ton, etc); Z take off {of a 

— 281 — 

plane); 3. tear oneself away 
(from); lose touch {with); 
<>■ He — aacb without stop- 
ping {work, etc). 

OTpbiB|oK [Atrtvsk, -g] m 
-Ka, 'KGB fragment, extract, 
passage, excerpt. 

OTpflA [Atr'at, -d] m -a, 
-OB detachment, unit. 

OTCpOMHBlaTb [Atsroch'i- 
vat^l imperf -aw, -aeuib, ot- 
cp6H|HTb[Atsr6ch*'it^] perf -y, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -b postpone, 
put off. 

OTCTalBaxb [AtstAvat^] im- 
perf -K), -euib, p -eaji, imp 
-Baft, OTCTalxb [Atstat^j perf 
-Hy, -Heuib, p -Ji, imp -Hb 1. 
fall / lag behind {also fig); be 
(a certain distance) behind; 
He — Baxb OT JKH3HH keep 
abreast of the times; 2. be 
slow {of a timepiece); 3. come / 
peel off {of wallpaper, paint, 
etc); 4. col leave / let alone. 

oTCTaelKa [Atstafka] / -kh, 
-OK resignation {from a post, 
etc); B ~Ke retired {officer, 
etc); yftiH b ~Ky resign 
{one's post). 

OTCTaHB|aTb [Atstalvat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeiiib, 0TCT0|HT.b 
[AtstAyat^] perf -k>, -riiub, p 
-HJi defend, advocate, cham- 
pion, uphold; — aTbCBoe mhc- 
HHC persist in one's opinion. 

OTCT-ajibifi [Atstaliy] a back- 
ward, retarded; underdevelop- 

OTcraTb see OTCTaBaib. 

OTCTOflTb' see OTCXaHBaTb. 

OTcrpaHHTb see OTCxpaHHTb. 

oTCTpaHlflTb [AtstrAn^at'l 

imperf -hio, -neuib, oicTpa- 

HlHTb [AtstrAn^it^] per/ -ib, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. push 
aside; 2. remove (from a post); 
suspend (from one's duties). 

OTCTynjaTb [Atstupat^j im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, 0TCTyn|HTb 
[Atstup^'it^] perf -jito, OTCTy- 
HHuib, p -HJI, imp -H 1. step 
back, recoil; 2. mil retreat, 
fall back; 3. fig retreat; 4. 
deviate, depart (from the let- 
ter of the law, the truth , 

oTCTynjieHHle [Atstupl^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -ft 1. mil retreat 
(also fig); oTpeaaTb ce6e nyxb 
K -— K) burn one's boats; 
2. departure (from the rules, 
etc); digression. 

OTcyTCTBHJe [Atsutst^v^'iya] 
n -H absence; lack (of), want 
(of); 3a —CM BpeMCHH for lack 
of time. 

OTcyTCTBloBaTb [Atsutstva- 
vat^] imperf -yio, -yeuib, p 
-oBaji, imp -yfl be absent; — o- 
Baxb Ha co6paHHH [jickuhh 
u m. n.\ be absent from a 
meeting [lecture, etc]. 

OTCbiJilaTb [Atstlat^] imperf 
-aK), -aeiiJb, 0T0CJi|aTb [AtA- 
slat^l perf otouijik)/ oxOmjieuib, 
p -aji, imp oTouiJiH 1. send 
away / off; send back; 2. refer 
(a person to smb or smth for 
aid, information, etc). 

0TCH)jKSi[Ais^ud9]adv\. from 
here; 2. hence (therefore). 

0TTajiKHB|aTb [Attalk^ivat*'] 
imperf -aip, -aemb, ottojik- 
H|yTb [AttAlknut^l perf -y, 
-euib, p -yji, imp -h 1. push 
away; 2. alienate, antago- 

— ZS2 — 

ottchIok [At^t^enak, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB nuance, shade (also 


OTTenejijb [ot^t^'ip^il^] / -h, 
•eft thaw, thawing. 

OTToro lAttAvo] adv that's 
why; -- MTO because, since. 

oTTOjiKHyib see orrajiKH- 

oTxoAJHTb [AtkhAd'^it^] im- 
perf oTxo>Ky, oTxoAHUib, p 
-i5ji, imp -H, otoh|th [AtAyt^i] 
perf -fly, -Aeiub, p oTomeji, 
OTouijia, imp -ah 1. move 
away / off; leave, start {of a 
train, etc); depart (according 
to schedule)', 2. mil withdraw, 
fall back; 3. step aside; 4. 
fig deviate, digress [from a 
subject, etc); 5. come off [of 
a fixture, fitting, etc); 6. col 
recover, come to oneself. 

0Tx6A|bi [Atkhodi] pi -ob 
waste (material). 

oma [Attja], OTUOB [Attjof, 
-v] see oTeu. 

OTHaHBJaTbcsi [At^ch^aiva- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 
OTHa|flTbCJi [Af'ch^ayattja] 
perf -locb, -eiiibCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb despair (of); give way 
to despair. 

oTHacTH [At^ch^as^'t'^i] adv 

OTHajiHH|e [At^ch^ayan^iya] 
n -H despair (the state of). 

cTMajiTbcji see omaHBaxbCH. 

OTHero [At*'ch''i^v6] adv 
inter & rel why. 

6THecTB|o [ot^ch^'istva] n 
-a, ~ patronymic. 

OTMCT [At^ch^'ot, -d] m -a, 
-OB account, report; 
<^ OTAaBaTb ce6e ^ e hcm-ji. 

be aware of smth, realize 
smth; He OTAaBaxb ce6e ^a 

fail to realize. 

OTHeTJlHB|bIH [At^ch^otl^i- 

viy] a sh f ^, -a, -o, -u 
distinct (articulation, etc). 

OTHHM [ot'^ch'^im] m -a, -ob 

OTMHTarbCfl see oxMHTbi- 


oxHHxbiBlaxbcji [At^ch^'iti- 
vattja] imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 
OTMHx|axbcji [At^ch^itattja] 
perf -aipcb, -aeiiibCH give an 
account (of), report (on). 

0TmjiH4)0Baxb see iujih^k)- 

OTi.... see ox.... 

ox-besA [Atyest, -zd] m -a, 
-OB departure, going away. 

oxbicKaxb see oxb'iCKHBaxb. 

oxbicKHB|axb [Atlsk^'ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, oxbicK|axb 
[Atiskat^] perf oxbimy, oxbi- 
meujb, p -2lj\, imp oxbimH 
find (discover by search); im- 
perf also look for, search for. 

c(|)Huep [Af^itser] m -a, -ob 
(commissioned) officer. 

o4)Hi;HajibH|biA [Af^itjtal^- 
niy] a sh f o^wixaajieu, -a, 
-o, -bi official; formal (call, 

o(t)HUHaHX [Af^itjtant, -d] m 
-a, -OB waiter (at a restau' 
rant, etc). 

o(j)HUHaHx|Ka [Af^itjtantka] 
/ -KH, -OK waitress. 

o(|)6pMHXb see o^^opivijiHXb. 

o4)opMJilHXb [AfArmPat''] 
f'mper/ -HK), -HeiiJb, 0(J)6pM|HXb 
[Aform^it''] perf -jik), -Huib, 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. put into 
shape, get up; 2. register of- 

— 283 — 


ficially, make official; o(|)6p- 
MHTb Ha pa66Ty put on the 

oxBaTHTb see oXBaibiBaTb. 

oxBaTbiBJaTb [Akhvativat^] 
imperf -aro, -aeiub, oxeaTlHTb 
[AkhvAt^'it^] perf oxBaqy, 
oxBaTHiiib, p -HJi, imp -h 1. 
envelop, embrace; 2. seize, 
grip {of feelings, etc); 3. in- 
clude, embrace, cover. 

oxoTJa I [Akhota] / bi 
hunt, hunting, 

oxoTJa II [Akhota] I / -bi 
wish, inclination; 
I! impers predic col: ~a re- 
6e §THM aaHHMaxbCH? what 
makes you do it? 

oxoTHHK [Akhot^n^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB hunter, sportsman; 

oxoTHo [Akhotna] adv will- 

oxpaHJa [Akhrana] / -bi 1. 
guarding, protection; 2. guard 
(of soldiers, etc); norpa- 
KHMHaH —a frontier guard. 

oxpaHifltb [AkhrAn^at''] im- 
perf -HK), -Heiub guard, pro- 
tect, safeguard. 

oxpHnlHyxb [Akhr^ipnut*'] 
perf -Hy, -Heiiib, p — , -jia, 
imp -HH grow /get hoarse. 

oueHHB|aTb [Atjen^ivat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, oi;eH|MTb 
[Atjt^n^it^l perf -ib, oueHHuib, 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. fix the 
price of; state the value of; 
estimate, evaluate; 2. appre- 
ciate, appraise. 

oueH|Ka [Atjenka] / -KH, -ok 
I. estimation, estimate; val- 
uation; appraisal; 2. mark, 
grade {at school). 

oHapoBdTb see o^apoBbi- 

0Hap6BbiB|axb [Ach^i^r6v4- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
0Hap|0Baxb [Ach^irAvat^l perf 
-yK), -yeuib, p -oBaji, imp 
-yft charm, fascinate. 

04eBM;ileu, [Ach^i^v^id^its, 
-dz] m -u,a, -ues .eyewitness. 

OMeBHjiHo [Ach^i^v^idna] 
pare/i/Zz obviously, apparently. 

oHCHb [och^m^] adv very; 
very much, greatly. 

OHepeAHloH [Ach^ir^i^dnoy] 
a 1. next, next in turn; 2. 
usual, regular; —oft njienyM 
regular plenary session. 

OHCpejlIb [och^ir^it^, -d^j / 
-H, pi -H, -eft 1. turn {in 
doing smth. etc); --bsaBaMH 
it's your turn; 2. queue, line; 
6e3 ~K without queuing up; 
<> Ha — H next (in turn); 
B nepByio --b in the first 
place; no ~h in turn, one 
after another. 

oHepK [och^irk, -g] m -a, 
-OB sketch, essay. 

OMepxaHH|e [Ach'^i^rtan^iya] 
rt -H, -H outline {of an object). 

OMHHMXb see qHHHXb I 2. 

OHMcxHxb see o^nmaxb. 

OHHm 1 axb [ Ach^ish^ : at*'] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, OHHcxiHXb 
[Ach^is^tMt*'] perf OHHiuy, 
-Hiub, p -Hji, imp -h\. clean, 
clear; .2. refine {alcohol, oil, 
etc); 3. peel {an apple, etc); 
4.: -— axb TKeji-^j^oK evacuate 
the stomach. 

ohkIh [Ach^k^'i] pi -OB spec- 
tacles, eye-glasses; goggles. 

oHKJo [Ach^ko] n -a, -6b 
sport point; 


— 284 — 

<> BTHparb ^U KOMy-JI. 

col = humbug smb. 

0MH|yTbcn [Ach^'nuttsa] 
perf -ycb, -euibCH, p -yjicH, 
-yjiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 
come to oneself, regain con- 

OHyTJHTbCJl [Ach''ut^itts9J 
perf OMyTHuibCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hiecb find 
oneself (somewhere unexpect- 

oiBH6|aTbcsi [Ashibattsa] 
imp'erf -aiocb, -aeuibcn, ouih- 
6|HTbC5i [Ashib^ittss] perf- 
-ycb, -embCH, p oiuhSch, 
omH6jiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 
make mistakes, be mistaken; 

perf also make a mistake; 
be at fault. 

oiiiH6|Ka [Ashfpka] / -kh, 
-ok mistake, blunder; no — Ke 
by mistake. 

ouiTpa(}}OBaTb see mTpa4)o- 

ouiTyKaxypHTb see iiixyKa- 

omyxHxb see omymaxb. 

omym|axb [Ash'':ush^:at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, oiuy- 
xlHXb [Ash'':ut^it^l p^A-/ Oiny- 
my, -Huib, p -HJi, imp -H 
feel, sense. 

omymeHHle [Ash^:ush^:e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h sensation {of 
heat, joy, etc). 


naBHJibOH [pav^il^yon] m 
-a, -OB pavilion (1) a light 
building; 2) part of an ex- 
hibition or fair). 

naBjiHH [pAvl^in] m -a, 
-OB peafowl, peacock. 

na^laxb [padat^] imperf 
-aio, -aemb, nacxb [pas^f^] 
perf naAy. naAemb, p naJi, 
najia, ynajcxb [upas^t''] perf 
'}xy, -AGiiib, p -ji -jia, imp 
-AH 1. fall (/) from a higher 
place; 2) from a standing 
position; 3) become lower or 
less; 4) to come as one's lot, 
duty, share, etc); ynacxb 
HaB3HHMb fall flat on one's 
back; 2. (no perf) fall (of 
snow, etc); 3. (nacxb) die,' 
perish (of cattle); 4. (no im- 
perf) (nacxb) fall (/; in battle; 

2) of a fortress, etc); nacxb 
^epxBOH qero-ji. fall a victim 
to smth. 

nsLjiim [pAd^esh, -zh] m 
-a, -efi ling case. 

nafleHH|e [pAd'^en^iya] n 
-H, -ft 1. falling, fall; 2. 
drop (in prices, etc); 3.: mo- 
pajibHoe ~e moral degrada- 
tion; 4. downfall, fall (of a 
government, etc). 

naAy [pAdu], naAeuib 
[pAd^osh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of nacxb; see naAaxb. 

naAHCpHula [pat^'ch^ir^'itsa] 
/ -bi, — stepdaughter. 

nacK [pAyok, -g] m naflKa, 
pi naftKH, naftKOB ration (of 

na3 [pas, -z].m -a, pi -bi, -6b 
technol slot, groove. 

— 285 — 


naayxja Ipazukha] / -h, ~: 
33 --0H in one's bosom; aa 
~y into one's bosom. 

nafi [pay] m nan, pi nan, 
nacB share (a portion to be 
contributed by smb)\ BCxynH- 
lejibHUH — initial shares. 

naHKa [pAyka], naHKoe 
[pAvkof. -v] see naeK. 

naKCT [pAk^et, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. packet, parcel; 2. of- 
ficial letter {with the enve- 

<> HHAHBHAyajibHUH '^ first- 
-aid kit. 

-dz] m -ua, -ueB Pakistani. 

naKHCTaHCK'iHH [pak'istan- 
sk^iy] a -an. -oe, -He Paki- 

naKT Ipakt, -gd] m -a, -ob 
pact; -~' o HeHanaAeHHH non- 
-aggression pact; -- o Bsan- 
MonoMomH mutual assistance 

naji [p^l], najia [pala] p 
o/ nacTb; see na^axb. 

najiarla [pAlata] / -bi, -- 

1. ward {in a hospital); 2. 
chamber, house {of a parlia- 
ment, etc); ~a 66mHH House 
of Commons; 3.: xoproBan 
~a Chamber of Commerce. 

najiaxJKa [pAlatka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. tent {a portable shel- 
ter); 2. stall, booth; npoAO- 
BOjibcxBeHHan ~Ka food- 
-stuffs stall. 

najidn [pAlach^, -j*',] m -a, 
-eft 1. executioner, hangman; 

2. fig butcher. 

n^jijei; [pal^itj, -dz] m 
-bua, -bueB 1 finger (o/ the 
hand); toe {of the foot); Cojih- 

iiioH ~eu thumb; big toe; 
6e3biMHHHbiH ~eu fourth fin- 
ger; yKaaaxejibHbiH --eu 
forefinger; 2. technol pin, 
cam, finger; 

<> eiviy ~bu,a e pox He KJia- 
m col ^ he is not to be 
trifled with; if you give him 
an inch he'll take an ell; 
SHaxb Hxo-Ji. KaK CBOM nnxb 
— bu,eB col know smth thor- 
oughly, have" smth at one's 
finger-tips; CMoxpexb wa 
HXO-JI. CKBOsb -~bUbi wink at 
smth, connive at smth, turn 
a blind eye to smth; — eu, o 
~eu He yjiapHXb col not 
stir a finger {to do smth). 

najiJKa [palka] / -kh, -ok 
stick (/) a piece of wood; 
2) for walking, etc); 
<> H3-nofl --KH col undex the 
lash(o/ dom^sm//i); BcxaBjiflxb 
KOMy-ji. — KH B KOJieca col 
put spokes in smb's wheel. 

najiySja [paluba] / -bi, ^ 
deck {of a ship). 

najibM|a [p^l^'ma] / -h, -^ 

<> ycxyniixb Kowy-ji. ^y 
nepBCHcxBa yield smb the 

najibxo [pAl^to] n indecl 

naM^ixHHK [pam''9t^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob monument; me- 
morial {a stone, etc; both also 
fig); tombstone; nocxaBHXb ^ 
set up a monument; —h cxa- 
pHHbi relics of the past. 

naM5ix|b [pam^it^, -d^] -h 
1. memory {the power of re- 
membering); ecJiH MHe He 
nm^ni^T — b if memory 


286 — 

doesn't fail me; 2. recollec- 
tion, memory, remembrance; 
<> Ha ~b 1) as a keepsake; 
2) by heart, by rote; no ~h 
from memory; by heart; 
Ha HbCH-ji. ~H within one's 
recollection; no crapOH ~-h 
by force of habit; 6e3 ~h 
unconscious, in a faint; 6biTb 
6e3 ~H OT Koro-Ji. col like 
smb immensely, be in rap- 
tures oversmb; be overhead 
and ears in love with smb. 

naHHKJa [pan^ika]/ -h pan- 
ic, scare; b --e panic-strick- 
en; BnaAaxb s ~y become 

nancHOH [pans^ion] m -a, 
-OB 1. boarding-school; 2. 
boarding-house; 3. board and 

nanja I [papa] m -bi, — 
col dad(dy), papa. 

nan^a II [papa] m -bi, ~ 

nanHpocja [pap^irosa] / -bi, 
— cigarette {with a card- 
board mouthpiece). 

nanJKa [papka] / -kh, -ok 
paper-case, attache case. 

nanopOTHHK [paparatn^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob bot fern. 

nap I [par] m -a (-y), pi 
-bi, -OB steam (vapour); 
<> Ha Bcex ~ax col at full 

nap II [par] m -a, pi -bi, 
-OB ^gric fallow; qepHbift 
[qHCTbiH] -^ bare fallow. 

nap|a [para] / -bi, ~ 1. pair 
(i )a set of two; 2) a thing 
of two parts); 2. pair, couple 
(husband and wife); cynpyyKe- 
CKafl ^a married couple; 3.; 

oua eMy ne ^a col she is not 
his equal; she is not good 
enough for him; 4. couple 
of, one or two, a few; 
<> --a nycTHKOB col a mere 
trifle, child's play; aea ca- 
nora -—a col = they make 
a pair. 

naparpa(j) [pAragraf, -v] m 
-a, -OB paragraph (a section 
of a book or the sign § mark- 
ing off such a section). 

napaA [pArat, -d] m -a. 
^OB parade (a procession); mil 
parade, review, march past; 
BOSAyiuHbifl — fly-past; npH- 
HHMaxb ~ take the salute. 

napajiH3|oBaTb [paraPizA- 
vat''] perf & imperf -yip, 
-yeujb, p -OBaji paralyse 
(also fig). 

napajiMH [parA.l^'ich^, -j^] 
m -a paralysis; ero pasSHJi 
^ he is [was] paralysed. 

napajiJieji|b [parAPel^] /-h, 
-eii 1. math parallel; 2. geog 
parallel (of latitude). 

napajijiejibH|MH [parAl^el^- 
nty] a sh f napajijiejien, -a, 
-o, -bi parallel. 

napauiiOTHCT [parashut^ist, 
-zd] m -a, -OB parachutist, 
parachute-jumper; paratroop- 

nap|eHb [par^m^] m -hh, 
pi -HH, -Heft col fellow, lad, 
chap, guy. 

napH [pAr^i] n indecl bet; 
AepHcaxb — bet, lay a bet. 

napMK [pAr^ik, -g] m -a, 
-OB wig. 

m -a, -OB hairdresser; bar- 

287 — 


napHKMaxepcKlasi [par'ik- 
makh^irskaya] / -oft, -hx 
hair-dressing saloon, the hair- 
dresser's; barber('s) shop. 

napK [park, -g] m -a, -ob 
1. park (a garden); paaSnTb 
~ lay out a park; 2. fleet {of 
tractors, etc); stock {rolling, 
etc); 3. depot {for city trans- 

napJiaMCHT [pArlam^int, -d] 
m -a, -OB parliament; diet 
{an assembly). 

napoBOs [parAVos, -z] m 
-a, -OB engine, locomotive 
[on a railway). 

napoeloH [parAVoy] a steam; 
— an MaiiiHHa steam-engine 
{stationary); —oe OTonjieHHe 
steam heating; central heat- 

nap6ji|b [pArol^] m -h, -eft 
password, watchword coun- 

napoM [pArom] m -a, -ob 

napoxoA [parAkhot, -d] m 
-a, -OB steamer, (steam)ship; 

napT... first element of 
compounds pertaining to 
•party' {mostly the Commu- 
nist Party of the S. U.): napx- 
6HJieT [pardb^il^et, -d] party 
(membership) card. 

napxep [pArter] m -a theat 
pit; stalls. 

napTHsan [part^izan] m -a, 
-OB guerilla, partisan. 

napTHHHocTlb [pArt^iy- 
nas^t^, -z^d^] / -h 1. party 
affiliation, party member- 
ship; 2. party spirit, party 
principle; fidelity to the 

principles of the Party {said 
of literature, etc). 

napTHHHbiH [pArt^iyniy] a 
party {attr); — 6HJieT party 
(membership) card; ~ c-besA 
party congress. 

napTH|fl [part^iya] / -h, 
-ft 1. pol party; 2. group, 
detachment; 3. batch, lot, 
consignment {of goods); 4. 
game, set ; 5. mus part; —lo 
poHjiH HcnojiH^ex Bhkxop 
CeMepHXHH at the piano (is) 
Victor Semerikhin. 

napxopr [pArtork, -g] m 
-a, -oB (=napxHftHbift opra- 
HHsaxop) Party organizer. 

napxopraHHsauHlfl [part- 
Argan^izatjiya] / -h, -ft 
(=napxHftHa5i opraHHsai^Hsi) 
Party organization. 

napyc [parus, -z] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB sail {on a ship); no^- 
HHXb — hoist a sail [also 
see <>]; 

<> Ha Bcex ~ax in full sail, 
with all sails set; noAHqxb 
—a set sail. 

nacMypH|biH [pasmurniy] 
a sh f nacMypen, -a, -o, -m 
1. dull, cloudy; overcast; 2. 
fig sullen, gloomy. 

nacnopx [paspart, -d] m 
-a, pi -a, -OB 1, passport 
{an identity card); 2. certifi- 
cate {of a machine, etc). 

nacca)KHp [pasAzhtr] m -a, 
-OB passenger {of a train, etc). 

naccHBH|biH [pAs^s^ivniy] 
a sh f naccHBen, -a, -o, -w 
passive {inactive). 

nacxSHmje [paz^b^ish^:a] n 
-a, ~ pasture, grazing land. 

naclxH [pAS^'t^iJ imperf -y. 


— 288 — 

-eiiib, p ~, -jia, imp -h 
shepherd, graze, pasture, terfd. 

nacJTMCb [pAs^t^is*'] imperf 
-eicH, p naccH, -Jiacb browse, 
graze, 'pasture. 

nacTyx [pAstukh-, -gh] m 
-a, -OB herdsman; US cow- 
-boy; shepherd. 

nacTb I see na^axb 1, 3, 4. 

nacT|b II Ipas'^t'*, -z^d^] / 
-H, -eft mouth {of an animal). 

nacx|a [paskha] / -h 

nacbiH|oK [pasinak, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB stepson. 

nareHToeaHHlbiH [pat^i^n- 
tovannty] a [pa] patent {pills, 
etc); ~oe cpeAcreo patent 

naTe(j)6H [pat^i^fon] m -a, 
-OB gramophone. 

narpHOT [patr^'iot, -d] m 
-a, -OB patriot, 

naTpH0TH3M [patr^iAt^izm] 
m -a patriotism. 

narpoH [pAtron] m -a, -ob 
1. mil cartridge; round {of 
ammunition); 2. electr lamp- 
-socket, lamp-holder; 3. tech- 
nol chuck. 

naxpyjilb [pAtruP] m -h, 
-eft patrol {of soldiers, etc). 

nays] a [pauza] / -bi, ~ 
pause, interval. 

nayK [pauk, -g] m -a, -6b 
spider {an animal). 

nayTHHJa [pauf^ina] / -bi 
cobweb, web {also fig). 

nax|aTb [pAktiat^] imperf 
nauiy, fiamemb, p -aji, imp 
nauiH, Bcinaxarb [fspAkhat**] 
perf plough, till. 

naxHjyTb [pakhnut**] imperf 
-y, -euib, p nax (-yji), nax- 

jia smell {1} of smth; 2) give 
off an odour); --ex rapbio 
there is a smell of burning. 

nauHCHT [patjient, -d] m 
-a, -OB patient. 

nanlKa [pach^ka] / -kh, 
-CK bundle {of letters, etc), 
packet, package, pack, par- 

nanKJaTb [pach^kat'*] im- 
perf -aK), -aeiub, aajnaHKarb 
[zApach^kat^] perf, MClnan- 
Kaxb [ispach^'kat^] perf soil, 
dirty; stain {the cloih with 
wine, etc); 

<> --axb Hbio-Ji. penyxauHK) 
smear smb's reputation, stain 
smb's good name. 

naujH [pAshf] see naxaxb. 

nam|Hn [pashn^'a] / -hh, 
-en arable land. 

nauixex [pAsht^et, -d] m 
-a, -OB pate. 

nauiy [pAshu], naiueiiib 
[pashash, -zh] see naxaxb. 

nanxb [pAyat^l imperf 
na^K), nanemb solder {metal 
parts, etc). 

neejeu [p^i^v^ets, -dz] m 
-ua, -uoB singer. 

neAaror [p''idAg6k, -g] m 
-a, -OB teacher, instructor; 

nefi [p^'ey] see nnxb. 

neH3a)K [p^i^yzash, -zh] m 
-a, -eft landscape, view, 

neK [p^'ok, -g], neKjia [p^'i^k- 
la] see ^e^b I. 

neKap|Hfl (p*'i^karn*'a] / 
-HH, -CH bakery, bakehouse. 

ncKH [p'^i^k^'i] see ne^h I. 

ncKy [p''i^kul see nenb I. 

neji [p^'el], nejia [p**ela] see 

289 — 


nejieHJaxb [p^'iPi^nat''] itn- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, cinejieHaxb 
[s^p^iPi*^nat^l perf swaddle 
(a baby). 

nejibMeHJH [p^'i^l^m^en^'il 
pi -eft (s/rtg" nejibMen I b m -h) 
pelmeni {meat dumplings). 

neH|a [p^'ena] / -bi foam, 
spume, froth, scum'; (soap-) 
suds; cHHMaTb ~y skim off 
(the) scum; 

<0» c — ofi y pra furiously, 
passionately, foaming at the 

neHH|e [p^'eri^iya] n -h sing- 

n^HJKa [p*6nka] / -kh, -ok 
skin {on milk). 

ncHCHOHep [p^m^s^iAn**er] 
m -a, -OB pensioner, old-age 

neHCHJfl [p^en^s^iys] / -h, 
-H pension; ~h no HHsajiHA- 
HOCTH disability pension; — h 
no CTapocTH old-age pension; 
yfiiH Ha —K) retire on a 

ncHb [p^en^] m hhh, pi 
RHH, nneft, hhhm stump, stub 
{of a tree); 

<> CTonxb KaK — col ^ stand 
like a stone image. 

nenjeji [p'^ep^il] m *jia ash, 
ashes {dust); 

<> o6paTHTb B ~eji reduce to 

neneJibHHu|a [p^ep**il^n''i- 
tsa] / -bi, ~ ash-tray. 

nepBeHCTB|o [p^erv*'mstva] 
n -a spor^ championship; ~o 
cTpaHbi no (|)yT66jiy national 
football championship; 3a- 
BocBaib ~o win a champion- 
ship, take first place. 

nepBHHH|biH [p^i^rv^ich**- 
nty] a sh f nepBH^en, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. primary; initial; 2. lo- 
cal {party or trade-union 

nepBo6biTHbiH [p^irvAbft- 
niy] a primitive {society, 
man); primeval. 

nepBOHaHajibH|ufi [p^'irva- 
nAch^al^niy] a initial, orig- 
inal; ~oe HaKonjieHHe Kann- 
Tajia primary accumulation 
of capital. 

nepBocTeneHHbiH [p^irva- 
st^i^p^enniy] a paramount 
{importance, etc). 

nepBJbift [p^erviy] I num 
ord & a 1. first; —bift HOMep 
number one; — hh axajK 
ground floor; US first floor; 
~oe MHCJio the first of {May, 
etc); '-biH qac past twelve 
(o'clock); B ~0M Macy after 
twelve; oh ymeji -~-biM he 
was the first to leave; ~aH 
cTpaHHua raaexbi the front 
page of a newspaper; 2. 
prime {necessity, etc); first, 

n as a noun 1. n ep bImh 
m -oro, -bix the former; the 
first; 2. nep B|oe n -oro, 
-bix first course {of a meal); 
3.: nojioBHHa ~oro half past 
twelve; HeTBepTb —oro quar- 
ter past twelve;. AsaAuaTb 
MHHyT ~oro twenty minutes 
past twelve; rpH MereepTH 
—oro a quarter to one; 
<> —06 BpcMJi at first; Rep- 
Boe MaH May Day; —aw no- 
MOLUb first aid; He —oii cbc- 
JKCCTH not quite fresh. 

nepe... pref of verbs denoU 


— 290 — 

ing I. an action directed 
from one place over to another, 
from one side over to another, 
or across smth: nepe6e>KaTb 
[p^'ir^'ib^i^zhat^] run across 
{the street, etc), nepececTb 
[p^ir^'i^s^esMb] change one's 
seat, move (to another seat); 
exchange seat^; 2. repetition 
of an action anew or in a 
different way: nepecipoHTb 
[p^ir^i^stroit''] 1) rebuild; 
reconstruct; 2) reorganize; 
nepeAejiaTb [p^ir^i^d'^elat^j 
do anew; change, alter; 
3. an action carried to excess 
or a negative result: nepe- 
spexb [p'^ir^'i^zr^et^] grow 
overripe; nepexeajiHTb [p^i- 
r^'fkhvAl^it^] overpraise; 4, 
the fact that the doer of the 
action has got the upper hand, 
has outdone smb: nepecno- 
pHTb [p**ir''i^sp6r''it''] out- 
-argue; 5. an action directed 
at many objects, one after 
another: nepeqHTaxb [p^'ir^i- 
ch^itat*'] read {all the 
books); nepejioBHTb [p^ir^i- 
lAV^'it''] catch {all the birds); 

6. a one-time action or an 
action of short duration: 
nepeKypHTb [p^ir^'ikur^it^] 
have a smoke; nepeKycHib 
[p^ir^'ikus^'it''] have a bite; 

7. a reciprocal action: nepe- 
nHCbiBaTbCH [p^'ir^'i^p^isiva- 
ttj8] correspond {with smb); 
write to each other; nepe- 
rjiHAbiBaTbCH [p^'ir^'i^Ql^'adlva- 
ttsa] exchange glances, look 
afone another. 

nepe6HB|aTb [p'*ir''ib'*ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -SiQiiib, nepe6[HTb 

[p^'ir^'i^b^it^J perf -bK>,-heuih, 
p -HJi, imp -efl 1, kill, slaugh- 
ter {everybody or many); 2. 
break {everything or much); 
3. break, fracture {mostly 
into two, as a limb, stick, 
etc); 4. interrupt {smb, a 
speech) . 

iiepeSHplaxb [p^ir^'ib^irat^] 
imperf -an), -aeuib, nepe|- 
Spaxb [p^'ir^i^brat^] perf -6e- 
py, -Sepeiub, p -6paji, -6pajia, 
6pajio, -6pajiH, imp -6epH 1. 
sort out; look through / over; 
2. fig recall, call to mind; 
bring up, touch upon {in a 
conversation); — axb e nawHXH 
turn over in one's mind. 

nepe6Hxb see nepe6HBaxb. 

nepe6o|H [p^'ir^i^boy] m -h, 
-eB 1. irregularity {of sup- 
ply); interruption, stoppage 
{in work); 2. med intermis- 

nepeSopjoxb [p^'ir^ibArot'*] 
perf -K), nepe66pemb, p -oji, 
imp -H overcome (a feeling 
or state); —oxb ce6H master 

sivat**] imperf -aio, -aeuib, ne- 
pe6p6|cHXb [p''ir'*i®br6s''it**] 
perf -my, -CHUJb, p -chji, 
imp -cb 1. throw (over), fling 
(over); 2. transfer, move. 

nepe6paxb see nepe6Hpaxb. 

nepeSpocHxb see nepe6pa- 


nepeeapHBlaxb [p'*ir*'i^va- 
r^'ivat^i imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
nepeeapliixb [p'^ir^'iVAr'^it''] 
perf -K), nepeBapHuib, p -h;i, 
imp -H 1. cook anew / again, 
boil anew /again; 2. overdo, 

— 291 


spoil by overdoing; 3. di- 
gest (food); 4. fig col stand, 
bear {in neg sentences). 

nepeeesTH see nepeBOSHib. 

nepeeepHyTb see nepesep- 

nepeBepHyxbCfl see nepe- 


nepeBepTbiBJaxb [p^ir^i^- 
v^ortivat^] imperf -aro, 
-aeiub, nepeeepHJyTb [p^if^i- 
v'^i^rnut^l perf -y, -eiub, p 
-yji, imp -H 1. turn over 
{move so that the other side 
is up; cause to roll over); 
2. col upset, turn over, 
knock over; 3. fig col trans- 
form, change thoroughly. 

nepeBepTbiBJaTbCH [p^ir^i^- 
v^orttvattsa] imperf -aiocb, 
-aembC5i,nepeBepH|yTbCfl [p^i- 
r'^iv^i^rnuttja] perf -ycb, 
-eiubCH, p -yjicH, -yjiacb. 
imp -HCb, -Hiecb turn over 
(change one's position by roll- 
ing over); --aTbCH c 66Ky Ha 
6oK turn from side to side. 

nepCBec [p^ir^i^v^es, -z] m 
-a preponderance; MHCJieHHbiH 
^ numerical superiority. 

nepcBecHTb see nepeBeuiH- 

nepcBecTH see nepeBOAHTb. 

nepeBemHB|aTb [p^ir^i^v^e- 
shivat''] imperf -aio. -aeuib, 
nepeBeclHTb [p^ir^i'^v^'es^it*'] 
perf nepeBemy, -Hiub, p -hji, 
imp -b 1. hang somewhere 
else; move from one place 
and hang in another [some- 
where, etc]; 2. weigh anew/ 
again; 3. outbalance, over- 
balance, outweigh {also fig). 

nepeeofl [p^ir^i^vot, -dj m 

-a, -OB 1. transference, trans- 
fer; 2. translation {into anoth- 
er language); interpretation 
(oral translation); 3. remit- 
tance {of money); postal or- 
der, money order. 

nepesojiJHTb [p^ir^ivAd^it^] 
imperf nepeBOJKy, nepeBo- 
aHiiJb, p -HJI, imp -H, nepe- 
Be[cTH [p^ir^'iv^i^s^t^i] perf 
-Ay, -Aeuib, p nepeseji, -Jia, 
imp -AH 1. take, lead {smb 
across the street, etc); 2.: ~HTb 
crpejiKy ^acoB BnepeA [na- 
3aA] put a watch [a clock] 
forward [back]; —HTbCipejiKy 
rly switch, shunt; 3. move, 
transfer {to another post, 
another school, a higher or 
lower grade, another town, 
etc); pass {a student to anoth- 
er course); 4. translate [into 
another language); interpret 
{translate orally); 5. remit, 
remit by post {money, etc); 
6. convert {measures, etc); 
<> nepeBccTH Ayx/AwxaHHc 
take breath; He —h AUxanHH 
without pausing for breath. 

nepcBOAHHK [p^'ir^i^vot^- 
ch^ik, -g] m -a, -ob trans- 
lator; interpreter {one who 
translates orally). 

nepcBOslHTb [p^ir^iVAZ^it^] 
imperf nepeBO>Ky, nepCBO- 
3Hmb, p -HJI, imp -H, nepe- 
BcalxH [p^ir^iv'^i'^s^t^i] perf 
-y^ -euib, p nepCBes, -Jia, 
imp -H 1. put, take {across 
a river, etc, in a boat, etc); 
2. transport; carry, take {by 
vehicle, from one place to 

nepeB63[Ka [p^ir^i^voskaj / 


— 292 

-KH, -OK transportation, con- 
veyance; MopcKHe ~KH sea 

nepcBOpOT [p^ir^iVAFot, -d] 
m-a,-OB revolution, uplieav- 
al (a complete change); boch- 
HbiH — military coup d'etat. 

nepeBM6op|u [p^'ir^'i^viba- 
ri] pi -OB (re-)election. 

nepcBbinojiHHTb see nepe- 


nepeBwnojiHlflTb [p^'ir^ivi;- 
pAln^at''] imperf -hk), -Heuib, 
nepeBbinojiHlHTb [p'^ir^i^vl- 
p9ln''it^] perf -lo, -Huib, p 
-Hji, imp -H overfulfil, ex- 
ceed {the plan, etc). 

nepeBJi3aTb see nepesHabi- 

nepeB«3biB|aTb [p''ir*'i^v''a- 
ztvat''] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
nepeBJilaaxb [p^ir^iv^'i^zat^j 
perf -my, nepeBHjKeiiib, p 
-3aji, imp -JKH 1. bandage, 
dress (a wound); 2. tie (up), 
cord (up) (a parcel, etc). 

neperH6|aTb [p^ir^ig^'ibat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, nepe- 
FHlyxb [p^'ir^i^gnut''] perf-y, 
-euib, p -yji, imp -h 1. fold 
{paper, etc, in two); 2. bend 
(over), bend too much; 
<0> -^axb najiKy col ^ go too 
far; run into extremes. 

nepepHarb see neperoHHXb 

nepernyxb see neperH6axb. 

neperoBopIbi [p'*ir**igAv6ri] 
pi -OB negotiations talks. 

neperoHJflXb [p*'ir''igAn''at*'] 
imperf -^k), -neuib, nepe- 
THJaxb [p''ir*'i^gnat''] perf 
neperoHK), neperoHHUJb, p 
-aj?, -ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, imp 
neperoHH 1. drive {cattle. 

etc) somewhere else; drive 
{cattle, etc) from one place 
to another; 2. outdistance, 
outstrip, outspeed, leave be- 
hind {also fig); outrun; out- 
walk; 3. technol, chem distil; 

neperopoAJKa [p^'ir^'igArdt- 
ka] / -KH, -OK partition {a 

neperpy>K|axb [p^ir^'igru- 
zhat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
neperpysJHxb [p^ir^'igruz^it'^j 
perf neperpy>Ky, neperpy- 

3HUIb (-HUIb), p -HJI, imp -H 

1. overload, surcharge; 2. fig 
overwork; overburden. 

nepeA [p^er^'it, -d], nepcAO 
[p'^er^ida] prep with instr 
denoting 1. position in front 
of; MaiiiHHa ocxanoBHJiacb -' 
AOMOM the car stopped before / 
in front of the house; npHMO 
n^pcAo MHOH peKa there's a 
river straight in front of 
me; ~ 9thm cjiobom Hex 3a- 
HHxoH there is no comma 
before this word; 2, preced- 
ence in time; qHxaxb ~ chom 
read before going to bed; ^ 
xeM, KaK before; -- xeM, KaK 
noHXH B KHHo before going 
to the cinema; 3. the rela- 
tion of an action to a certain 
person or object; HSBHHHXbCH 
~ KCM-Ji. apologize to smb; 
He oxcxynaxb ~ xpyAHocxH- 
MH boldly face difficulties; 
npeKJiGHHXbCH ~ KCM-Ji. Wor- 
ship smb; npeKjioHCHHe ~' 
KCM-ji. worship for smb. 

nepeAaJBdxb [p''ir''idAvat'*l 
imperf -k), -eiiib, p -saji, imp 
-BaH, nepcAJaTb lp''ir''i^dat'*] 

293 — 


perf -m, -aiiib, -act, -bahm, 
-aAHxe, -aAyT, p nepeAa.i, 
-ajia, nepeAajio, nepeAajiH, 
imp -aid 1. pass (over), pass 
on, transmit {to smb), turn 
over {to smb), give {over to 
smb), hand {to smb); transfer, 
hand over {to smb); 2. tell, 
communicate; nepeAaftxe eMy 
npHBCT remember me to him; 
my love / best regards to him; 
~BaTb 6jiaroAapHOCTb ko- 
My-Ji. give one's thanks to 
smb; 3. reproduce {what was 
said, etc); 4.: —Baxb no pa- 
AHp broadcast; transmit; 
'-BaTb no xejieBHAeHHK) tele- 
vise; show on TV; 5.: nepe- 
Aaxb ACJio B cyA bring the 
case before the law; . nepe- 
Aaxb saKOHonpoeKX b komhc- 
CHK) refer a bill to a com- 

nepeAaxMHK [p^ir^i^dat''- 
ch^ik, -g] m -a, -ob (radio) 

nepcAaxb see nepcAaBaxb. 

nepeAanja [p^ir^i^dach^9] / 
-H, ~ 1. transmission, pass- 
ing (over); transfer, handing 
over; 2. broadcast (pro- 
gramme); TV programme; bca 
— y riexpoB your narrator 
was Petrov; nporpaMMa — 
radio schedule; 3. parcel 
{for a patient in hospital, 
etc); 4. technol gear, drive, 

nepeABHr|axb [p^ir^idv^i- 
gat^i imperf -aio, -aeiUb, 
nepeABMH|yxb [p^'ir^i^dvinut''] 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp 
-b 1. move, shift; move 
somewhere, move from one 

place to another; nepeABH- 
Hyxb cxpejiKy qacoB BnepeA 
[HasaAl put a watcTi [a clock] 
on / forward [back]; 2. col 

nepeABH^KCHHle [p^ir^idv^i- 
zhen^iya] n -h, -h movement, 
moving; cpeACXBa — h means 
of communication / convey- 

nepeABHHyxb see nepcABH- 

nepcAHlHii [p^i'^r^ed^n^iy] 
a front; —He K0He4HocxH 
forelegs, forefeet; ~hh njian 

<C> ~HH Kpafl (oSopoHbi) mil 
main line of resistance. 

nepcAHHK [p^i^r^ed'^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -OB apron; pinafore. 

nepcAHlflJi [p^i^r^ed'^'n^aya] 
/ -efl, -Hx ante-room, hall. 

nepCAO see nepcA. 

nepcAOBHK [p^ir^idAV^'ik, 
-g] m -a, -6b: ~h npoHSBOA- 
cxBa shock-workers, front- 
-rank workers; foremost peo- 
ple in industry; ~h cejibCKO- 
ro xosHHCXBa front-rank col- 
lective farmers, foremost peo- 
ple in agriculture. 

nepcAoeloH [p^ir^idiwoy] a 
1. foremost, forward, advanc- 
ed, leading; -—oh oxpHA mil 
advanced detachment; 2. ad- 
vanced; progressive; ~6h ox- 
pHA vanguard; — bie jiioah 
progressive-minded people; 
foremost people; ~aH xexHH- 
Ka up-to-date machinery; 
— bie npeAnpHHXHH foremost 

<> ^ka cxaxbH leading ar- 
ticle, editorial. 


— 294 

nepeayiviaTb see nepeAyMbi- 

nepeflyMbiBJaTb fp^ir^i^du- 
miv9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
nepejiyMJaTb [p^ir'^i^dumat^j 
perf -aio, -aemb change one's 
mind, think better of. 

nepeAbiiu|Ka [p^ir^i^dtshka] 
/ -KH, -CK breathing-space, 
respite: He Aaeaji hh MHHyibi 
'— KH without a moment's re- 

nepee3fl[p^ir*'i^yest, -zd] m 
-a, -OB 1. removal {to a new 
flat, etc); 2. passage {the act 
of); crossing {the act of); 
3. (level) crossing; highway 

nepeesjKlajb [p^ir^iyi^- 

zh^at^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
nepeexjarb [p^ir^'i^yekhat^] 
perf nepee^y, nepeeAeiob, p 
-aji 1. cross {a bridge, river, 
etc, by vehicle); 2. move, re- 
move {to a new flat, etc); 
3. run over {a person in the 

nepe)KHBaHH|e [p^ir^izhiva- 
n^iya] n -n, pi -h, -h {most- 
ly pi) sufferings, troubles; 
feelings, emotional experi- 

nepeKHBJaxb [p^ir^izhivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, nepe- 
}K|HTb[p^ir''i^zhit^] per/-HBy, 
-Heeuib, p -HJi, imp -hbh 
1. experience, go through; 
suffer, endure; TH>Keji6 ~aTb 
MTO-ji. feel smth keenly; suf- 
fer greatly because of smth; 
2. outlive, survive {smb,smth). 

nepe>KHT|oK [p^ir^'i^zhltak, 
-g] m -Ka, -kob remnant, 
vestige; survival, relic; ~kh 

KanHTajiH3Ma b coanaHHH Jiio- 
Aeft the survivals / relics of 
capitalism in people's minds. 

nepejKHTb see nepejKHBaTb. 

nepesHMOBaxb see SHMOBaxb. 

nepeHsSHpjarb [p^ir^iizb^i- 
rat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, ne- 
peH36|paTb [p^ir^iizbfat^] perf 
-epy, -epeuib, p -paji, imp 
-epri re-elect. 

nepeHMCHOBaTb see nepe- 


nepeHMeHOBbiBJaxb [p^ir^i- 
im^i^novtvat^] imperf -aio, 
-aeuib, nepeHMeH|oBaxb [p^i- 
r^iim^'inAvat^l p^rf -yio, 
-yeuib, p -oBaJi, imp -yft re- 
name, give a new name. 

nepefixH see nepexoAHTb. 

nepcKjiaAbiBJaxb [p^ir^i^kla- 
dtvat**] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
nepejiGJKJHxb [p^ir^iUzhft''] 
perf -y, nepejiojKHuib, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. put / place some- 
where else; take from one 
place and put / place in anoth- 
er; 2. interlay {with); 3. shift 
(off) {the responsibility, etc). 

nepeKpecxjoK [p^ir^'i^^kr^o- 
stak, -g] m -Ka, -kob cross- 
-road, crossing. 

nepeKpbiBJaxb [p^ir^ikrt- 
vat^] imperf -ara, -aeiiib, ne- 
pcKplbixb Ip^ir^'i^krft''] perf 
-OK), -oeuib, p -biji, imp -.oh 
1. re-cover; 2. col exceed 
{a plan, etc); 3. stop up, 
shut off; block {a road), dam 
{a river). 

nepejiex [p^ir^'i^l^ot, -d] m 
-a, -OB 1. flight {of aircraft, 
a long one or over smth); 2. 
(trans)migration {of birds); 
3. shot over the target. 

— 295 — 


nepejiexjaTb [p^ir^il^i^tat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, nepejiej- 
Texb [p^ir^il^i^t^et^] perf -^y, 
-THiub, p -TCJi, imp -TH 1. fly 
(over, acros'i); 2. fly some- 
where else; fly from one 
place to another. 

nepejiHB|aTb [p^ir^iPivaf'] 
imperf -aio, -aeiUb, nepejilHXb 

jpbjj-hjepj^bj pQj.1 .j^j5^ -beiUb, 

p -HJi, -HJia, -Hjio, -HJiH, imp 
-eft 1. pour somewhere else; 
pour from one vessel into 
another; 2.: -—axb KpoBb med 
transfuse blood; 3. let over- 

nepejiOJKHTb see nepeKjia- 

nepejioM [p^ir^i^lom] m -a, 
-OB 1. break, fracture {of a 
bone, etc); 2. //^crisis {of an 
illness); turning-point; great 
change; AO^HTbCH KopcHHoro 
'-a bring about a fundamen- 
tal change/ improvement, 

nepeMeHJa [p^ir^i^m^enaj / 
-w, -- 1. changing, change; 
2. change, alteration; 3. in- 
terval, break, recess {between 

nepeMeHHTb see nepeMCHHTb. 

nepeMeH|HTbC5i [p^ir^'im^i^- 
n^'ittja] perf -ibcb, nepcMe- 
HHuibCH, p -HjicH, -HJiacb, imp 
-HCb, -HTecb change {become 

nepeMeHJflTb [p^ir'Tm^i^- 
n^at''] imperf -aio, -Heuib, 
nepeMeHJHTb (p^ir^im^i^n^it''] 
perf -K>, nepCMeHHiub, p -hji, 
imp -H change {1) replace; 
2) make different). 

nepeMeuiarb see nepeMeuiH- 

shivat''] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
nepeMeui|aTb [p^ir^im'^i^shat^j 
perf -aio, -aeuib intermix, 
mix (up), intermingle. 

nepeMUpH|e [p^'ir^i^m^'i- 
r^iya] n -h armistice, truce. 

nepenecTH see nepeHocHTb. 

nepeHOc|HTb [p^'ir'^mAs^it^] 
imperf nepenouiy, nepeno- 
CHiiib, p -HJI, imp -H, nepe- 
Hec|TH [p^ir^m^i^s^t^i] perf 
-y, -eiub, p nepenec, -Jia, 
imp -H 1. carry somewhere 
else, take somewhere else, 
carry from one place to 
another; transfer somewhere 
else {change the seat of, etc), 
transfer from one place to 
another, ~-HTb oroHb mil 
shift /lift fire; 2. put off, 
postpone; adjourn {a meeting); 
3. endure, bear, stand; h hc 
nepeHomy SToro I can't stand/ 
bear it. 

nepCHOCHula [p^ir^'i^nos^i- 
tsa] / -bi, ~ bridge of the 

nepeHOCHbiif [p^ir^i^nosnty] 
a 1. portable; 2. figurative 
{of meaning). 

nepeH04|eBaTb [p^ir^ina- 
ch^'i^vat^l perf -yio, -yeuib, 
p -cBaji, imp -yft spend / sleep 
the night {somewhere). 

nepeofleB|iTb [p^ir^iAd^i®- 
vat*'] imperf -aio, -aemb, ne- 
peoAe|Tb [p^ir^iAd^et^] perf 
-Hy -Hemb, p -Ji, imp -Hb 

1. change (smb's) clothes; 

2. disguise {smb); 3. col 
change {one's coat, etc). 

nepeoACB ] axbCH [p^ir'^iAd^i^- 
vattja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 


— 296 — 

CH, nepeofleJTbCfl [p^ir^iAd^e- 
ttsa] perf -Hycb, -HeuibCH, p 

-JlCH.-JiaCb, /mp -HbCH, -HbTeCb 

1. change (one's clothes); 

2. dress up; disguise oneself. 
nepeoACTb see nepeoAeeaTb. 
nepeofleTbCJi see nepeoAe- 


nepeou,eHHB|aTb [p^ir^iAtse- 
n^ivat''] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
nepeoueHJHTb [p''ir^;Atsi^- 
n^it*'] perf -k), nepeoueHHiub, 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. revalue, 
reappraise; 2. over-estimate, 

nepenHcaxb see nepenHCbi- 

nepenHCbiBJaxb [p^ir^i^p^i- 
sivaf^l imperf -aK), -aemb, 
nepenH|caTb [p^ir^ip^isaf*] 
perf -my, nepenHuieuib, p 
-caji, imp -iiiH 1. rewrite; 
(re)type; have smth (re)typed; 
^aib HaqHCTo write out fair; 
make a clean copy of; 
2. copy {make a written copy 
of); 3. make a list of. 

nepenHCbiB|aTbC5i [p^ir^i*-'- 
p^isivattja] imperf -aiocb, 
-aeujbCH correspond (with 
smb)\ write to each other. 

n6penHc|b [p^er^ip^'is^, -z''] 
/ -H census. 

nepenjiecTH see nepenJie- 

nepenjiex [p^ir^'i^pPot, -d] 
m -a, -OB binding, (book-) 
cover; KHHra b -^e bound 
book;x3TAaTb mto-ji. b -^ have 
smth bound; 

<> nonacTb e ^ col ^ get 
into trouble /a scrape. 

nepenjierlaTb [p''ir'*ipPi^- 
tat**l imperf -aw, -aeuib, ne- 

penjielcTH [p^ir^ipl^i^s^t^i] 
perf -ly, -leujb, p nepenjieji, 
-jia, imp -TH 1. bind (a book, 
etc); have (a book, etc) bound; 
2. interknit, interlace. 
nepenojiHHTb see nepenoJi- 


nepenojiHJMT.b [p^ir^ipAl- 
n^at'*] imperf -hk), -neiub, 
nepenojiHlHTb [p^'ir^i^pol- 
n^it^] perf -k), -Hiiib, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. overfill; overcrowd; 
2. fig fill (of a feeling). 

nepenojiox [p'^ir^ipAlokh, 
-gh] m -a commotion, flurry, 
alarm; noAHHTb — raise an 
alarm"; give rise to commo- 

nepenpoHSBOACTBJo [p^ir^i- 
praizvotjtva] n -a over-pro- 

nepenyrarb see nepenyxbi- 

nepenyxbiBlaib [p'^'ir^i^pu- 
ttvat^] imperf -aio, -aeujb, 
nepenyxjaTb [p^'ir^i^putat''] 
perf -aK), -aemb 1. entangle, 
tangle (threads, etc); 2. mix 
(up), confuse, muddle up. 

nepepeaaxb see nepepeaaxb. 

nepepe3|axb [p^ir^ir^'i^zat^J 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, nepepel- 
3axb [p^ir^i^r^'ezat^] perf 
-my, -H<emb, p -3a ji, imp -mb 

1. cut (mostly into two); 

2. cut off, intercept. 
nepepbiB [p^ir^i^rlf, -v] m 

-a, -OB interval, break, in- 
termission; recess, adjourn- 
ment; — Ha HHXHaAUaxb mh- 
Hyx fifteen minutes' break. 
nepecaAJKa [p^'ir^'i^satka] / 
-KH, -OK transfer, change (of 
train, etc); AeJiaxb ~Ky trans- 

— 297 — 


fer, change trains [buses, 

nepecaxHB|aTbcsi [p^ir^i®- 
lazhivattsa] imperf -aiocb, 
-aeuibCH, nepece|CTb [p^ir**!^- 
s^es^t^] perf nepecH^y, ne- 
pecHAeuib, p -Ji, imp nepe- 
CHAb 1. change one's seat, 
move (to another seat); ex- 
change seats; nepececTb 6m- 
me [Aajibuie] take seats closer 
[farther] {in a theatre, etc); 
2. transfer, change trains 
[buses, etc\\ '-aTbCH Ha aSTo- 
6yc change for a bus, 

nepeceKJaTb [p^ir^is^i^kat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, nepece|Hb 
[phr^i^s^ech'*] perf -Ky, 
-Heiub, p nepeceK, -KJia, imp 
-KH cross, intersect; cross, go 
across, move across. 

nepecejiHTb see nepecejiHTb. 

nepecejiHTbCfl see nepece- 


nepeceji|HTb [p^'ir^is^i®- 
Pat^] imperf -hio. -neuib, ne- 
pecejilHTb [p^ir^is^i^l^it*'] perf 
-K), -Hiub, p -HJi, imp -H 
move {smb to a new flat, 

nepeceji|flTbCfl [p^ir^is^i^- 
Pattsa] imperf -Hiocb, -nemb- 
CH, nepeceji|HTbcji [p^'ir^is^i'^- 
l^ittsa] perf -ibcb, -HuibCJi, p 
-HJiCHj -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-HTecb move, remove {to a 
new flat, etc). 

nepececTb see nepecascH- 


nepeceHb see nepeceKaTb. 

nepecKas [p^ir^'i'^skas, -z] 
m -a 1. retelling, narration; 
2. reproduction, exposition 
{of smth heard, etc). 

nepecjiixb see nepecbuiaxb, 

nepecMaTpHBlaxb [p^ir^i®- 
smatr^ivat^] imperf -aio, 
-aeuib, nepecMOTplexb [p^ir^i- 
smAtr^et^] perf -lo, nepecMOT- 
pHuib, p -eji, imp -H 1. look 
over, look through, go over; 
2, revise {review and amend)', 

nepecralBaxb [p^ir^istA- 
vat^] imperf -ib, -euib, p 
-saJi, imp -Baft, nepecxlaxb 
[p^ir^i^stat^] perf -any, 
-anemb, p -aJi, imp -anb: ne- 
pecxaxb AeJiaxb mxo-ji. stop / 
cease doing smth; Ao^K^b ne- 
pecxaji the rain (has) ceased; 
He ~BaH incessantly, con- 

nepecxaBHXb see nepecxas- 


nepecxaBJiJHxb [p^ir^ist/«v- 
Pat^] imperf -hk), -Hemb, 
nepecxaBJHXb [p^ir^i^stav^it^] 
perf -Jiio, -Hoib, p -HJI, imp 
-b 1. move somewhere else, 
move from one place to 
another, shift, rearrange (/«/•- 
nit'ure, etc); 2. put on / for- 
ward [back] {a watch, etc); 
<> ejie HorH --flxb be hardly 
able to drag one's feet along. 

nepecxaxb see nepecxasaxb. 

nepecxpaHBJaxbCsi [p^ir^i^- 
straivattsa] imperf -aiocb, 
-aembCH.nepecxpolHXbcji [p^i- 
r^i^stroittsa] perf -locb, -Huib- 
Cfl, p -HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp 
-HCH, -Hxecb change one's 
views; improve one's methods 
of work; reform {become bet- 

nepecxpaxoBmHK [p^'ir^i- 
strAkhofsh'';ik, -g] m -a, -ob 


— 298 — 

eol overcautioul person, 

nepecTpdjilKa [p'ir'i*str*'el- 
ks] / -KH, -OK skirmish, fire 
tngagement, exchange of fire. 

nepecTpoHTbCH see nepe- 


nepecxynlaxb [p^ir^istu- 
pat''] imperf -aio, -aeuib, ne- 
pecTyn|HTb [p^ir^istup^it^] 
perf -jiK), nepecxynHuib, p 
-HJi, imp -H 1. step (over), 
overstep; 2. fig transgress 
(a bound, etc), exceed {one's 
powers, a limit, etc); 3. {no 
perf): -^axb c hofh Ha Hory 
shift from one foot to the 

nepecbuilaxb [p^ir^'isilat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, nepecji|axb 
[p'^ir^'i^slat^] perf nepemJiio, 
nepemjieiub, p -aji, imp ne- 
peiuJiH send, send over {smth); 
forward {a letter, etc); remit 

nepeyji ok [p^ir^i^ulak, -g] 
m -Ka, -KOB side-street, by- 

nepexofl [p^ir^i^khot, -d] 
m -a, -08 1. passage, crossing 
{the act of passing across on 
foot); mil (one day's) march; 
npH ~e Mepea yjiHuy [py- 
^eli u m. n.] while crossing the 
street [brook, etc]; 2. crossing 
{the place of); .3. transition 
{from one state to another); 
~ B jipyryio Bepy conver- 
sion to another faith. 

nepexofl|MXb [p^ir^ikhA- 
d^it^] imperf nepexo>Ky, ne- 
pexoAHUJb, p -HJi, imp -h, 
nepeHJxM [p^'ir'^i^yt^i] perf 
-Ay, -fleuib, p nepemeji, ne- 

peiiijia, imp -ah 1. cross, get 
(over), go (across), go (over); 

2. pass on / over {to smth), 
proceed {to smth); pass {from 
smth to smth, into smb's 
hands, etc); turn {to smth); 
go on / over {to smth, smb); 

3. turn (into a new state); 

4. assume, initiate, launch 
{an offensive, attack); 

<>• — HXb M3 pyK B PyKH 

change hands (many times). 

nepexoflHbiH [p'^ir^i^khod- 
niy] a 1. transition(al); 2. ling 

nepjeu [p*'er^its, -dz] m -ua 

nepeHJeHb [p^'er^ich^m''] m 
-HH, -HCH list, register, in- 

nepeHMCjiHxb see nepcHH- 


nepeMHCjijnxb [p^ir^'ich^'is''- 
l^at^] imperf -hkd, -nemb, 
nepeHMCjilHXb [p'^ir'^i^ch^'is'*- 
Pit**] perf -K), -Huib, p -HJi, 
imp -H 1. enumerate (name 
over); 2. transfer {money). 

nepHjia [p^'i^r^ib] pi nepHji 
rail, railing; banisters'(o/ a 

nepMOA [p^i^r'^iat, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. period {of time); b ~, 
3a ~ during, in the course 
of; 33 ~ c... since..., aa ko- 
poxKHH — in a short space 
of time; 2. geol period, epoch, 

nepjo [p^'i^ro] n -a, pi 
nepbH, nepbCB 1. feather {of 
a bird); 2. pen {for writing). 

neppoH fp'^i^ron] m -a, oe 
platform (of a railway, etc, 

— 299 — 


nepcoHEJi [p^irsAnal] m -a 
personnel, staff. 

nepyaHCK|HH [p^iruansk^iy] 
a -an, -oe, -He Peruvian. 

nepySHJeu [p^'iruan^'its, -dz] 
m -ua, -ueB Peruvian. 

nepMar KH [p^i^rch^atk^i] 
pi -OK {sing nepMaTKJa / -h) 

necJHji [p^es^n^a] / -hh, pi 
-HH, -en, -HHM song {a poem 
set to music); HapoAHan ~h5i 

<> flojirasi —Hsi col a long 
story; cxapaji —hh col ah old 

necjoK [p^i^sok, -g] m -Ka 
(-Ky), -KOB sand; 3bi6yHHe 
'-'KH quicksands; 
•0 caxapHbiH —OK granulated 

necTpjbiH [p'^ostriy] a sh f 
-^, necTpa, -o (necipo), -bi 
(necTpbi) motley, particol- 
oured; multicoloured; gay, 

nexjiHlua [p^i^tPitja] f -u, 
-^ 1. buttonhole; 2. tab {on 
a uniform). 

neT|jifl [p^etl^g] / -jih, pi 
-JIH, -ejib, -JiHM 1. loop, 
noose; 2. loop, buttonhole; 
3. stitch {in knitting); 4. av 

nexyx [p^i^tukh, -gh] m -a, 
-OB cock {ihe male of a hen); 
US rooster; 

<>BCTaBaTb c — aMH rise at 

neib [p^et^] imperf noib, 
noeuib, p neji, nejia, imp noH, 
npoinexb [prAp^et^] perf, 
cinexb [s^p^et^] perf 1. -sing 
{!) a song, etc; 2) of birds; 

3) of a kettle, etc); crow {of a 
cock); ~ BnoJirojioca hum 
{sing); 2. {no perf): — 6acoM 
[xenopoM u m. d.] have a bass 
[tenor, etc]; sing the bass 
[tenor, etc\. 

nexoxja [p^i^khota] / -u 

neHajibHJbiH [p'^i^ch^aPniy] 
a sh f neMajien, -a, -o, -bi 

1. sad, sorrowful, mournful, 
dismal; 2. regrettable, unfor- 
tunate, grievous. 

nenaxjaxb [p^i^ch^atat^J 
imperf -aK), -aeuib, Ha;neHa- 
xaxb [nap''i*^ch^at^t^] perf 1. 
print {1) impress on paper; 
2) publish); type; ~-aTb na 
MauiHHKe type; 2. have {one's 
article) published {in a mag- 
azine, etc); imperf also write 
{articles for a magazine, etc); 
3. carry {of a newspaper, etc). 

neHax|b [p^i^ch'^at^] / -h, 
-en 1. seal, stamp {also fig); 

2. press {periodicals and the 
people who work for them); 

HMeXb XOpOUIHe 6x3bIBbI B -~H 

have a good press; .3. press, 
printing, print; Bb'iHXH h3 — h 
be published, appear. 

nencHlb [p^'ech^in^] / -h 
anat liver. 

neHeHb|e [p^i^ch^en^ya] n 
-H pastry {small flat cakes); 
biscuits {cakes). 

neH|Ka [p^ech^ka] / -KH, -eK 
co/=neMb II. 

ncHb I [p^ech^] imperf ncKy, 
neneuib, p neK, ncKjia, imp 
neKH, HcincHb [isp^ech^] per/ 
1. bake {in an oven); 2. {no 
perf) scorch, be hot (o/ the 
sun, etc). 



neHJb II Ip^ech'^, -j^] / -h. 
-eft stove {for heating or cook- 
ing)', oven; technol furnace; 
AOMeHHan ~b blast-furnace; 
MapTCHOBCKaH ~b open- 
-hearth furnace. 

neuiexoA [p^'isht^khot, -d] 
m -a, -OB pedestrian. 

neui|Ka [p'^eshka] f -kh, 
-CK chess pawn {also fig). 

neiiiKOM [p'^i^shkom] adv 
on foot; HATH ~ walk, go 
on foot. 

nemep[a [p^i^sh^:er8] / -bi, 
^ cave, cavern. 

nHaHMHo [p^'iAn^ina] n in- 
decl (upright) piano; nrpaib 
Ha ~- play the piano. 

nHBH|aH [p^ivnaya] / -oft, 
-bix pub, beerhouse; US bar- 
room, saloon. 

nHBJo [p^iva] n -a beer. 

HHA^aK [p^idzhak, -g] m 
-a, -OB coat, jacket. 

nH>KaM|a [p^izhama] / -bi, 
^ pyjamas. 

nHJi [p^ii], HHJia [p^ila] 
see HHTb^ 

nHJija [p^ila] / -b'l, pi nft- 
Jibi, ~, HHJiaM saw (a tool). 

nHji|MTb [p^il^it^l imperf 
-K), nftjiHuib, p -HJi, imp -H 
1. saw; 2. fig col nag, pester. 

nHjioT [p^'ilot, -d] m -a, 
OB pilot {of an aircraft). 

oMjiibjilji [p^iPul^a] / -H, 
-b med pill; 

<> no30JiOTHTb — K) sugar the 

HHOHep [p^iAn^er] m -a, 
-OB Young Pioneer, pioneer 
(a member of the voluntary 
communist organization of 

nHp [p^'ir] m -a, pi -bi, 
-OB feast {a meal or banquet); 
<> ~ Ha eecb mho = sump- 
tuous feast. 

nnnor [p^irok, -c|] m -a, 
-OB pie, pasty; tart {food). 

nHpojKHloe [p'^irozhnayal n 
-oro, -bix (fancy) cake. 

oHpoK^OK [p^'irAzhok, -g] 
m -Ka -KOB patty, pie. 

nHcaTeji|b [p^'isat^il^] m 
-H, -eft writer, author. 

nHc|aTb [p^isat^] imperf 
HHiiiy, nHmeiub, p -aji, imp 
nHuiH, HainHcaxb [nap^isat^J 
perf 1. write; 2. {no perf) 
write {for a magazine, etc); 
3. paint {1) a picture, etc; 
2) in oil, etc). 

nHCTOjiex [p^istAl^et, -d] 
m -a, -oB pistol, gun. 

nHCbMeHHJbiH [p^'is^m^m- 
niy] a 1. written {work, re- 
quest, etc); 2.: —bift ctoji 
desk, writing-table; —bift npH- 
66p writing set. 

nHCbMlo [p^is^mo] n -a, pi 
HHCbMa, nftceM, nricbMaM 1. 
letter {a message); oTKpbiToe 
~-6 1) postcard; 2) open let- 
ter; aaKasHoe —6 registered 
letter; peKOMeHAaxejibHoe —6 
letter of recommendation; 2. 
writing {the art of). 

nHxaHHle [p'^itan^'iya] n -h 
1. nourishment, nutrition, 
feeding, diet; ycftjieHHoe -~-e 
nourishing diet, high-caloric 
diet; 2. technol feeding; 
<> oCmecTBeHHoe —e public 

nHTaTeJibHJbiH [p^itaf'il^- 
niy} a sh f nHTaieJieH, -a, 
-0, -bi nourishing, nutritious. 

— 301 — 


HHTlaxb [p^itat^] imperf 
^aK), -aeuib 1. feed, nourish 
{also fig); 2. fig feel, have 
{sympathy, confidence, etc); 
'-axb Hajxemj^y cherish the 
hope; 3. iechnol feed. 

nHT|aTbCH [p^itattsa] im- 
perf -aiocb, -aembCH feed {on 
smth), live {on smth); xopomo 
[njioxo] -— axbCH have good 
[bad] food; —aTbcn b ctojio- 
BOH have one's meals at a 

nHTb [p^it^] imperf uhio, 
Hbeiub, p HHji, HHjia, nHJio, 
oHJiH, imp nefl, obinHTb 
[vfp^it^] perf Bb'mbK), Bbi- 
nbeiub, p BbmHJi, imp Bbmeft 
drink, take {tea, etc); gulp 
{a liquid); sip; h xoMy — 
I'm thirsty; BbinHXb cxaKaH 
qaio have/ take a glass of 
tea; — ■ aa Koro-Ji. drink to 
smb; ~ 3a Hbe-ji. sAopoBbe 
drink smb's health. 

nHuiH [p^ishl] see nHcaxb. 

nHuiy [p^'ishu], niiiiiemb 
[p^ish9sh, -zh] see nHcaxb. 

nHm|a [p^ish^:a] / -h food 
(a/50 fig); 

<> Aaeaxb ~y noflOspcHHRM 
JcjiyxaM u m. n.\ feed suspi- 
cions [rumours, etc]. 

nHmjaxb [p^ish^:at^] im- 
perf -y, -Huib, p -aji, imp 
-H squeak; peep, chirp; whine 
{of children), 

nHii;eBapeHH|e [p^ish^iivA* 
r^en^iya] n -h digestion; pac- 
cxpoflcxBO ~H indigestion. 

nHmeeloH [p^ish^-.i^voy] a: 
'-bie opoflyKXbi food-stuffs; 
~a5i npoMbmiJienHocxb food 

njiaBJaxb [plavat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiub [cf njibixb] swim 
{1) in water; 2) on the water); 
float, drift; sail {on board a 

njiaBH|biH [plavnty] a sh f 
njiaBCH, -a, -o, -bi smooth {not 
jerky); flowing {speech). 

njiaKax [plAkat, -d] m -a, 
-OB poster, bill, placard. 

njiaJKaxb [plakat^] imperf 
-^y, -qeiiib, p -Kaji, imp -Mb 
1. cry weep; sob (m d/s/ress); 
~Kaxb HaBspbiA sob; 2. weep 
{for), cry {for); mourn, grieve 

<> xoxb ~Hb! col it is 
enough to make you cryl 

njiaM|ji [plam'^a] n -eHH 
flame, blaze; BcnuxHyxb — e- 
HCM blaze out {of a fire). 

njiaH [plan] m -a, -ob 1. 
plan {for the future, etc); 
target [a quantity set for out- 
put); scheme, project; ccmh- 
jiexHHH — seven-year plan; 
nepcneKXHBHbiH ~ long-term 
plan; — BbiriycKa npo^y^iUHH 
output plan; cxpoHXb ~bi 
make plans; 2. plan, map^ 
CHHMaxb -~- qero-ji. make a 
plan of smth; 3.: saAHHH — 
background; na nepe^HeM [na 
aaflHCM] ~e in the foreground 
[background]; na nepBOM -'e 
in the forefront. 

njianep [plAn^or] m -a, -oe 
glider {an aircraft). 

njiaHejxa [pUn^ets] / -bi, 
— planet. 

njiaHOB|biH [plansviy] a 
planned, systematic; '— oe xo- 
3HHCXB0 planned economy; 
-^biH oxfleji planning section; 


— 802 — 

— oe saflaHHe target (figure), 
(production) plan. 

njiaHOMepHtbiM [pbnAm^er- 
niy] a sh f njianoMepeH, -a, 
-o, -bi systematic, planned, 
balanced, regular. 

njiacTHH|Ka [pUs^t^inlo] / 
-KH, -OK 1. plate (2) o/me/a/; 
2) in photography}; 2. (gram- 
ophone) record; nocxaBHTb 
'-Ky put on a record. 
, njiacTMaccja [plAstmassa] / 
-bi plastic. 

njiacTbip|b [plastir^] m -h, 
-eft med (sticking-)plaster; 
npHJioHCHTb ~b apply plaster. 

njiarja [plata] / -bi pay, 
payment; fee, charge; —a 3a 
npoesA fare passage; sapa- 
6oTHaH —a wages; pay, sal- 
ary; KBapTHpHan —a rent 
{for dwelling); --a aa bxoa 
entrance fee. 

njiaTHHJa [plaf'ina] / -u 

njiarlMTb [pUt^it^] imperf 
njia^y, njiaxHiiib, p -hji, imp 
-H, sainjiaxHTb [zapUt^it^] 
perf, yinjiaiMTb [upUt^it^] 
perf 1. pay {give money, make 
a payment, etc); —Hib Hajiijq- 
HbiMH pay in cash/ ready mo* 
ey; —Hib no c^eTy settle an 
account, pay a bill; —Hib b 
Kaccy pay at the cash-box; 
~HTb B .paccpo^Ky pay by 
instalments; 2. (sanjiaTHTb)//^ 
pay;~HTb ycjiyroft aa ycjiyry 
return a service/ a kindness, 
payback; ~HTb KOMy-ji. Bsa- 
liMHocTbK) return smb's love. 

njiaxHbiH [platniy] a 1. re- 
quiring payment; 2. paid 
{.work, etc). 

njiailoK [pUtok, -g] m -k5, 
-KOB shawl; kerchief; HocoBoa 
■~6k handkerchief. 

njiaT4)6pM|a [plAtf6rm8] / 
-bi, ^ 1. platform {1) on a 
railway; 2) pol); 2. (railway) 
truck; US flat-car. 

njiaTbje [plaf'ya] n -n, -ea 
1. clothes, clothing; BepxHee 
— e outdoor wear, outer 
clothes; 2. dress, frock, 

njiauKaprla [pUtskarta] / 
--bi, — reserved seat (ticket) 
{for passage); berth {for sleep- 
ing); BSHTb — y book a re- 
served seat; book a ticket. 

njian [plach'', -j^] m -a 
weeping, crying. 

njianeBHlbiH [plAch^evniy] 
a sh f njianeBen, -a, -o, -bi 
deplorable, lamentable; b 
~0M nojioHceHHH in a sorry 
plight, in a deplorable posi- 
tion; ~biH HcxoA failure; 
HMexb ~biH BHA cut 3 sorry 

njiam [plash^:, -zh^:] m 
-a, -efi 1. raincoat, water- 
proof coat, makintosh; 2. 
cloak {an outer garment). 

njieearejibKHula [pl^i^va- 
t^iPn^itsa] / -bi, -^ spittoon. 

njieBJaxb [pl^'i^vat^J imperf 
n;iK)K), njiioeuib, p -aji, imp 
njDoPi, njiK)H|yTb [pl^unut^] 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp -b 
1. spit {throw out saliva); 2. 
fig co/^spit {on), not care a 
fig / straw; eMy Ha Bce —axb 
he doesn't care a fig /straw. 

njieMJii [pl^em^'a] n -chh, 
pi -cHa, -en, -enaM tribe 
{a community). 

— ws — 


njieMflHHMK [pPi^m^an^- 
n^'ik, -g] m -a, -ob nephew. 

njieMsiHHHula [pPi'^m'^an''- 
B^itsa] / -bi, — niece. 

njicH [pl^en] m -a captivity 
[also fig); BSHib b ^ take 

njieHJKa [pl^onka] / -kh, 
-OK film [used in photography, 
etc); sacHHTb Ha — Ky pho- 
tograph; npOHBHTb -~Ky de- 
velop a film. 

njieHHbiii [pl^ennty] I a 

1 1 as a noun n Ji e h h | bi h m 
-oro, -bix prisoner (of v/ar). 

njienyM [plenum] m -a, 
-OB plenum, plenary session. 

njieceH|b [pl^es^m^] / -h 
mould {on leather, cheese, etc). 

njiecK [pPesk, -zgj m -a 
splash, swash; lapping {of 

njielcTH [pl^i^s^t^i] imperf 
-Ty, -Teuib, p njieji, -Jia, imp 
-TH, cinjiecTM [spl^i^s^t^i] perf 
1. braid, plait; weave {bas- 
kets, etc); twine {a wreath, 
etc); spin {a web, etc); 2. {no 
perf) fig col: --cth epyHAV 
[B3A0p] talk nonsense. 

njielcTHCb [pPi^s^t^is^] /m- 
perf -Tycb, -xembCJi, p njieji- 
CH, -jiacb, imp -THCb, -THxecb 
col drag oneself along, walk 

<>■ --CTHCb B xBocTe lag be- 
hind; trail along at the back. 

iijieH|6 [pPi^ch^o] n -a, pi 
njieqH, ~, -aM 1. shoulder 
{part of the body); 2. technol 

<» HMCTb rojioBy Ha '-ax 
have a good hfead on one's 

shoulders; He no ~y KOMy-ji. 

beyond smb's power; BbiHccxH 
Ha CBOHx ~ax (bcw xflacecTb 
Mero-ji.) bear the brunt of 
smth; c -' aojioh ^ that's 
done, thank goodness. 

njiHTJa [pPita] / -b'l, pi 
njiHTbi, — ', njiHiaM 1. plate, 
slab, flag(stone); MorHJibHan 
~a gravestone, tombstone; 
2. (kitchen-)range; rasoBan 
— a gas-cooker. 

njioBJeu [plAV^ets, -dz] m 
-ua, -uoB swimmer.^ 

ojioji [plot, -d] m -a, -ob 
fruit {also fig); npHHocHXb 
~bi bear fruit {also fig); no- 
jKHHaxb —bi MyjKoro xpy^a 
reap where one has not sown; 
-— HeAopasyMeuHJi result of 

njioflop6;iH|biH [pladArod- 
niy] a sh f njioj^opojieH, -a, 
-o, -bi fertile, rich {soil, etc). 

nji0A0XB6pH|biH [pbdAtvor- 
niy] a sh f njioAoxBopen, -a, 
-o, -bi fruitful {idea, etc). 

nji6M6|a [plomba] / -bi, -- 
1. seal, stamp, lead {on the 
door, etc); 2. stopping, filling 
{for teeth); cxaBHXb — y fill/ 
stop a tooth. 

n.iOM6Hp [plAmb^ir] m -a 
(fancy) ice-cream. 

nji6cK|HH [plosk^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f njiocoK, -a, -o, 
-H 1. flat {ground, etc); 2. fig 
trivial, stupid, flat {joke,etc). 

njiocKor6p|be [pbskAgor^- 
ya] n -bH, -hh plateau, table- 

nji6cKocx|b [ploskas^t^, 
-z^d*'] / -H, -eft math plane 
{also /f^); HBKjiOHHaa --bin- 


S04 — 

clined plane; b toh jkc ~h 
on the same plane (also fig); 
B onpeAejieHHOH --h from a 
certain angle; 


'--H (morally) go downhill. 

njiOT [plot, -d] m -a, -6b 
raft, float. 

njiOTMH|a [plAt^ina] / -bi, 
-- dam. weir; dike, dyke. 

njioTHMK [plot^n'^ik, -g] m 
-a, -OB carpenter. 

njiOTHlbiH [plotnty] a sh f 
nJioTCH, -a, -o, -bi 1. com- 
pact, dense, close; 2. thickset 
{person); 3. col: —bifi o6eA 
[saBTpaK u m. n.] square 

njioxo [plokha] I adv bad- 
ly; -— ce6H MyBCTBOBaTb feel 
bad / unwell; 

II impers predic that's bad; 
MHe ^ I feel bad / unwell; en 
CTajio -- she fainted; she 
felt unwell; 

III as a noun n indecl bad 
mark {at school). 

njiox|6H [plAkhoy] I a -an, 
-6e, -He, sh f ^, -a, njioxo, 
njioxH bad {1) opposite of 
good; 2^ smell, etc; 3) clothes, 
etc); ~6e HacTpoeHHe bad 
mood, low spirits; ^6e a^o- 
poBbe poor health; '-oe yie- 
meHHe poor consolation; 
II as a noun n Ji o x | 6 e n 
-oro: HTo Tyx --oro? what's 
wrong about that?; 
<> C HHM uiyrKH njIOXH ^ 
he is not to be trifled with; 
he is i dangerous customer. 

n;ioiuaA|Ka [pUsh^iatka] / 
-KH, -OK 1. ground {for some 
purpose); playground; sports 

ground; CTpoHTejibHan ~Ka 
construction / building site; 
2. landing {of a staircase). 

nji6maA|b [pl6sh^:9t^, -d^j 
/ -H, -eft 1. square {in a pop- 
ulated area); 2. areai space; 
jKHjiaH ~b dwelling space; 
floorspace; dwelling, flat; 3. 
math area. 

njiyr [pluk, -g] m -a, pi 
-H, -OB plough {used in farm- 

njiyr [plut, -d] m -a, -6b 
cheat, swindler, knave; 
rogue, rascal. 

njibiJTb [plit^] imperf -By, 
-Beiiib, p -JI, -jia, njibijio, 
njibiJiH, imp -BH a concrete 
movement in a definite direc- 
tion {cf HJiaBaTb] swim {1) 
in water; 2) on the water); 
float; dtift; sail {of a ship, 
etc); boat; -~Tb no TeMeHHK) 
go down stream [a/so see <>]; 
^Tb np6THB TeqeHHJi go up 
stream [also see <>]; 
<>'^Tb no TCHeHHio go with 
the stream/ tide; ~Tb npo- 
THB TeneHHA go against the 

njiiOH [pl^uy] see njieBaTt. 

njnoHyrb see njiCBaxb. 

njiioc [pl^us, -z] m -a, -ob 
1. math, elect r plus; 2. ad- 
vantage {smth to the good). 

njiiom [pl^'ush^:, -zh^:] m 
-a ivy. 

njiioib fpl'uyu], njiioemb 
[pl^uy6sh, -zh] see njieBaxb. 

njiam [pl'^ash, -zh] m -a, 
-eft beach. 

njiJic|aTb [pl^i^sat''] imperf 
njiHuiy, nJiHuieiub, p -aji, imp 
njiHUJH col dance, caper. 

- 305 — 


nHJi [pn^a] nHefi [pn^ey] 
see neHb. 

no [po; in the first preton- 
ic position — pA; in the sec- 
ond and other pretonic posi- 
tions — pa; in a stressed posi- 
tion — p6] prep I with dat 
denoting \. a thing, place, 
etc, along or on whose sur- 
face an action, a movement, 
etc, takes place: hath [exaTb] 
no yjiHue [Aopore u m. n.] 
go [walk, drive] along the 
street [road, etc]; hath no 
Tpaee walk on the grass; 
cnycKaTbCH no jiecTHHue go 
downstairs, come downstairs; 
no KpaHM along the edges; 
no KpaHM AopoFH pocjiH Ae- 
peBbH there were trees on 
both sides of the road; 2. a 
thing, place, space within 
which an action, movement, 
etc, takes place: ryjiHTb no 
caAy walk /stroll in the gar- 
den; xoAliTb no KOMHaTe walk 
to and fro in a room; nyTe- 
iiiecTBOBaTb no cTpane tour 
a country, journey through 
a country; xoAHTb no MyseHM 
do museums, visit museums; 
xoAHTb no anaKOMbiM pay 
visits to one's friends/ ac- 
quaintances; no BceMy cBeTy 
all over the world; 3. some 
direction that is followed: 
njibiTb no TeqeHHK) go down 
stream; hath no cJieAaM... 
follow (in) the tracks of...; 
4. smth in accordance with 
which an action is perform- 
ed: no coBCTy Bpaqa on the 
advice of the doctor; no 
c66cTBeHH0My meJiaauK) of 

one's own free will; no npa* 
BHJiaM in accordance with the 
rules; according to the rules; 
no npHKaay by order; cyAHTb 
no BHeuiHocTH judge by / from 
(smb's) appearances; h^htb no 
cpeACTBaM live within one's 
means; 5. cause, reason: no 
6ojie3HH through illness; no 
pacceHHHocTH through absent- 
-mindedness; no neoSxoAHMo- 
CTH of necessity, necessari- 
ly; no omnSKe by mistake; 
no qbeft-Ji. Bnne through smb's 
fault; no npHBb'mKe by force 
of habit; no o6biKHot!eHHio 
as usual, usually; 6. a thing 
by means of which or with 
the help of which an action 
is performed: roBopHTb no 
Tejie4)6Hy speak over / on the 
telephone; no noMTC by post; 
no >Kejie3H0H Aopore - by 
train; 7. a field, sphere of 
activity: HccjieAOBanHe no 
4)H3HKe an essay in physics; 
jieKUHH no Bonpocy o... a 
lecture on the problem of...; 
saHHTHH no reorpa4)HH geo- 
graphy classes; cneunajiHcx 
no pyccKOH JiHTepaType a 
specialist in Russian litera- 
ture, an authority on Rus- 
sian literature; ^leMnHOH no 
njiaBaHHK) swimming cham- 
pion; 8. a thing as a portion 
of smth that is equally di- 
vided in the course of an 
action: ohh BbmnJiH no CTa- 
Kany q^io they had a glass 
of tea each; sanjiaTi^Tb no 
py6jiK) pay a rouble apiece; 
9. time, term, etc (with plu- 
ral nouns): no BOCKpecenbHM 


— 306 — 

on Sundays; no yxpaM in the 
morning {as a rule); no ho- 
qaM at night {as a rule); oh 
He HHcaji HaM no MecHuaM 
we received no letters from 
him for months; 

II with ace denoting 1. dis- 
tribution: no ABa in twos; two 
each; no ABoe in twos, two 
by two; 2. time or space 
limit: no rpyAfa b cnery up 
to one's chest in (the) snow; 
c 1958 no 1961 roA from 1958 
to 1961; no nnioe iviapxa 
up to the fifth of March; no 
cen AGHb up to / till now; 
3. place: no sry cTopoHy on 
this side {of); no xy cxopo- 
Hy on that side {of); 

III with pr denoting succes- 
sion in time: no OKOH^aHKH 
yHHBepcHxexa on graduating 
from the university. 

no..., no-... pref 1 of verbs 
denoting 1. the beginning of 
an action: no6e>Kaxb [pab^i^- 
zhat^] start running, break 
into a run; norHaxb[pAgnat^] 
start driving, drive {along); 

2, the continuation of an ac- 
tion for some time: nopa66- 
xaxb [parAbotat^] do some 
work, work for some time; 

3. the perfective aspect: no- 
6pHXb [pAbr^it^] perf of 
6pHxb; 4. acquirement of 
a quality or of a greater 
degree of a quality: no6e- 
jiexb [pab^i^Pet^] . grow 
white; noAemeBexb [pad'T- 
shi^v^et''] become cheaper; 

II of adjectives & nouns de- 
noting 1. occurrence after 
yiihat is expressed by the stem: 

nocMepxHbifl [pAs^m'ertnly] 
posthumous; 2! position class 
to smth or along smth: node* 
pe>Kbe [pab^'i^r^ezhya] (sea) 
coast, seaboard; norpanHq* 
HbiH [pagrAn^'ich^niy] fron- 
tier {attr)^ border {attr); 
III of adverbs denoting 1. 
mode of action: no-HOBOMy 
[pAnovamu] in a new fashion; 
roBopHXb no-pyccKH speak 
Russian; 2. conformity to 
smb's or one's desire, opin- 
ion, etc: no-MOCMy [pAmoya- 
mu] l)to my mind; I think 
(that...); 2) as I would have 
it; in accordance with my 
suggestion / advice. 

no6er [pAb^ek, -g] m -a 
flight, escape. 

noSeAJa [pAb^eda] / -bi, — 
victory; triumph {over smth). 

m -H, -eft winner; conqueror, 
victor; sbiftxH — eM hs... 
emerge victorious from... 

no6eAHTb see no6eJKAaxb. 

no6eAOH6cHibiH [pab^idA- 
nosnty] a sh f no6eAOH6ceH, 
-a, -o, -bi victorious, trium- 

noSejKAlaib [pab^i^zhdat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, no6e- 
AJHXb [pab^'i^d^it'^l per/ -niiib 
\. defeat, conquer; win a 
victory over; win {in a 
game, etc); 2. fig triumph 
(over), prevail; 3. fig over- 
come, conquer. 

no6ejiHTb see 6ejiHXb. 

noSepewlbe [pab^i^r^ezhya] 
n -bH, -HH (sea) coast, sea- 

ao6uTb see 6aTb 1, ^ 

— . 807 — 

noSjiaroflapHTb see 6jiaro- 

no6.«eflMeTb see 6jieAHeTb. 

no6jiH3ocTH [pAbl^'izas^t^'i] 
adv near by, near at hand; 
'-' OT qero-ji. near smth. 

no66|H [pAboi] pi -es beat- 
ing, thrashing. 

noSpHTb see 6pHTb, 

no6pHTbC5i see 6pHTbCH. 

no6yAMTb see no6y/KAaTb. 

noSyMfllaib [p8buzhdat^] 
Imperf -aio, -aeuib, no5y- 
flJHTb [pabud^it^] perf no6y- 
3Ky, -Hiiib, p -HJi impel, in- 
duce, prompt {smb to do 

no6y}KAeHHie [pabuzhd^e- 
n^iya] n -h, -h motive, in- 
centive, inducement; h3 ca- 
Mbix jiymuHx — H from the 
most laudable motives. 

no6biBJaTb [pabivat^] perf 
-aK3, -aeiub visit, be (to some 
place, somewhere). 

no61biTb [pAbtt^] per/-yAy, 
-yAeuib, p n66biji, -biJia, no- 
6biJio, n66biJiH, imp -yAb 
stay, remain (for some time). 

noeajiMTb I see eajiHTb I 1. 

noBajiHTb II see saJiHTb II. 

noBajiHTbCfl see eajiHTbCH. 

noeap [p6v9r] m -a, pi -a, 
-OB cook. 

no-Bauieiviy [pAvashamu] 
adv corresp to bh [cf no- 
-TBoeMy] 1. to your mind, in 
your opinion; you think 
(that . . .); 2. as you would have 
it; in accordance with your 
suggestion / advice; nycTb 6y- 
Aex ~ let it be your way, 
have it your own way. 

n^iya] n -h behaviour, con- 
duct, deportment. 

noBesTH I see Beax^ I. 

noBesTH II see sesTH II. 

noBepHTb see sepHTb, 

noBepHyrb see noBOpaiH- 

noBepHyTbCfl see noBopaqH- 


noBepx [pAv^erkh, -gh] 
prep with gen: njiam — ko- 
CTioMa a raincoat over one's 
suit; CMOTpexb —- o^^kob look 
over the top of one's spec- 

n OBepxHOCTH i bi H [ p A v^erkh- 
nasniy] a sh f noBepxHO- 
CTCH, -a, -0, -bi superficial 
(also fig); surface (attr). 

noBepxHOCT'ib [pAv^erkh- 
n9s^t^, -z^d^] / -H, -efi sur- 

noBecHTb see Beuiaxb I. 

noeecTH see bccth 1, 2, 3. 

noBecT'iKa [pAv^estka] / 
-KH, -OK 1. summons, writ; 
subpoena; mil call-up papers; 
2. (also ~Ka ahh) agenda, 
order of the day; cxojiTb na 
~Ke AHH be on the agenda. 

noBecxIb [pov^is^t^, -z^d^] 
/ -H, -eft story, narrative. 

no-BHii,HMOMy [pAv^id^ima- 
mu] parenth apparently, in 
all probability; oh, --, sa- 
6o„ie;i in all probability he's 
fallen ill, he must have fall- 
en ill. 

noBHHJOBiTbcsi [psv^inA- 
vattja] imperf -yiocb, -yeuib- 
CH, p -oBajicH, -OBajiacb, imp 
-yftcH, -yftxecb obey, submit. 

noBJiHflxb see BJiHHXb. 

uoBOA Lpovat, -dj m -a, 


— 80S — 

-OB occasion, reason, ground; 
■no — -y qero-Ji. in connexion 
with smtii, on tiie occasion 
of smth; 6e3 bchkopo ~a 
apropos of nothing; without 
any reason; cJiy>KHTb ~om 
give rise (to). 

noBOpaHHB|aTb [p9VAra- 
ch'^ivat''] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
noBCpHlyTb [pav^'i^rnut^i 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp -h 
turn (1) a handle, etc\ 2) 
one's head, etc; 3) to the right, 
etc); ~aTb sa yroji turn a 
corner; 2. fig change, turn; 
HejTb3H noBepHyib BcnHTb ko- 
jieco JiCTopHH one can't re- 
verse the course of history. 

noBOpaHHBJaTbcsi [pavAra- 
ch^ivattja] imperf -aiocb, 
-aeiiibCH, noBepHiyxbcsi [p9- 
v^i^rnuttja] perf -ycb, -eiub- 
CH, p -yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp 
-Hcb, -Hiecb turn (change 
one's position); turn round; 
swing (round); --axbCH chh- 
HOH K turn one's back upon. 

noBOpOT [pavArot, -d] m 
-a, -OB 1. turn (a change in 
direction};- 2. turning, turn; 
bend, curve; 3. fig change, 
turn, turning-point. 

noBpcAHTb see noepe^K- 

noBpe}KA|aTb [pavr^i^zh- 
dat^] imperf -k\o, -aeuib, n©- 
BpeAJHTb [pavr^i*^d^it^l perf 
noBpejKy, -Huib, p -liji, imp 
-H damage; spoil (a car, etc); 
injure, hurt. 

noBpe}KAeHH|e [pavr^i^zh- 
d^en^iya] n -h, -h damage, 
injury; nojiyMHib ~e be dam- 
aged; get injured / hurt. 

noBceAHeBHJbiH [pafs^i®- 
d^n^evniy] a sh f noBce^He- 
BCH, -a, -o, -bi daily, every- 
day; day-to-day (concern, etc). 

nOBCioAy [pAfs^'udu] adv 

noBTopHTb see noBTop^ib. 

noBTOp|flTb [jjaftAr^at*'] 
imperf -hkd, -neuib, noBTO- 
p|HTb [paftAr^it^] perf -vd, 
-Hiiib, p -VLJi, imp -H 1. re- 
peat; reiterate; 2. review, 
recapitulate, revise (one's 
lessons, etc). 

noBbicHTb see noBbimaxb, 

noBbiCHTbCfl see noBbimaTb- 


noBbiiii|aTb [pavishat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, noBbi- 
c|HTb [pAWs^it^] perf noBb'i- 
my, -Huib, p -HJi, imp -b 
1. raise, increase, heighten; 
improve (well-being, skill, 
etc); enhance (responsibility, 
prestige, etc); 2. advance, 
promote (smb). 

noBbiuj|aTbCfl [pavtshattja] 
imperf -aeiCH, noBMc|HTbCsi 
[pAvts^ittja] perf -htch, p 
-HJicH, -Hjiacb rise, increase; 
improve (of smb's mood, 

noBflslKa [pAv^aska] / -kh, 
-OK bandage; Ha;io»HTb ~Ky 
bandage, dress (a wound). 

noraAaxb see raAaxb 1. 

noracMTb see racHTb. 

norH(5|aTb [pag^'ibat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, norH6H|yTb 
[pAg^ibnut''] perf -y, -euib, 
p norH6, noFHfijia, imp -h 
[cf THdHyxb] perish (1) die; 
2) be destroyed); be killed, 
lose one's life; be lost, 

— st^ — 


sink (of a ship); crash (of an 

norjiaAHTb see rjia^HTb. 

norjiOTHTb see norjiomaxb. 

norjioimaxb [p3glAsh^:at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, norjio- 
T|HTb [paglAt^it^] perf no- 
rjiomy, norjioTHuib, p -hji, 
imp -H absorb, take up 
(also fig); oh ~eH CBoeft pa- 
66toh he is absorbed in his 
work; oh —en co66h he is 
wrapped up in himself. 

^o^JlJ^;^eTb see rjiH^eTb. 

noroBopuTb see roBopHXb 3. 

noroBoplKa [pagAvorka] / 
-KH, -OK saying, saw; bohth 
B ~Ky 'become proverbial. 

noroflja [pAgoda] / -bi 
weather; HejiexHan -^-a non- 
-flying weather; npornoa ~bi 
weather forecast; ~a paary- 
jiHJiacb the weather has clear- 
ed (up). 

noroHJfl [pAgon^a] / -h 1. 
pursuit, chase; 2. pursuers. 

norpaHHHHHK [pagrAU^ich^- 
n^ik, -g] m -a, -ob frontier- 
-guard, border-guard. 

norpaHHHH|biH [pagrAn^'ich^- 
niy] a frontier (attr), border 
(attr); ^aH nojioca border, 

n6rpe6 [pogr^ip, -b] m -a, 
pi -a, -OB cellar. 

norpyHijaTb [pagruzhat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, norpy- 
3|MTb [pagruz^it^] perf no- 
rpyjKy, norpysHiub (-Hiiib), 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. dip (into), 
submerge (m/o); plung-e (into) 
(also fig); 2. load (goods, 
etc); embark; entrain; em- 

norpyiK|aTbCfl [pagruzha- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, 
norpy3(HTbCfl [pagruz^i- 

ttja] perf norpy^ycb, norpy- 


-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 1. 
plunge (into), sink (into); 
submerge, dive (of a subma- 
rine); sink (of a ship); 2. 
fig be absorbed (in), be lost 
(in), be buried (in), be plung- 
ed (in); norpysHXbCH b coh 
go to sleep, subside into 
sleep; ropoA norpysHJiCH e 
XHiiiHHy quiet descended 
on the town. 

norpysHxb see norpy^axb 
& rpysHXb. 

norpysMxbCJi see norpy- 


nory6HXb see ry6HXb. 

noryjinxb see ryjiHXb. 

nofl [pot; in the first pre- 
tonic position — ^hi, -d; in 
the second and other pretonic 
positions — pat, -d; in a 
stressed position — pod] , noAo 
fpoda; in the first pretonic 
position — padA] prep I with 
ace denoting 1. direction of 
an action beneath smth: 
jiesxb -- cxoji get under a 
table; cecxb — - AepeBo sit 
under a tree; noA ropy down- 
hill; 2. a state, position 
into which smb or smth is 
placed, put: ox^axb ~ cyA 
prosecute, bring to trial; ox- 
Aaxb — cxpa}Ky give into 
custody; nonacxb — AO)KAb 
be caught in the rain; no- 
nacxb noA Mbe-ji. bjihrhhc be 
under smb's influence; 3. an 
event or state very near to 


— flO ^ 

some time, the eve of smth: 

— HoBbiH roA on New-Year's 
Eve; —■ BCMep towards eve- 
ning; ~ npasAHHK on the 
eve of the holiday; eMy —- 
HHTbAecHT he is close upon 
fifty; 4. accompaniment: -^ 
anJioAHCMeHTbi to / amid ap- 
plause; nexb ■— MysbiKy sing 
to music; — AHKTOBKy from 
dictation; 5. resemblance, 
imitation: BbiKpacHTb ^Bepb 
~ Ay6 paint the door in 
imitation of oak; my6a — 
KOTHK an imitation sealskin 
coat; 6. purpose: 6yTbiJiKa ~ 
MOJioKo a bottle for milk; 
II with instr denoting 1. po- 
sition beneath smth: cxo^xb 

— AepeBOM stand under a 
tree, stand beneath a tree; 
noAO JibAOM under the ice; 2. 
state, condition: paSoxaxb — 
^bHM-ji. pyKOBOAcxBOM work 
under smb's guidance / lead- 
ership; 6bixb ~ HaAsopoM 
be under surveillance; 6bixb 

— BonpocoM be undecided; 
^ AOHCACM in the rain; 3. a 
place near which smth is 
situated or an action takes 
place: jkhxb ~- Mockboh live 
in the suburbs of Moscow; 
live in the environs of Mos- 
cow; 6HXBa ~- BepjiHHOM the 
battle of Berlin; 6bixb ~ py- 
KOH be at hand; noA 6okom 
col quite near. 

nOA..., noAo... pref I of 
verbs denoting 1. upward di- 
rection of an action: noA- 
6p6cHib fpAdbros^it^] toss 
up; noAnpbiTHyxb [pAtprlg- 
put^J jump up; noAoCpaxb 

[padAbrat^] pick up, take 
up; 2. approaching: noA6e- 
jKaxb [padb^i^zhat^] run up 
{to smby, 3. a secret actioni 
noACJiyuiHBaxb [pAtslushl- 
V3t^ ] eavesdrop; noArjiHAbiBaxb 
[pAdgl^adivat^] watch fur- 
tively, spy {on smb); 4. addi- 
tion: noAJiHBaxb [padl^ivat''] 
pour some more, add {some 

II of nouns and adjectives 
denoting 1. position beneath 
smth: noASCMejibe fpadz^i'^- 
m'^el^ya] cave {beneath the 
surface of the ground); noA- 
Komwuk [pAtkozhniy] hypo- 
dermic; 2. being in smb's 
charge, under smb's control, 
etc: noALue(bHbiH [pAtshefnty] 
aided, assisted; under the 
patronage {of); noAonbixHbiH 
[pAdopitniy] experimental; 
3. a rank or title one degree 
below what is expressed by 
the stem: noAnoJiKOBHHK 
[patpAlkovn^ik, -g] lieuten- 
ant colonel; noAMacxepbe 
[padmAs^'t^er^ya] apprentice. 
noAaleaxb [padAvat^] im- 
perf -K), -eiub, p -Baji, imp 
-Bafl, noAJaTb [pAdat^] perf 
-aM, -aiiib, -acx, -aAHM, -a- 
AHxe, -aAyx, p noAaJi, -ajia, 
noAaJio, noAaJiH, imp -afl 1. 
give, hand (over) {with the 
aim of helping or obliging 
smb); -— Baxb najibxo KOMy-Ji. 
help smb on with his [her] 
coat; noAaxb pyKy KOMy-ji. 
offer / hold out one's hand 
to smb; ohh noAa^H ApyP 
Apyry pvKH they shook hands; 
2. serve {^dinner ^ etc}; 3, drivs 

^ ftl — 

up to the door {of a car, 
etc)', 4.: ^BaTb saHBJieHHe 
hand in an application; 
^Baxb >K5jio6y lodge / make 
a complaint; — Baxb e cy;; 
go to law, bring an action 
{'against smb); — saTb b ot- 
CTasKy resign, hand in one's 
resignation; 5.: no^axb coBex 
give advice; He —Baxb npH- 
sHaKOB ^H3HH show no sign 
of life; He — Baxb BHAy make 
no sign, remain imperturb- 

<> noAaib 3HaK give a sign; 
pyKofi noAaxb col ^ a 
stone's throw {from, to). 

noAi^BHXb see noflaBjiHXb. 

noAaBlMXbcsi [padAV^ittsa] 
perf -jiibcb, noAaBHuibCH,- p 
'^jicn, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-6xecb be choked; choke 
{with a bone, etc). 

noflaBjieHHbiH [pAdavl^m- 
ntyj a [pa] depressed, dis- 

noflaejilflTb [psdAvPat^] 
imperf -hk), -^eiub, noAa- 
B|HXb [padAv'it^] perf -jik), 
noAaBHiiib, p -HJi, imp -h 1. 
suppress, put down {a rebel- 
lion, etc); restrain, choke 
down, stifle; 2. overwhelm, 
crush; depress, dispirit. 

noAaBjiflK)ii^|HH [psdAvPa- 
yush^:iy] a [pa] -an, -ee, -He 
overwhelming, overpowering. 

noAapHXb see AapHTb. 

noAaploK [pAdarak, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB present, gift; b ^ok 
as a present. 

noAaxb see noAaBaxb. 

noA6Hp|axb [padb^irdt^] 
imperl -4k), -aewb, noAo- 

6p|axb [p9dAbrat^] perf noA- 
6epy, noA6epemb, p -aji, -ajia, 
-ajio, -ajiH, imp noA^epH 1. 
pick up, take up; 2. select, 
sort out; choose smth to 

noASop [pAdbor] m -a selec- 
tion {of personnel, etc); 
<> (KaK) Ha -- choice {attr). 

noA6op6A|oK [p9dbAr6d9k, 
-g] m -Ka, -kob chin. 

noABaji [pAdval] m -a, -ob 
1. basement; 2. cellar. 

noABepr|axb [padv^i^rgat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeinb, noABep- 
rH|yxb [pAdv^ergnut^] perf 
-y, -euib, p noABepr (-yji), noA- 
BepFjia, imp -h sutjject {to 
torture, etc); expose {to dan- 
ger, etc); —axb comhckhk) 
call in question; ~axb Hcnw- 
xaHHKD put to the test. 

noABepr|axbC5i [padv^'i^r- 
gattsa] imperf -aiocb, -aemb- 
Cf[, noABeprH|yxbCJi [pAdv^er- 
gnuttsa] perf -ycb, -euibCH, 
p noABeprcH (-yjicn), noABep- 
FJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb be 
subject {to), undergo; ~axbCH 
onacHOCXH be exposed to dan- 
ger; run the danger {of 

noABeprnyxb see noABep- 

noABeprHyxbCfl see noABep- 

noABecxH see noABOAi^xb. 

noABHr [podv'ik, -g] m -a, 
-OB heroic deed, exploit, featj 
coBepuiHXb ^ perform a ha» 
roic deed. 

noABHrjaxb [padv^igat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, noABH- 
H[yTb [pAdv^inut^J perf -y, 



-euib, p -yji, imp -b move, 
move aside, move up (to). 

noABH^KHJOH [padv^izhnoy] 
a 1. mobile, movable; —an 
lUKajia sliding scale; 2, agile, 
lively, active; 

<> —oft cocTaB r/i/ rolling- 

noflBHJKHJMH [pAdv^izhniy] 
a sh f noABHHceH, -a, -o, -bi = 


noABHHyTb see noABHraxb. 

noflBOA|HTb [padvAd^it^] 
imperf nofleojKy, noABOAHuib, 
p -HJi, imp -H, noABelcTM 
[padv^i^s^t^i] perf -Ay, -Aeiiib, 
p noABeji, -Jia, imp -ah 1. 
lead up {to), bring (to); 2. 
col let (smb) dov/n, do an ill 
turn; 3.: ~HTb HT6r(H) sum 
up {also fig); 

<> ~HTb SpoBH pencil one's 

noABOAHibiH [pAdvodniyj a 
submarine; —biH KaMeHb reef 
{a rock); ~bie pacTeHHH subi 
merged plants; ~oe leqeHHe 
undercurrent, underset. 

noAroplaxb [padgArat^] im- 
perf -aei, noAropjeTb [pad- 
gAr^et^] perf -ht, p -eji get 
a little burnt / scorched; be 
a little burnt / scorched {of 
food, etc). 

noAroTaBJiHB|aTb [padgA- 
tavPivat''] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
noAroTOBlHTb [padgAtov^'it^j 
perf -JiK), -Hiub, p -HJI, imp 
-h prepare, make ready; train 
{personnel, etc); -~aTb noMBy 
fig pave the way {for}-. 

noAroTaejiMBlaTbCJi [pad- 
gAtavl'^ivattja] imperf -aiocb, 
•a^iWbca, noAroTOBlHTbca 

[padgAtov^ittsa] perf -jirocb, 

-HUJbCH, p -HJICH, imp -bCH, 

-biecb prepare, get ready. 
noAroTOBHTb see noAroxaB- 


noAroxoBHXbcsi see noAro- 


noArox6BK|a [padgAtofka] / 
-H 1. preparation, preparing; 
training, education {of per- 
sonnel, etc); 2. schooling, 
grounding, background, pre- 

noAAaHHlbift [poddanniy] m 
-oro, -bix subject {a citizen). 

noAAaHCXBJG [poddanstva] 
n -a citizenship, nationality; 
npHHHXb ~o become / be 
naturalized, become a citi- 

noAACJiaxb see noAAeJibisaxb. 

noAAejiJKa [pAd^d^elka] / 
-KH, -OK imitation, forgery, 

noAAeJibiB|axb [pAd^'d^'elt- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
noAAeJijaxb [pAd^d^elat^] perf 
-aio, -aeiijb counterfeit, fal- 
sify; forge, fabricate. 

noAAepJKaxb see noAAepJKH- 

noAAepiKHB|axb [pAd^d^er- 
zhfvat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
noAAep)K|axb [pad^d^i^rzhat^j 
perf -y, noAAepJKHuib, p -aji, 
imp -H 1. support, hold up, 
bear; 2. support, back (up), 
second; encourage {support 
morally); 3. maintain, keep 
up {a correspondence, conver-. 
sat ion, etc). 

noAA6p>KK|a [pAd^'d^'ershka] 
/ -H support, backing; sup- 
porting, seconding; encoyr- 

— S1^ — 


ageroent (moral support); npn 
•^e... with the support of... 

noACHCTBOBaTb see achct- 
BOBaib 2. 

noflCJiHTb see jiemrh 1. 

noflejiMTbCJi see AeJiHTbCH 2. 

nofleujeBeTb see jXQUieBerh. 

nojimeHb see noA>KHraTb. 

nojimiiraTeji\b [padzhtga- 
t^il-^] m -H, -eft: —h BoftHbi 
warmongers, instigators of 

noAHCHrlaxb [padzhigat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, noAiKeHb 
[pAdzhech^] perf noAOJKpy, 
noAO>K>Kemb, p noA>Ker, no;^o- 
jKFJia, imp noAOJKFH set fire 
to, set on fire. 

noA3eMH|bifi [pAdz^emniy] 
a underground, subterranean; 
--biH xoA underground pas- 
sage; ~aH >Ke;ie3HaH AOpora 
the underground, tube; VS 
subway; —bift nepexoA sub- 
way (across the street). 

noAKjiaAlKa [pAtklatlo] / 
-KH, -OK lining (of a coat, 

noAKjiaAbiBJaTb [pAtkladt- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, noA- 
jio}K|HTb [padlAzhtt^] per/-y, 
noAJio^KHuib, p -HJi, imp -h 

1. put (under), lay (under); 

2. add, put some more. 
noAKOBJa [pAtkovs] / -bi, 

^ (horse)shoe. 

noAKOBaxb see KOBaib 2. 

noAKpenjieHH|e [patkr^i®- 
pPen^iya] n -h, -h mil rein- 

noAKynjdxb [patkupat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, noAKynJHTb 
[pstkup^it^] perf -jiib, noAKy- 
nHiiib, p -HJI, imp -H 1. bribe; 

2. fig win (over), greatly 
touch (smb). 

noAJiejKam I ee [padl^'i^zha- 
sh^:iya] n -ero, -hx ling sub- 

^OAJle^ [pA.dPets, -dz] m 
-a, -OB blackguard, scoun- 
drel, villain. • 

noAJiHHHHK [podPin^n^ikr 
-g] m -a, -ob original (of a 
book, etc). 

noAJiHHHbiH [podl^inniy] a 

1. authentic, genuine; origi- 
nal (text, etc); 2. true, real. 

noAJior [pAdlok, -g] m -a, 
-OB forgery (an act of). 

noAJiOKHTb see noAKJiaAU- 

noAJio^KHJbiH [pAdlozhniy] 
a sh f noA^oH^e-H, -a, -o, -bi 
false, counterfeit. 

noAJijbiH [podliy] a sh f 
~, -a, -o, -bi mean, base. foul. 

noAMeHHTb see noAMeHHXb. 

noAMeHiflTb [padm^i^n^at^] 
imperf -hio, -Heiub, noAMe- 
HiHTb [padm^i^n^it^] per/ -k>, 
noAMeHHiub, p -HJI, imp -h 1. 
substitute secretly, substitute 
imperceptibly (sm//2 for smth); 

2. substitute (for smb). 
noAMCCTM see noAMeiaTb. 
noAMexlaTb [padm^i^tat^] 

imperf -aio, -aeuib, noAMe|cTH 
[padm^i^s^t^i] perf -ly, -Teiiib, 
p noAMeji, -Jia, imp -th sweep 
(the floor, etc); ~aTb b kom- 
naxe sweep the room. 

noAMex|Ka [pAdm^otka] / 
-KH, -OK (half-size) sole (of a 

<> B --KH HerOAHXCJI KOMy-Jl. 

col s is not fit to hold a 
candle to smb. 


- 814 - 

noAMbiuilKa [pAdmlshka] / 
•KH, -CK (in oblique cases 
spelt separately) arm-pit; ne- 
CTH noA Mb'iLUKOH Carry under 
the arm; }Kafl> noA MbiiuKaMH 
be rather tight in the arm- 
-pits (of clothes). 

noAHHM|aTb [padn^'imat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, noAHJHTb 
[pAdn^at^jper/ -HMy, -HMemb, 
p noAHHJi, -Hjia, noAHHjio, 
noAHHJiH, imp -HMH 1. pick 
up, take up; 2. raise, lift; 
uplift (eyes, etc); hoist (a flag, 
etc); ~aTb bopothhk turn up 
one's collar; ~aTb miopbi 
draw up the blinds; 3. wake 
up, rouse; 4. raise, increase; 
enhance (prestige, etc); 5.: 
'--axb KpHK / myM 1) raise a 
clamour, make a noise; 2) fig 
col raise hue and cry; ~aTb 
TpeBory give the alarm, raise 
an alarm; ~aTb 6yHT start a 
mutiny; stir up rebellion; 
6.: ~aTb uejiHHy plough up 
virgin soil; 

•<0> ~aTb Bcex Ha hofh ^ 
raise a general alarm; noA- 
HHTb opyjKHe take up arms; 
'-aib Ha 6opb6y stir to ac- 
tion; ~aTb Koro-Ji. Ha CMex 
make a laughing-stock of 
smb; — axb Hbe-ji. HacTpoe- 
HHC cheer up smb. 

noAHHMJaTbc« [padn^ima- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aembcn, 
noAH|^Tbcn [pAdn^attja] per/ 

-HMyCb, -HMeUJbCH, p -HJICH 
(-HJICH), -HJiaCb, imp -HMIiCb, 

-HMHtecb 1. rise, get up, 
stand up; 2. rise, increase, 
go up; 3. climb, ascend; rise 
^/ a hill, eicy, 4. ri^ (u;t), 

revolt; 5. begin, start; b sa- 
roHe noAHHjicH uiyM the car- 
riage became noisy; 
<> y Hero pyna He ^-^ercji 
cACJiaib 3T0 he can't bring 
himself to do it. 

noAHoc [pAdnos, -z] m -a, 
-OB tray (for carrying arti- 
cles) . 

noAHflTb see noAHHMaxfa. 

noAHHTbCfl see noAHHMaTb- 

noAO see noA. 

noAO... see noA... 

noAoSHlbiH [pAdobniy] a sH 
f noA66eH, -a, -o, -u like, 
similar; such a / an, such; 
OH He BHACJi HHqero -~oro he 
hasn't seen anything like it; 
B ~bix cjiynanx in such 
cases; in similar cases; 
<> HHHero ~oroI nothing of 
the kind!; h Towy ~oe and 
the like; and so on, and so 

noAoSpaxb see noA6HpaTb. 

noAo6py-no3AOp6By [padA- 
brupdzdArovu] adv col before 
it's too late, while it's safe 
for you. 

HOAorpeBlaTb [padagr^i®- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, noAO- 
rpjexb [padAgr^'et''] perf -eio, 
-eeiiib warm up (food, etc). 

noAO«A|axb [padAzhdat^] 
perf -y, -emb, p -aji, -ajia, 
-ajio, -ajiH, imp -i5 1. wait 
(a little for smb, etc); 
2. col wait a little (witk 

riOA03peBldxb [padazr**!*- 
v^f"] imperf -aio, -aeuib sus- 
pect (smb of smth, that smth 
has happened, etc). 

— 815 — 


noflospdHHJe [padAzr^e- 
n**iy8l n -h, -ft suspicion 
(1) mistrust; 2) a vague be- 
lief)'. Ha --H under suspicion; 
no ^K) B... on suspicion of... 

nOA03pHTejIbH|bIH [p9dA- 

zr^it^iPniy] a sh f noAoapH- 
Tejien, -a, -o, -li 1. suspi- 
cious; suspicious-looking; 
shady {person, etc); 2. sus- 
picious, mistrustful. 

noAOHTb see ji,OHTb. 

noAOHTH see uojxxomih. 

noAOKOHHHK [p9dAk6n^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob window-sill. 

noAopBarb see noApbieaTb. 

noA6iiiB|a [pAdoshva] / -bi, 
'- 1. sole {of a shoe, foot, 
etc)', 2. foot {of a mountain). 

noAnHcaTb see noAUHCbi- 

noAnMcaTbCfl see noAOHCbi- 


noAnHclna [pAtp^iska] / 
-KH, -OK 1. subscription {to 
a newspaper, etc); 2. written 
promise, signed statement, 

noAni«:HHK[pAtp^ish^: ik,-gl 
m -a, -OB subscriber {to a 
newspaper, etc). 

noAnHCbiB|aTb [pAtp^i'st- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
noAnHCJaxb [patp^isat^] perf 
noAnHiuy, noAnHuieuib, p -aji, 
imp noAnHUJH 1. sign {a let- 
ter, etc); 2. subscribe {smb 
for a newspaper, etc). 

noAnHCbiB|aTbC5i [pAtp^isi- 
vattja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 
CH, noAnHc|aTbC5i [patp^isa- 
ttsa] perf noAUHiuycb, noAUH- 
uieuibCH, p -ajiCH, -ajiacb, 
imp BOAnHiuucb, no^QHuiii- 

Tecb 1. sign {one'snams); 2. sub- 
scribe {for a newspaper^ 

noAHHclb [p6tp''is'*, -z^] / 
-H, -eft signature {on a doo 
ument, etc); aa —bio HBa- 
HOBa signed by Ivanov. 

noAnojiKOBHHK [patpAlk6v- 
n^ik, -g] m -a, -ob lieute- 
nant colonel. 

noAnojibHUH [pAtpoPnly] a 
underground {organization, 

noApajKiaTb [padrAzhat**] 
imperf -ajo, -aeiiib imitate, 
copy; cjieno —axb KOMy-ji. 
slavishly imitate smb. 

noApaayMeBiaxb [padrazu- 
m^i^vat^] imperf -aio, -aemfa 
imply, mean, implicate. 

noApaTbCfl see ApaTbCH 1. 

noAp66HocTlb [pAdrob- 

nas^t^, -z.^d^] / -h. pi -h, 
-efl detail {of an account , 
adventure, etc); pi also par- 

noApoSHJbiH [pAdrobniy] a 
sh f noApc56eH, -a, -o, -u 
detailed, minute. 

noAp6cT|oK [pAdrostak, -g] 
m -Ka, -KOB teen-ager; juve- 
nile; youth, young boy; 
young girl. 

noApyrja [pAdruga] / -h, 
~- (female) friend; playmate 
{a girl); uiKOJibHan ~a school- 
-mate {a girl). 

noApy%|MTbcsi [padruzhf- 
ttja] perf -ycb, -iimbCH, p 
-HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hiecb make friends {with 

noApbiBldrb [padrivat^] /m- 
perl -aio, -aeuib, QOAopB|aTii 


— S16 — 

[p9dArvat^] perf -y, -eiub, 
p -aji, -ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, 
/mp -H 1. blow up, blast, 
explode, sap; 2. fig under- 
mine, sap; noAopBaTb qbe-Ji. 
flOBepHe K KOMy-ji. shake 
smb's faith in smb. 

noAp«A [pAdr^at, -d] adv 
running, in succession; on end. 

nojlCBeHHHK [pAts'^v^esh- 
n^ik, -g] m -a, -ob candle- 
stick, candleholder. 

noACKasarb see noACKasbi- 

noflCKa3biB|aTb [pAtskazi- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
noiicKalsaTb [patskAzat^] perf 
->Ky, noACKajKeuib, p -aaji, 
imp ->KH prompt {whisper, 
etc; also fig); suggest (a prop- 
er decision, etc); ue -~aTb! 
no prompting! 

noAcjiyiuaTb see noACJiyuiH- 

noACJiymHB|aTb [pAtslushf- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, noA- 
cjiyiii|aTb [pAtslushat^] perf 
-aio, -aeiiib overhear; imperf 
also eavesdrop, listen (at the 
keyhole, etc). 

noAcMaTpHB|aTb [pAtsmat- 
r^ivat''] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
noACMOTp|eTb [patsmAti^et^j 
perf -lb, noACMOTpHmb, p -eji, 
imp -H spy {through keyholes, 

noACHe}KHHK [pAts^n^ezh- 
n^ik, -g] m -a, -ob hot snow- 

noAc66HbiH [pAtsobnty] a 
subsidiary, auxiliary. 

noAcojiHeHHHK [pAtsoln^i- 
ch'^n^ik, -g] m -a, -ob sun- 

noACTaB|Ka [pAtstafka] / 
-KH, -ok support, prop, rest, 

noACTeperjaTb [pats^t^ir^i^- 
gat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
noACTepjeHb [pats^t'^i^r^ech^j 
perf -ery, -ememb, p -er, 
-erjia, imp -erH lie in wait 
{for smb), be on the watch 
(for smb); perf also catch, 

noACTpCKlaTb [patstr^i^- 
kat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
noACTpeKH|yTb [patstr^i^k- 
nut^] perf -y, -emb, p -yji, 
imp -H 1. incite, instigate, 
set on; 2. excite {smb's curi- 
osity; etc). 

noAcyAMMlbiH [patsud^i- 
miy] m -oro, -bix defendant, 
the accused; prisoner at the 

noACHCT [pAtsh^:6t, -d] m 
-a, -OB calculation {to find 
a result); ~ fojiocob poll, 
counting of votes. 

noATBepAHTb see noATBep- 

noATBepJKAJaTb [patt^v^i^r- 
zhdat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
noATBcpAlHTb [patt^v^i^r- 
dh't^] perf noATBep>Ky, -HUib, 
p -Hji, imp -H confirm, cor- 
roborate; reaffirm; ~aTb 
nojiyHeHHe Mero-ji. acknow- 
ledge the receipt of smth. 



f'v^i^rzhd^en^iya] n -h, 
confirmation, corroboration; 
~e noJiyqeHHH Mero-ji. ac- 
knowledgement of the receipt 
of smth. 

noATflwlKH [pAt^t^'ashk^iJ 
pi -eK braces, suspenders. 

- 8ft- 


noA^M|aTb [pAdumdi^] per f 
-aw, -aeiufa 1. see AyMaTb 1; 
2. think (a little), think (for 
a while); 

-<> '-axb / ~afi(Te) rdjiBKo! 
col just fancy!; well!; h hc 
—aio! col I wouldn't think 
of doing such a thing! 

noflyxb see AYTb. 

noflyui|Ka [pAdushka] / -kh, 
-eK pillow (^0 s/eep 0/1); cush- 

noAXOA [pAtkh6t, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. approach {the act or 
place of)\ mil approach march; 
2. method of approach, ap- 
proach; point of view. 

noflxolflHTb [patkhAdMt^] 
imperf -w.y, noAXOAHuib, p 
-mR, imp -AH, noAOH|TH 
[padAyt^i] perf -Ay, -Aeiub, p 
noAomeji, noAomjia, imp -ah 
1. come up {to), go up {to), 
approach; pull in, come in 
{of a train); 2. draw near(er) 
{of time, etc); 3. approach, 
consider, treat {from a cer- 
tain point of view); 4. do 
{for); suit {1) the occasion, 
etc; 2) smb). 

noAXOAHii])|HH [patkhAd^'a- 
sh^:iy] a [pa] -an, -ee, -He 
suitable, proper, appropriate; 
~HH MOMCHT the right mo- 

noAHepKHBJaTb [pAtchMr- 
k^ivat'] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
noAHepKHlyxb [patch^i*^rk- 
nut^] perf -y, -euib, p -yji, 
imp -H 1. underline, score 
under; 2. fig emphasize, lay 
stress on, underline. 

noAHHHeH|HbiH [patch^in^o- 
nniy] [pa] I a sh f -, no;^- 

HHHeni, noA'4[HHeH6, hoa^h- 
HCHM subordinate {position, 

H as a noun noA^HHCH- 
HJbiH m -oro,- -wx subordi- 


noAHHHHTbCH sce noAHH- 


noAHHH|HTb [patch^in^at^] 
imperf -hk), -neuib, noAHH- 
H|HTb [patch^inMt'l perf -k>, 
-Hiiib, p -HJi, imp -H subor- 

noAHHHlHTbCJi [patch^in^a- 
ttja] imperf -Hiocb, -neuib- 
CH, noAHHHJHTbCfl [patch^i- 
nMttsa] perf -locb, -HiubCH, 
p -HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-HTecb submit oneself {to), 
submit {to); obey {an order, 

noA'besA [pAdyest, -zd] m 
-a, -OB entrance, porch. 

noA'besjKJaTb [padyi^- 

zh'':at''] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
noATjexlaxb [pAdyekhat^j perf 
noAT^eAy, noA'beAemb, p -aji 
drive up {to), ride up {to); 
approach, near {in a vehicle). 

noATieM [pAdyom] m -a, 
•OB 1. lifting; hoisting {of a 
flag, etc); 2. ascent {of a 
mountain); 3. rise, slope 
upgrade; 4. upsurge, upheav- 
al; progress, advance, rise; 
raising {of the cultural, etc, 
level); 5. enthusiasm, anima- 

<> jieroK Ha ~ col light on 
one's feet. 

noA'bexaTb see noA'beajKaTb. 

noeAHHJOK [payi^dMnak, -g] 

tn -K3, -Kop duel, 



^6e3;^ [poyast, -zd] m -a, 
pi -a, -Of; rly train; Kypbep- 
CKHft '^ jxpress (train); to- 
BapHbiH — goods train; US 
freight train. 

noe3AlKa [pAyestka] / -kh, 
-OK trip, journey, tour. 

noexjaTb [pAyel<li3t^] perf 
noeAy, noe;ieiiib, p -aji, imp 
noesjKaft go (by vehicle in a 
certain direction, etc); come 
{by vehicle towards the speak- 
er, etc); start {[or some 
place by vehicle); -~aTb co 
cjie^yiomHM aBiodycoM tal<e 
the next bus; ~ajiH! col 
come along!, let's start! 

noxcajieTb see JKajiexb, 

noKajioBaTbcsi see TKajio- 


nomajiyH [pAzhaluy] parenth 
perhaps, very likely; I 
think...; would rather; had 

nowajiyficTa [pAzhali^sts] 
part used 1. in polite requests, 
etc please; 2. with a polite 
consent certainly; with pleas- 
ure; 3. in an answer to an 
expression of gratitude don't 
mention it; not at all; you're 
welcome; 4. in giving way to 
smb you first; 

-<> CKa}KH(Te) —I col just 
fancy!, I say! 

nojKap [pAzhar] m -a, -ob 
fire, conflagration. 

no%apH|biH [pAzharniy] I 
fire- {attr); ^aa KOMaHAa 

II as a noun noxcipH|biH 
m -oro, -bix fireman. 

noJKaTb see no>KHMaTb. 

iio«ejiauu|e [pdzhi^lan^iyal 

n -H, -ft wish, desire; HaH- 
jiymuHe ~h best wishes. 

nowejiarb see jKejiaxb. 

noHcepTBOBaTb see HcepTBO- 

nojKHBlaTb [p9zhivat^I 

imperf -aio, -aeiub: KaK bm 
~aexe? how are you?, how 
are you getting on? 

no%H3HeHHbiH [pAzhfz^n^i- 
niy] a for life, life {attr). 

no»(Hji]6H [pazhHoy] a el- 
derly; B -~6m Bospacxe eld- 

noMHMlaxb [pazhimat'*] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, no»|aTb 
[pAzhat''] perf -My, -Meuib.p 
-aji, imp -MH press {for a 
while); nojKaxb pyKy KOMy-ji. 
shake smb's hand; 
<> — ^axb njienaMH shrug one's 

noBaSoTHXbcsi see 3a66- 


no3aBHAOBaTb see saBH^o- 

no3aBTpaKaTb see saBxpa- 

no3aBMepa [pazafch^i^ra] 
adv the day before yester- 

no3aAH [pazAd^'i] adv 8c 
prep with gen behind {at the 
back of). 

no3aHMCTBOBaxb see saliM- 


no3anp6uijibiH [pazAprosh- 
Uy] a before last; ^ roA th» 
year before last. 

no3Bdxb see ssaxb 1, 2. 

n03B0JieHH|e [p9ZVAl^4- 

n^iya] n -h permission; c sd- 
mero ~h with your permis- 
sioa, by your leavo. 

— 819 — 


nosBOJiHTb see nosBOji^Tb 1. 

n03B0Jl|flTb [p9ZVAl^at''] 

Imperf -hio, -Heiiib, nosBo- 
flJHTb [pAzvol^it^] perf -lo, 
-Hiiib, p -Hji, imp -fc 1, allow, 
permit; 2.: —bxe mhc allow 
me, let me {do smth); 
<> --flTb ce6e 1) permit one- 
self; venture (a remark, etc)] 
2): OH He MOMceT no^^BOJiHTb 
ce6e KynHTb sto he can't 
afford to buy it; —flxb ce6e 
cjiHiuKOM MHoro take liber- 

n03B0HHTb See 3B0HHTb. 

nosBOHOHHHK [pazvAnoch^- 
n^'ik, -g] m -a. -ob anat 
backbone, spine. 

nosAHJHH [poz^n^iy] a late 
(1) autumn, dinner, etc; 2) 
guest, etc); ao -—eft Ho^Htill 
late at night. 

nosAHO [pozna] I adv late 
(1) after the time expected; 
2) at or up to an advanced 

II impers predic it's late; 
it's too late. 

nosAopOBaTbcsi see SAOpo- 


nosApaBHTb see nos^paB- 


no3ApaBji(,flTb [pazdrAv- 
l^'at^] imperf -hk), -Heuib, 
no3ApaBlHTb [pAzdrav^it^i 
perf -jiio, -Huib, p -HJI, imp 
-h congratulate; greet {smb 
on the occasion of); ~HTb 
Koro-ji. c HoBbiM roAOM wish 
smb a happy New Year; 

'-aiO BaC C AHCM p0>KAeHHH 

[c npasAHHKOM] (I wish you) 
many happy returns of the 

n63«e [p6zh^:i] comp o/ 
nosAHHH & corresp adv. 
no3HaK6MHTb see SHaK6- 


no3HaK6MHTbCfl see 3HaK6< 


nosop [pAz6r] m -a shame, 
disgrace, infamy. 

no36pH|biH [pAzorniy] a 
sh f nosopen, -a, -o, -bi 
shameful, disgraceful; 

<> npHrBOSAMTb K ~OMy 

CT0Ji6y put in the pillory. 

noHCKlH [poisk^i] pi -ob 
search (for smth). 

noH|Tb [pAit^] imperf noK>, 
-uib (noHuib), p -ji, imp ~, 
HajnoHTb [napAit^] perf give 
to drink; water {animals); 
HanoHTb HaeM treat to tea, 
give some tea. 

noH [poy] see nexb. 

noHMaTb see jioBjixb. 

noHMH [pAym^i] imp of 
noHHTb; see noHHMaxb. 

noHMy [pAymu], noHMeuib 
[pAymMsh, -zh] 1st & 2nd 
persons of noHHXb; see dohh- 

nofllxM [pAyt^i] perf -Ay, 
-Aeaib, p nomeji, nomjia, imp 
-AH 1. go {on foot in a cer- 
tain direction, etc); come {on 
foot towards the speaker, etc); 
start (for some place on foot); 

2. start, leave (o/ a bus, etc); 

3. enter {school,' etc); join {the 
army, etc); 4. be required 
{for), be used {in); na ko 
CXK)M nouiAO xpH Mcxpa Maxe 
pHH three metres of material 
were used in making the suit 
5. begin {to rain, etc); 

<> noiueji! col off with you! 


— 820 — 

nouieji boh! col clear out!, 
begone!; ecjiH y* Ha to no- 
uiJio col for that matter, as 
far as that goes; He noHAer! 
col that won't do!, that won't 

noKa [pAka] I adv so far; for 
the present, for the time be- 
ing; for a while; — Bce that's 
all for the time being; 
II cj 1. while (as long as); 
2. till; — He until; 
<> — HTo co/ in the meantime, 
in the meanwhile; (ny) ~! 
col bye-bye!, so long! 

noKa3aHH|e [pakAzan^iya] 
n -H, -ft 1. evidence, testi- 
mony; 2. reading {of a meter, 
etc); CHHMaTb ~h CMemHKa 
[npH66pa] read an electricity 
[gas] meter [a gauge]. 

noKasarejibHlbiH [pakAza- 
t^iPnty] a sh /noKaaarejieH, 
-a. -o, -bi 1. significant, sig- 
nificative; 3T0 BecbMa ~o 
this is very significant; 2. 
model {attr), exemplary; 3. 
demonstrative, demonstration 
(attr); ~bifl cyjx show-trial. 

noKasaTb see noKasbiBaxb, 

noKasaTbcsi seenoKasbieaTb- 
CH & KaaaibCH I 1, 2. 

noKasHoA [pakAznoy] a os- 
tentatious, for show. 

noKa3biB|aTb [pAkazivat^] 
imperf aio, -aeujb, noKalsarb 
[pskAzat^] perf ->Ky, noKa- 
JKeiub, p -3aji, imp ->kh 1. 
show (/) bring before the 
sight; 2) point out, indicate; 3) 
exhibit, demonstrate); 2, point 
(at, to); noKasaib pyKOH na... 
motion to...; 8,display {cour- 
age, etc); 4. show, register, 

read (of a meter, etc); 5. law 
give evidence, testify; bear 
witness, swear; 
<>noKa3aTb ce6« 1) prove one- 
self to be (a good worker, 
etc); 2) prove one's worth; (h) 
BHAy He noKasaib show no 

noKasbiBJaTbCfl [pAkazlva- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aembCH, 
noKa3laTbCJi [pakAzattja] perf 
noKa}Kycb, noKmembCH, p 
-ajicH, -ajiacb, imp noKaH<HCb, 
noKamHTecb 1. show oneself; 
come in sight; 2. appear, 
turn up; oh AaBHone ~aeTCH 
he hasn't come for a long 
time, we haven't seen him 
for a long time; 3.: ^aTbCH 
epaqy see a doctor. 

noKapaTb see Kaparb. 

noKaTHTb see KaiiiTb. 

noKaTHTbCM see KaTHTbCH. 

noKHAlaxb [pak^idat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, noKHHJyTb 
[pAk^inut^] perf -y, -eujb, 
p -yji, /mp -b leave {a place); 
abandon, forsake, desert. 

noKjiajiHCT|biH [pAklad^i- 
stiy] a sh f '-, -a, -o, -u le- 
nient, easy, forbearing, com- 

noKjioH [pAklon] m -a, -oe 
1. bow {a greeting); oTsexHTb 
Ha qefl-Ji. — return smb's 
bow; 2.: nepeitaib KOMy-ji. 
~ give smb one's love/ com- 
pliments / best regards. 


noKjioHHHK [pAklon^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob admirer, 

noKji^CTbcn see KJiHCTbCH. 

noK6|H [pAkoy] m -h rest, 

— 321 — 


<> npHCMHbiH —H reception- 
-room {in a hospital); yfiiH 
Ha — H retire. 

noKOHHHK [pAkoyn^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB the deceased. 

noKOjieHHJe [pakAPen^iya] 
n -H, -H generation {people); 
<> H3 ~ji B ~e from gene- 
ration to generation. 

noKOHHlMTb [pAkon^ch^it^] 
perf -y, -Hiub, p -hji, imp 
-H finish {with), be through 
{with), have done {with); do 
away {with), put an end {to); 
<> — HTfa c co66h commit 

noKopHTb see noKopHXb. 

nOKOpMHTb see KOpMHIb 1. 

noKopHlbiH [pAkorniy] a sh 
f noKopcH, -a, -o, -bi obedi- 
ent, submissive; resigned Ito 
one's fat§i etc.) 

noKOpjsiTb [pakAr^at^] im- 
perf -HK), -Hemb, noKO- 
p|HTb [pakAr^it^] perf -ib, 
-Hiiib, p -HJI, imp -H 1. sub- 
jugate, subdue {also fig); 
2. fig win smb's heart, fasci- 
nate, charm, captivate. 

noKpacHTb see KpacHXb 1. 

noKpacHCTb see KpacHexb 1. 

noKpoBHTejibCTB|oBaTb [pa- 
krAv^it^il^styvat^] imperf 
-yio, -yeuib, p -osaji, imp 
-yft patronize, protect. 

noKpbiBaji|o [pakrivala] n 
-a, — bed-spread, counter- 
panei' veil {to protect or hide); 

noKpbiB|aTb [pakrivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, noKp|biTb 
[pAkrlt^] perf -oio, -oemb, p 
-biJi, imp -OH 1. cover (/) with 
a blanket, etc; 2) of snow, 

etc); roof; paint {with), coat 
{with); 2. cover (a certain 
distance); 3. pay off, meet. 

noKpbiuilKa [pAkrtshka] / 
-KH, -eK tyre {on a wheel). 

noKynaTeji|b [pakupat^il^] 
m -H, -en customer, client 
{at a shop); buyer, pur- 

noKynjaTb [pakupat^] im- 
perf -aio.-aemb, Kyn|HTb [ku- 
p^it^] perf -JiK), KynHuib, p 
-HJI, imp -H buy, purchase. 

noKyn|Ka [pAkupka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. buying, purchasing, 
purchase; 2. purchase (a thing 
bought); AeJiaib — kh do 

noKyuieHH|e [pakushen^iya] 
n -H, -H 1. attempt {on smb's 
life); 2. encroachment {upon), 
infringement {upon). 

qoji I [pol] m -a (-y), pi 
-hi, -OB floor {of a room). 

noji II [pol] m -a, pi -u, 
-OB biol sex; 

<> npeKpacHbiH ~ the fair 
sex; cjiaSbiH '- the weaker 

noji..., noji-... first element 
of compounds denoting 'haW: 
nojinaca [palch^i^sa] half an 
hour; nojiAepeBHH [pald^i^- 
r^evn^i] half the village; 
noJi-oSopoxa [polAbArota] 

half-turn; nojiBioporo [pal- 
ftArova] half past one. 

nojiarjaTb [palAgat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeiub think, be- 
lieve, suppose, consider; a 
-^aK), MTO... I think / suppose 

<> Haflo —axb it is to be 
supposed / believed. 


— 322 — 

nojiarjaTbCfl I [pslAgattsa] 
imperf -aeicH: sAecb KypHTb 
He ~aeTC5i one is not sup- 

fiosed to smoke here; no smok- 
nghere; KaK ~aeTCH 1) prop- 
erly, in a proper manner; 
2) as required {by)\ sa bxoa 
~aeTCH njiaxa admission re- 
quires payment; eMy ~aeTCH 
DHTb py6jieH five roubles is 
due to him, he is to have 
five roubles. 

nojiar|aTbCJi II [paUgattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, no- 
;io}K|HTbC5i [p9lAzhlttj9] perf 
-ycb, nojiojKHiiibCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -HTecb rely 
{upon); pin one's hopes (wpon). 

nojiAeHb [pold^m^] m no- 
jiyAHH (noJiAHH) noon, mid- 
day; nocjie nojiyAHH in the 

nojije [p61^9] n -h, pi -h, 
-eft 1. field {also fig); mn- 
poKoe ~e AeHTeJibHocTH wide 
sphere of action; 2. {mostly 
pi) margin (of a book, etc); 
3. pi brim {of a hat); 4. phys 
field; ^ 

^ OAMH B ~e He BOHH prov 
^ the voice of one man is 
the voice of no one. 

nojie3H|biH [pAl^ezniy] a 
sh f nojieseH, -a, -o, -bi use- 
ful, helpful; healthy, whole- 
some; ~aH Harpy3Ka technol 
pay(ing) load. 

nojieHJo [pApena] n -a, pi 
-bH, -bee log, billet. 

nojier [pAl^'ot, -d] m -a, 
-OB flight {also fig); 
•()> c (BbicoTbi) nTMHbero ~a 
from a bird's-eye view. 

a6ji3\siTb [polzat^l imperf \ 

-aio, -aeuib [cf nojiairi 1] 
crawl, creep. 

noji3|TH [pAls^t^i] imperf 
-y, -euib, p — , -jia, imp -h, 
nojnojiSTH [papAls^t^i] perf 
a concrete movement in a 
definite direction — 1 [cf noji- 
saTb] 1. crawl, creep; 2. fig 
col crawl along, creep along 
{of a car, etc); 3. fig col 
spread {of rumours). 

nojiMBJarb [pal^ivat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeujb, nojijurb 
[pAl^It^] perf -bK), -beuib, p 
nojiHJi (-HJi), -HJia, 
(-HJio), nojiHJiH (-hjih), imp 
-eft water {flowers, etc); pour 
{some water, etc) upon. 

nojiMHMTb see JiHHHib 1. 

nojiMTHK|a [pAl^'it^ika] / 
-H policy {a course of action); 
politics; BHyxpeHHHH ~a 
home / internal policy; Bneiii- 
HHH ~a foreign policy. 

noiHTHHecKlHH . [pal^it^i- 
ch'^isk^iy] a -an, -oe, -He 

nojiMTb see nojiHBaTb. 

nOJlMT3KOH6MH|fl [pAPlt- 

ekAnom^iya] / -h political 

nojiK [polk, -g] m -a, -6b regiment. 

n6ji|Ka [polka] / -kh, -ok 
1. shelf (/or things); KHH>KHaa 
~Ka bookshelf; 2. rly berth. 

nojiKOBHHK [pAlkovn^'ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob colonel. 

nojiHOMOHHie [palnAmo- 
ch^iya] n -h, -h power, au- 
thority {to do smth); cpoK 
~H term of office; nepCAaxb 
CBOH ~H KOMy-ji. resign 
one's commission to smb. 

323 — 


nojiHOCTLK) [p61n9s^t^yu] 
odv completely, wholly, in 
^ i;ejiHK6M H — entirely. 

n6jiH04|b [polnach^, -j^] / 
-H (nojiyHOMH) midnight; b 
--b at midnight; ji,<iJieK6 sa 
'-b in the small hours. 

nojiHlbiH [polniy] a sh f 
nojiOH, -a, -o (-6), -bi (-h) 
]« full {backet, etc); packed 
(hall, etc); 2. complete, total; 
B — OM cocxase in a body, 
in full strength {of a group 
of people); 3. absolute {rest, 
etc); perfect {security, etc); 
full, complete {independence, 
etc); 4. stout {person); plump 
{child, etc); 5.: na ~om xoAy 
at full speed; b -—cm pac- 
UBexe cHji in the prime of 
one's life; b -~oh Mepe fully, 
in full measure; 

•0 y HHX flOM asi qauia 

e they live in plenty., 

nojioBHH|a [palAv^ina] / 
-bi half; ~a qeiBepToro half 
past three. 

noji6r|HH [pAlog^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He gentle, gradual, 
gently sloping. 

nojio}KeHH|e [palAzhen^iya] 
n -H, -H 1. position, location; 
reorpa(|)HqecKoe ~e geograph- 
ical situation; 2. attitude, 
position, posture; 3. condi- 
tion, state; situation, posi- 
tion; standing, status; 6€j\- 
CTBeHHoe ~e distress; KaKOBo 
'-e AGJi? how do matters 
stand?; 4. point, thesis; tenet; 
clause, provision {of a trea- 
ty, etc); 5. regulations, statute 
{of elections, etc); 

-<> oHa B —H she is in tha 
family way; Ha ebicoxe —a 
up to the mark; Bbixo;i h3 
~5i a way out; no —lo 1) ac- 
cording to the regulations; 
2) in accordance with smb's 
[one's] position. 

nojio}KHTejibH|biH [palAzhf- 
t^il^nly] a'sh f nojioH^HTejien, 
-a, -o, -bi 1. favourable {es- 
timate, reply, etc); affirma- 
tive {answer, etc); 2. positive 
{character, results, etc); 
3. phys positive; 
<> -^aa creneHb cpaBHeHua 
ling positive degree. 

nojiojKHTb see KJiacib. 

nojioKHTbCfl see nojiaraxL- 

nojioMaTbcsi see JioMaxbCH. 

nojioc|a [paJAsa] / -b'l, ace 
-y (nojiocy), pi nojiocu, no- 
jioc, -aM 1, stripe; strap, 
band; 2. zone, region, belt; 
3. period, spell. 

nojiocaT|uH [palAsatiy] a 
sh f ^, -a, -o, -bi strip- 

nojiocK|aTb [palAskat^] im- 
perf nojiomy, nojiomeuib, p 
-aji, imp nojioinH 1. rinse; 
2. gargle. 

nojioTeHli^e [paUt'entsa] n 
-ua,-eu towel; nocyAHoe —ue 

nojiOTH|6 [palAtno] n -a, 
pi nojioTHa, nojioxeH, nojiox- 
HaM 1. linen {cloth made of 
flax); 2. rly permanent way, 
railway bed; 3. canvas {paint- 

nojixopa [paltAra] nam card 
m & n nojiyxopa, nojixopbi 
[paltAriJ / nojiyxopa one and 


324 — 

a half; one... and a half, 
a..: and a half. 

nojiTOpacxa [paltArasta] 
nam card nojiyTopacxa one 
hundred and fifty. 

nojiy... first element of 
compounds denoting 1. 'half: 
nojiyKpyr [palukruk, -g] sem- 
icircle; nojiyofiopoT [poUi- 
AbArot, -d] half-turn; 2. 
'partially', 'not completely': 
nOviyrpaMOTHbiH [palugra- 
matniy] semi-literate; no;iy- 
jie>KaTb [palul^i^zhat*'] re- 
cline (lean); 3. 'half-mixed 
with smth': noJiyiiiepCTb [p^- 
lushers^t^, -z^d^] wool mix- 
ture, not all wool. 

nojiyroAHle [palugod^'iya] n 
-H, -H half-year, six months. 

nojiyocTpOB [paluostraf, 
-v] m -a, pi -a, -6b penin- 

nojiynpoBOflHHK [polupra- 
VAd^n^ik, -g] m -a, -6b phys 

nojiyH|aTb [paluch^'at^] //n*. 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, nojiyH|MTb 
[paluch^'it''] perf -y, no.ny- 
MHiiib, p -HJi, imp -H get, 
receive (1) presents, orders, 
etc; 2) an education, etc); 
obtain; acquire (a s/e///); take 
in (a newspaper, etc); ~HTb 
BbiroBop [saMenaHHe] be rep- 
rimanded; —-aTb yjioBOJibCT- 
BHe derive pleasure; —riib 
M3BecTH0CTb become known; 
become famous; ~HTb orjiac- 
Ky become known; be given 

nojiyHJaTbCH [paluch''atts9] 
imperf -aexcH, nojiyHJHTbCfl 
[paluch'^ittsaj perf nojiymii- 

CH, p -HJiCH, -lijiacb turn out, 
be; pHcyHOK —hjich xopo- 
uiHM the drawing is good / 
turned out to be good; H3 
SToro HHqero He ~aeTcji 
nothing comes of it. 

nojiyHHTb see nojiynaxb. 

nojiyHHTbCfl see nojiyqaiL- 


nojiy4|Ka [pAluch^ka] / 
-KH, -eK col 1. pay {salary, 
wag^s); 2. payment (of waget, 
salary); pay-day; b -~Ky on 
pay-day; after pay-day. 

nojiyiuapHle [palushar^iya] 
n -H, -H hemisphere. 

nojibsja [pol^'za] / -bi use 
(of doing smth); benefit (ad- 
vantage, good); npHHocHTb 
~y do good, be of use, be 
of benefit; 

<> B — y in favour (of), in 
behalf (of), for; axo He roBO- 
pHx B ero ~y it does not do 
him credit. 

n6jib3|oBaxbCJi [p6l^zava- 
ttsD] imperf -yiocb, -yembCH, 
p -oBajicH, -oBajiacb, imp 
-yHCH, -yiixecb, Bocinojibso- 
BaxbCJi [vAspol^'zavattsa] 

perf 1. use, make use (of); 
profit (by); perf also take 
advantage (of), avail oneself 
(of); —oBaxbCH cjiyqaeM take 
an opportunity; 2. (no perf) 
enjoy (rights, smb's confidence 
etc); 3. (no perf): —oBaxbCH 
asxopHxexoM have authority 
(with); have prestige (with); 
— oeaxbCH ycnexoM be a suc- 

n6^bK|a I [p6i^ka] / -h, pi 
-H, nojieK, -aM Polish woman; 
Polish girl. 

— S25 — 


nojibRJa II [pol^ka] / -h, 
pi -H, nojieK, -a.M polka (a 

nojibCKJHH [p61^sk^iy] a 
-an, -oe, -He Polishi 


nojiK)6|MTb [pd\^ub^ii^]perf 
-jiK), noJiib6Hiub, p -HJi,' imp 
-H grow fond of, come to 
love; fall in love with. 

nojiK)6oBaTbCfl see jik)6o- 


nojiioc [pol^us, -z] m -a, 
pi -bi, -OB pole (1) of the 
earth; 2) phys\ 3) fig ex- 

nojiflK [pAPak, -g] m -a, 
-oB Vo\q {a native of Poland). 

nojinH|a [pAl^anaj / -u, ~ 
glade, clearing; jiecHan ~a 

nojiflpHHK [pAl^arn^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB Arctic worker. 

nojiflpHMH [pAl^arniy] a 
polar, arctic; FIoJinpnaH sBe- 
3Aa the North Star. 

noMCHflTb see MeH^fb 1, 2. 

noMeHflTbcsi seeMeHHTbCJi 2. 

noMecTHTb see- noMemarb-. 

noMecTHTbcq see noMemaib- 

CH 1. 

noMCTHTb see MexHTb I. 

noMexja [pAm^ekha] / -h, 
pi -H, — 1. hindrance, ob- 
stacle; 6biTb ~oH stand in 
the way, hinder, be a hin- 
drance; 2. pi interference {in 

noMciuaTb I see Memajb I. 

noMeuiaxb II see MeuiaTb 
II 1. 

noMeiul^Tb [pam^i®sh':at'] 
imperf -^ro, -aemb, noMe- 
CT|HTb [pam^i^s^t^it^] perf 

noMemy, -Huib, p -hji, imp 
-H 1. place, put, locate; in- 
vest [money)', 2. accommo- 
date, put up, lodge; 3. carry 
{of a newspaper , etc). 

noMem|aTbC5i [pam^i^sh^td- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeiiibCH, 
noMecTJHTbCJi Ipam^i^s^'t^i- 
ttsa] perf noMemycb, -HLUbCH, 
p -HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-HTecb 1. find room; go in {of 
things); 2. {no perf) be, be 
situated, be located. 

noMemeHH|e fp9m^i^sh^:e- 


■H, -H 1. placing, 

location {the act of); 2. prem- 
ises, housing; apartment, 
room, lodging; jkhjioc -~e 
living accommodation, habit- 
able premises. 

noMemHK [pAm^esh^:ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB landlord, lord of 
the manor. 

noMHJiop [pam^idor] m -a, 
-OB tomato. 

noMHJi|oBaTb [pAm^ilavat^] 
perf -yio, -yemb, p -oBaji, 
imp -yfi pardon, forgive. 

noMHMO [pAm^ima] prep 
with gen denoting 1. 'in ad- 
dition to'lABeKHHrH ~ 3T0fi 

two books besides this one; 
— ApyrHX coo6pa>KeHHH apart 
from other considerations; 
2. 'excluding' or 'notwith- 
standing, in spite of: sto 
6biJio CAeJiaHo ~ Menn this 
was done without my knowl- 
edge; nojiymiTb o6pa30BaHHe 
^ mKojiH receive an educa- 
tion without attending 
school; ~ ero bojih in spite 
of himself. 

nOMHpHTb see MHptiXb, 


S26 — 

nOMHpHTbCfl SeeMHpHTbCH 1. 

noMHJHTb [p6mn^it^[ im- 
perf -K), -HiiJb, p -Hji, imp 
-H remember, bear in mind. 

nOMHOWHTb see MHOn^HTb 1 . 

noMorjaTb [pamAgat^] im- 
perf -aro, -aeuib, noM|6Hb 
■[pAmoch^j perf -ory, -ojKeinb, 
-oryT, p -or, -orjia, imp -ofh 
1. help, assist, aid; 2. re- 
lieve (of a medicine); help 
(be of use); sto He noM6>KeT Ae- 
jiy this won't mend matters. 

no-MoeMy IpAmoyamu] adv 
1. to my mind, in my opin- 
ion; I think (that...); 2. as I 
would have it; in acco'rdance 
with my suggestion / advice. 

noM6|H [pAmoi] pi -eB 
slops (liquid garbage); 

<> 06jIHBaTb ~JIMH Koro-Ji. 

col throw / sling mud at smb . 

noMOJiOjieTb see MOJio^exb. 

noMOHb see noMorarb. 

noMOiUHHK [pAmoshn^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob assistant; help- 
er, help; mate (a helper);-^ 
AHpeKTopa assistant direc- 
tor; —- KaoHTaHa naut mate. 

noMOii^lb [pomash^:, -zh^:] 
/ -H help, assistance, aid; 
relief (to the poor, etc); oKa- 
sbiBaib ~b help, give help, 
render assistance; ~b na ao- 
My out relief, home visiting 
(medical) service; 6e3 nocxo- 
poHHeft ^H unassisted; Ha 
-b! help!; 

•<> noflaxb / npoTMHyxb pyny 
~H KOMy-ji. give smb a helpr 
ing hand; npH ~h / c —bio 
with the help (of), by means 

nOMblTb see MblXb. 

nOMbIXbC5I see MblXbCH. 

noMaxb see MHXb 2. 

noM«xbC5i see MHXbca. 

noHaAo6|HXbC5i fpAnadab'I* 
tts9] perf -Jiiocb, -HiiibCH, p 
-HjicH, -HJiacb col; euy [eft 
u m. d.] 3X0 He -'HJiocb 
he [she, etc] did not need 
this; MHe [eMy u m. d.] He 
--HJiocb HAXH xyAa I [he, 
etc] didn't need [didn't have] 
to go there; sa^eM xe6e 
— Hjiocb Aejiaxb sxo? what 
did you do it for?, you 
shouldn't have done it; ec- 
jiH —HXCH if necessary. 

noHCAejibHHK [pan^i^d^eP- 
n^ik, -g] m -a, -ob Monday. 

noHeMHory [pan^'i^mnogu] 
adv 1. little, a little (at a 
time); 2. little by little. 

noHecxH see hccxh 1, 2, 3. 

noHecxHCb see necxHCb 1. 

noHHJKJaxb [pan^izhat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aemb, noHMslHxb 
[pAn^iz^it^] perf noHH>Ky, 
-Huib, p -Hji, imp -b 1. lower 
(1) rents, etc; 2) one's' voice); 
reduce (prices, speed, etc); 2. 
col demote, degrade. 

noHHMlaxb [pan^imat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aemb, noHJnxi* 
[pAn^at^j perf nOHMy, noft- 
Meuib, p noHHJi, -HJia, no- 
HHJio, noHHJiH, imp hohmh 
1. understand, comprehend; 
realize (one's mistakes, etc); 
~axb MysbiKy understand mu- 
sic; — aio!, noHHji! I seel; h 
sac — aio I understand you; 
I can see your point; noHHXb 
HaMCK take a hint; 2. (no 
perf): ~axb s MysbiKe 
[b HCKyccTse u m. n.\ be a 

327 — 

good judge of music [art, 

no-HOBOMy [pAnovamu] adv 
in a new fashion. 

•noHoc [pAnos, -z] m -a med 

noHpaBHTbCfl see HpasHTb- 


noHibxaTb see HibxaTs. 

noHflTHle [pAn^at^iya] n -n, 
-H 1. philos conception; 2. 
idea, notion; pacxHHCHMoe ~e 
loose concept; hh MaJieftiuero 
— H 6 MeM-Ji. not the slightest 
idea/ notion of smth. 

noHHTHO [pAn^atna] impers 
predic it is clear; I see. 

noHflTb see noHMMaib 1. 

nooSeflaxb see o6e;iaTb. 

nona^laTb [papAdat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, nonajcTb 
[pApas^t''] perf -j\,y, -Aeuib, p 
•Ji, imp -AH 1. hit (the mark, 
etc); 2. get (somewhere); find 
oneself (somewhere); nonacTb 
Ha noeoA [na asToSyc u m.n.] 
catch a train [bus, etc]; Kan 
nonacTb na BOKsaji? what's 
the way to the station?, how 
can I get to the station?; 
KyAa 3T0 H nonaji? col where 
on earth am I?; nonacxb noA 
AOJKAb be caught in the rain; 
nonacTb b njien be taken 
prisoner; nonacTb noA cyA be 
brought to trial; 3. col be 
admitted (to); 4. impers col: 
eMy [efi u m. d.] nonaAex! he 
[she, etc] will catch it!; eMy 
[eft u m. d.] nonajio he [she, 
etc] caught it; he [she, etc] 
has caught it; 5. (no imperf) 
col: KaK nonajio anyhow, 
carelessly, in a slipshod inan- 

ner; fac nonajio anywhere 
(denoting position); KyAa no- 
najio anywhere (denoting 
direction); KOMy nonajio to 

<> nonacTb BnpocaK col be 
taken in, be trapped; put 
one's foot in it; nonacTb 
najibucM B He6o col ^ take/ 
have the wrong sow by the 

nonaAlaTbcn [papAdattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, no- 
najCTbCfl [pApastsa] perf 
-Aycb, -AeujbCH, p -jicH, -jiacb, 
imp -AHCb, -AHiecb 1. be 
caught, be taken; nonacTbCH 
c nojiHMHbiM be caught red- 
-handed; 66;ibiiie He ~aHCH 
don't let me [him, etc] catch 
you again; 2. col: mhc no- 
najiCH no Aopore JiHUJb oahh 
^ejioBCK on the way I met / 
ran into only one man; 
<> nonacTbcsi KOMy-ji. ua 
rjiasa catch smb's eye; nep- 
BbiH nonaBiuHHCJi the first 
person one comes across, any- 
body; HTO ~-eTCfl col any- 

nonacTb see nonaAaib. 

nonacTbcsi see nonaAaxb- 


nonepcK [pap^i^r^ok, -g] 
adv & prep with gen across 
(from side to side); 
<> (B)cxaxb KOMy-ji. ~ ropjia 
col stick in smb's throat. 

noneqeHH|e [pap'^i^ch^e- 
n^iya] n -h: Ha ~h in the 
charge (of); HMexb kofo-ji. 
Ha ~H have smb to take care 
of; ocxaBHXb Ha Hbe-Ji. '— e 
leave in smb's care. 



nono.aaM [papAlam] adv 1. 
in two, in half, into two 
parts; 2. mixed (with smt'h 

nonojisTH see noJiaiH. 

nonpafiHTb see nonpasjisTb. 

nonpaBHTbcsi see nonpae- 


nonpaelKa [pAprafka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. correction {of a mis- 
take, etc); 2. amendment {to 
a resolution, etc); 3. col re- 
covery {of health); ^ejio hact 
Ha ~Ky he [slie, etc] is on 
the way to recovery. 

nonpaB;i|flTb [paprAvl^af*] 
imperf -hio, -Heiub, nonpa- 
B|HTb [pAprav'it''] perf -jiio, 

-HLUb, p -HJi, imp -b 


repair, mend; 2. correct {mis- 
take'i, a person, etc); put (smb) 
right; 3. put straight, adjust, 
readjust; smooth {one's hair); 
4. improve, better; restore 
(one's health); mend (fi- 
nances, things in general). 

noHpaBji|flTbcsi [paprAV- 
I'attsa] imperf -flKx:b, -Heiub- 
CH, nonpaB|HTbcsi [pApra- 
v'ittsa] perf -jiKXb, -HUJbCH, 
p -HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -bCH, 
-bxecb 1. correct oneself; 2. 
improve, become better; 3. 
get well, recover; perf also 
be well again; 4. put on 
weight, gain weight. 

no-npe)KHeMy [pApr^'ezh- 
n*'imu] adv as before; as 

nonpHmie [p6pr''ish'':8] n 
-a walk of rife, field; Ha 
$TOM ~e in this walk of life; 
Ha HayMHOM -— e in the field 
of science. 

nonp66oBaTb see np66o- 
nonpocHTb see npocHXb. 
nonpoiu,aTbC5i see npomajb- 


nonyraJH [papugay] m -a, 
-en parrot. 

nonyjiflpHlbiH [papul^'arniy] 
a sh f nonyjiapcH, -a, -o, -u 
popular (poet, etc). 

nonyTH|biH [pAputniy] a: 
~biH Bexep fair wind; ~aH 
MauiHHa passing car; — oe aa- 
MenaHHe passing remark. 

nonyTHHK [pAput''ch'*ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB fellow-traveller. 

nonbiraTbCH see nbixaibCH. 

nonhiT|Ka [pApttka] / -kh, 
-OK attempt, endeavour. 

nonflTHTbcii '^see nHTHTbCH. 

nopja [pAral I / -bi, ace 
nopy, pi gen ~ time, peri- 
od; BenepHeH '--o'a of an eve- 

II impers predic it is time 
(to do smth); eaM ~a c^ejiaxb 
3T0 it is time you did it; 
<> c KaKHx ~? since when?; 
c rex — since then; ao Ka- 
KMX — ? till when?, till what 
time?; ao rex --, noKa un* 
til; as long as; jig chx ~- 1) 
up till / to now; hitherto; 2) 
up to this point; up to here; 
c xex —, KaK ever since; 
c AaBHHx — long, for a long 
time; na nepobix ~ax at 
first; AG ~bi, flo speivieHH 
until a certain time; for the 
time being. 

nopawjaxb [parAzhat''] im- 
perf -aio, -aeujb, nopa3|Hxb 
[parAZ^'it''] perf nopa^iy, 
-HUJb, p -HJI, imp -H 1. mil 

— 329 — 


h'li (the target, etc); 2. affect, 
strike (of an illness); 3. strike, 
startle; stagger; impress 
greatly; amaze. 

nopa>KeHH|e [parAzhen^iy?] 
n -H, -H defeat (the act of de- 
feating); HaHecTH ~e defeat, 
inflict a defeat upon. 

nopasHxejibHlbiH [parAz^i- 
t^il^niy] a sh f nopasHieJieH, 
-s, -o, -bi striking, startling; 
amazing; staggering. 

nopasHTb see nopajKaib. 

nopearb see nopbiBaxb & 
pBaib I 1, 3. 

nopejaaTb [pAr^ezat^] perf 
-Mcy, -JKeuib, p -3aJi, imp 
-)Kb 1. cut [one's finger, etc); 
2. cut (into pieces); slice. 

nope|3aTbCJ! [pAr^ezattsa] 
perf -jKycb, -:H^eiiibCH, p -aaji- 
CH, -aajiacb, imp -»<bCH, -mh- 
xecb cut oneself. 

nopHi;aHH|e [par^'itsan^iya] 
n -H, -H blame, reproach, 
reprimand; censure, reproof; 
BbiHecFH — e reprimand; cen- 
sure; AocTOHHbiH —-H repre- 

nopOBHy [poravnu] adv 
equally, in equal parts / por- 
tions; into equal parts / por- 

nopor [pArok, -g] m -a, 
-OB 1. threshold {also fig); 
2. rapid(s). 

nopoflja [pAroda] / -w, ~ 

1. breed, species, race; 2. 
kind, sort, type; 3. geol rock. 

nopoK [pArok, -g] m -a, 
-OB 1. vice (moral fault); 

2. defect, vice, fault; 

•0" ~ cepAUa med heart dis- 

nopoceH|oK [parAs^onak, -gj 
m -Ka, pi nopocHxa, nopo- 
CHx sucking-pig, piglet. 

nopox [porakh, -gh] m -a 
(-y) (gun)powder. 

nopoHH|biH [pAroch^'niy] a 
sh f nopoqeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. 
depraved, vicious; wanton 
(woman); 2. faulty, fallacious. 

nopoui|6K [parAshok, -g] m 
-Ka, -KoB powder (a fine sub- 

<>• cxepexb Koro-ji. b --^ok 
grind smb to dust. 

nopx [port, -d] m -a, pi 
•bi, -OB port, harbour. 

nopxJHXb [port^it''] imperf 
nopqy, -HUib, p -hji, imp -b, 
HcinopxHXb [isporf'it^] perf 
spoil; corrupt (a person, etc); 
^-HXb HacxpoeHHe KOMy-ji. 
upset smb, put smb into a 
bad mood; HcnopxHXb mejiy- 
AOK upset the stomach. 

n6px|HXbcsi [port^ittsa] im- 
perf nopqycb, -HmbCH,^p -h;i- 
CH, -Hjiacb, HcinopxHXbCfl [is- 
port^'ittsa] perf 1. rot, go bad 
(of food-stuffs); 2. spoil, get 
spoilt; 3.: noroAa ~Hxca the 
weather is changing for the 
worse; y Hero HcnopxHJiocb 
HacxpoeHHe he has lost his 
good spirits, he is in a bad 

nopxHHxja [pArtn^'ikha] / 
■H, -- dressmaker. 

nopxHJoJf [pArtn6y] m -ore, 
-bix tailor. 

nopxpex [pAftr^'et, -d] m 
-a, -OB portrait, picture. 

nopxcHrap [parts^'igar] m 
-a, -OB cigarette case. 

nopryrajileu [partugal^i^f, 


— 330 — 

-dz] m -bua, -bucB Portu- 

nopTyrajibCK|HH [partu- 
gaPskMy] a -an, -oe, -He 

nopT(t)ejilb [pArtPel^] m 
-H, -eft I. brief-case; papcr- 
-case; 2. portfolio. 

no-pyccKH [pArusk'^i] adv 
in Russian; roBopHTb [hh- 
caib] -^ speak [write] Rus- 

nopyHJaTb [paruch'*at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, nopy- 
H'lHTb [p9ruch''it*'] perf -y, 
nopyMHiiib, p -HJi, imp -h 
ciiarge {smb with smth), 
entrust ( smb with smth); in- 
struct (smb to do smth). 

nopyHeHHJe [paruch^e- 

n^iya] n -h, -ii commission, 
errand; mission; message; jxa- 
eaxb —-e charge (smb with 
smth), instruct {smb to do 
smthy, cliarge witii -^ a 
mission; no — kd authorized 
{by); af {smb'<i) request, on 
the instructions {of); on be- 
half {of). 

nopywHTb see nopyqaxb. 

nopyHHTbCM see pyqaTbCH. 

n6pUH|5i fportjiya] / -h, 
-H portion {of food, etc); 
helping {of food). 

nopMla [porch^a] / -h spoil- 
ing, damage. 

n6pu]|eHb [porshan^] m -hh, 
-HCH technol pistpn; sucker. 

nopUB [pArIf, -v] m -a, 
-OB 1. gust, rush; 2. fit, gust, 
burst; 6jiarop6AHbiH ~ noble 

nophiBlaTb-[parivat''] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, nopBJaTb 

[pArvat^] perf -y, -eiub, p aji, 
imp -H break (off) {with). 

nopbiBHCT|biH [pAr J v^'istty] 
a sh f '^, -a, -0, -bi 1. gusty 
{wind); 2. jerky {movements); 
3. impetuous {people). 

nopflAJoK [pAr^'adak, -gj 
m -KB, -KOB t. order {in a 
room, in public places, etc); 
npHBOAHTb B —OK put in or- 
der, arrange, tidy; npHBo- 
AHTb ce6H B -—OK tidy one- 
self up; CJieAHTb sa —kom 
keep order; He b ~Ke out of 
order; there is smth wrong 
with; 2. order, sequence; no 
—Ky in succession, in turn, 
one after another / the other; 
B — Ke onepejiH in turn; 
waiting until one's turn; 3. 
procedure {of voting, etc); 
—OK padoTbi procedure, rou- 
tine; B 06H3aTeJlbH0M — Ke 
without fail; obligatorily; 
opraHHSOBaHHbiM — KOM in an 
organized manner; b AHCKyc- 
CHOHHOM — Ke open to dis- 
cussion {of an article); b — Ke 
KyjibiypHoro o6MeHa by way 
of cultural exchange; b — kc 
o6cyHCAeHHH as a matter for 
discussion; b ycTanoBJieHHOM 
— Ke in accordance with es- 
tablished procedure; 4. sys- 
tem, regime, order; 
<> npH3BaTb Koro-Ji. k —ny 
call smb to order; ece b ~- 
KC all is well, everything is 
all right. 

nopnjiGHHibiH [pAr^'adach'*- 
nty] a sh" f nopHAOMen, -a, 
-0, -bi 1. decent, honest, re- 
spectable; 2. considerable 
{distance, etc). 

— 331 — 

noca^HTb see cajKarh. 

nocaflJKa [pAsatke] / -kh, 
-OK 1. planting (of trees, 
etc); 2. boarding, entrain- 
raent; embarkation {of pas- 
sengers); BHHMaHHe! HaMH- 
HaeTCH -^Ka! attention! pas- 
sengers are invited to take 
their seats!; 3. av landing; 
BbiHyjKAeHHan — Ka forced 
landing; coBepiuHTb ---Ky 
make a landing, land. 

no-CBocMy [pAsvoyamu] adv 
in one's own way / man- 

nocBJiTHTb see nocBjimaTb. 

nocB5mi,|aTb fpas^v^i^- 

sh^:at^] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
nocBHT|HTb [pas^v^i^t^it^j 
perf nocBHiAy, -Hiub, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. initiate {into), 
let {into); 2. devote, dedi- 
cate {oneself, one's life to 
smth); 3. dedicate {a book, 

noccB [pAs^ef, -v] m -a, 
-OB 1. sowing {of seeds); 
2. crops {products grown, 

noceBHOH [pas^i^vnoy] a 
sowing {campaign, area, etc). 

noceflCTb see ce^^exb. 

nocejiHTb see nocejiHTb. 

nocejiHTbcsi see nocejiHxbCH. 

nocejijoK IpAs^obk, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB settlement, small 

noccilflxb [pas^i^l^at^] 
imperf -hk), -aeuib, noce- 
jiJHxb [pas^i^l^it^j perf -ib, 
-iiiub, p -HJi, imp -H settle 
(people); lodge {people). 

noceji|^xbcn [pas^'i^l^'attsa] 
imperf -^locb, -aembCH, no- 

cejiJHxbCJi [pas^i^Pittja] ;9er/ 

-K)Cb, -l5mbCH, p -HJICH, -H- 

-jiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb set- 
tle, take up one's residence 

nocepeAHHC [pas^ir^i^d^i- 
n^ij I adv in the middle; 
II prep with gen in the mid- 
dle of. 

nocexHxejijb [pas'i^t^i- 
t^iP] m -H, -eft visitor, 
caller; guest. 

nocexHXb see nocemaxb. 

nocem|axb [pas^i^sh^:at^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, noce- 
xJHXb [pas^i^t^it^] perf no- 
ceiny, -Hiub, p -HJi, imp -h 
1. visit {friends, museums, 
etc); call on {go to see); 2. at- 
tend {lectures, etc). 

nocejixb see cenxb. 

nocKOjib3H|yxbC5![ paskAPz- 
nutt^a] perf -ycb, -euibCH, 
p -yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb slip {lose one's foot- 

nocKOjibKy [pAskol^ku] cj 
so long as; since, as, 

nocjiaHHPiK fpAslan^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob minister, en- 

nocjiaxb see nocbiJiaxb. 

nocjie [pos^Pi] I adv aft- 
erwards, later (on); 
II prep with gen denoting 
'later in time' or 'next in 
order': BepnyxbCH — naxH 
return after five; coSpaHHe 
cocxoHXCH ~ saH^XHft the 
meeting will be held after 
classes; -^ co6paHMH 6yAex 
KOHuepx the meeting will be 
followed by a concert; oh 
ymeji ^ Bcex he was the 


— 332 — 

last to leave; h He BHAeJi 
ero ~ ero BQSBpameHHH I 
haven't seen him since he 
returned; -^ ccero after all; 
when all is said and done. 

nocjie... first element of 
compounds denoting 'later 
than the period indicated by 
the second element': noc;ie- 
BoeHHbiH [pas^'PivAyenniy] 
post-war; nocJieo6eAeHHbiH 
[pas^l^'iAb^ed'^miy] after-din- 

nocjieAHJHH [pAs^l^'ed''- 
n''iy] a 1. last {page, day, 
etc); B ~HH pa3 for the last 
time; last time; ao ~ero 
BpeMCHH until recently; 2. 
new, the latest; 3, the lat- 
ter {opposite of the former); 
4. worst, lowest {grade, kind, 
etc); pyraxbCH ~hmh cjio- 
BaMH use foul language; 
~ee Aejio col the worst so- 

nocjieAOBaTeji|b [pAs^'l^e- 
davat^^il^l m -h, -efi follow- 
er, adherent. 

noc;ieAOBaTejibH|biH [pA- 
s''i*'ed8vat^iPniY] a sh f no- 
cjieAOBaiejieH, -a, -o, -bi 

1. successive, consecutive; 

2. consistent {person). 
nocjieziOBaTb see cJie^oBaxb 

1, 2, 3. 

nocjieACTBHJe [pAs''l''etjt*»- 
v^iya] n -h, -h consequence, 
sequel; ~h 6o;ie3HH after-ef- 
fects of an illness. 

nocjiesaBTpa [pas'^l'^i^zaf- 
tra] adv the day after tomor- 

nocji6BHij,|a [pAslov'^itja] / 
-bi. ~ proverb, saying. 

nocjiywHTb see c;iy»:HTb. 
nocjiyuiaTb see cjiymarb 
1, 3. 
nocjiyuiaTbCJi see cjiymaTb- 


nocjiyiuHihiH [pAslushniy] 
a sh f nocjiyiueH, -a, -o, -bi 
obedient, dutiful. 

nocMexb see CMeib. 

nocMOTpeTb see CMorpeib 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

noc66H|e [pAsob^'iya] n -h, 
-H 1. grant, allowance; bene- 
fit, relief {for unemployed, 
etc); 2. textbook, manual, 
study guide; yqe6Hbie -~h 
teaching aids; training ap- 
pliances; HarJiHAHbie — h vis- 
ual aids, 

nocoBeTOBaTb see coBeio- 

nocoBeTOBaTbCM see coBe- 


nocjoji [pAsol] m -jia, 
-JioB ambassador; qpesBbi- 


~6ji ambassador extraor- 
dinary and plenipotentiary. 

nocojiHTb see cojiHxb. 

noc6jibCTB|o [pAsoPstva] 
n -a, ~ embassy. 

nocneB|aTb I [p9s''p*'i^- 
vai^] imperf -aex, nocn|eTb 
[pAs^p*'et''l perf -eer ripen, 
get ripe, grow ripe. 

nocneBJarb II [pas*'p''i^- 
vat**] imperf -aio, -aeuib. 
nocnjCTb [pAs'^p^'et^] perf 
-eio, -eemb col be in time 
{for); nocnexb Ha noesA 
catch the train; —axb aa 
KeM-ji. keep up with smb. 
riocneTb I see nocneeaxb I. 
nocneTbll see nocneaaTb II. 



nocneuiH|biH [pAs^'p'esh- 
niy] a sh f nocnemcH, -a, 
-o, -bi 1. hasty, hurried, 
prompt; 2. thoughtless, rash, 

nocnopHTb see cnopHTb. 

nocpe^H [pasr^i^d^i] I adv 
in the middle; in the midst, 

II prep with gen in the mid- 
dle of. 

nocpeAHHK fpAsr^'ed^n^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob mediator, in- 
termediary; negotiator, go- 

nocpeflCTBeHH|wH fpAsr^e- 
tjtv^mty] a sh f nocpeACT- 
BeH, -a, -o, -bi mediocre; 
satisfactory {mark). 

nocpeflCTBOM [pAsr^etjt- 
vam] prep with gen by 
means of; by the use of. 

noccopHTbCfl see ccopHTb- 


nocT I [post, -zd] m -a, 
-6b post (1) mil station, 
guard', 2) job, position, of- 
fice); CTOHTb Ha ~y be at 
one's post; be on point-duty. 

nocT II [post, -zd] m -a, 
-6b fast, fasting; BeJiHKHH ^ 

nocraBHTb I see craBHTb. 

nocTaBHTb II see nocraB- 


nocTaB|KH [pAstafk**!] pi 
-ok: rocyAapCTBeHHbie -^kh 
state deliveries, deliveries 
to the state. 

nocTaB.n|^Tb [pastAvPat^] 
imperf -hk), -Heuib, nocxa- 
BfHTb [pAstav^it^] perf -jiio, 
-Huib, p -wji, imp -b supply, 

nocTaHOBUTb see nocTanoB- 


nocraHOBlKa [pastAn^ofka] 
/ -Kii, -OK 1 theat produc- 
tion; staging; play, perform- 
ance; 2,: —Ka Bonpoca the 
way a question is formulated; 
statement of a question; ~Ka 
AeJia the way of doing things; 
organization {of work, etc). 

nGCTaHOBjieHH|e [pastanAv- 
l^en^iya] n -h, -m decision, 
resolution; decree. 

nocTaHOBJijiiTb [p^stanAv- 
l^'at'^] imoerf -r\o, -aeiub, 
nocTaHOBJMTb [pastanAv^it^] 
p_erf -jiK), nocraHOBHiUb, p 
-YiJi, imp -H decree, enact; de- 
cide, resolve. 

nocTapaTbcsi see CTapaib- 


nocTapexb see cxapexb 1. 

nocxejiMXb co/=nocxjiaTb. 

nocxejijb [pAs^'t^'el''] / -h, 
-efl 1. bed, bed-elothes; 2. 
bed {with bedding); Bcxaxb 
c ~H get up, get out of bed. 

nocxencHHo [pas^'t^'i^p^'en- 
na] adv gradually, little by 

nocxecHflxbCfl see cxecHHXb- 
CH 2. 

nocxjiaxb see cxjiaxb. 

nocxojibKy [pAstoPku] cj 
in so far as, inasmuch as; 
<> ^, nocKOJibKy so far as. 

nocxopOHHlHH [pastAron''- 
n^iy] I a \. strange {peo- 
ple)', 2. outside {matters, as- 
sistance, etc); irrelevant; 
~ee xejio foreign substance/ 

II as a noun nocTop6H- 
H 1 H H m -ero, -hx stranger; 


334 — 

outsider; — hm bxoa Bocnpe- 
mcH no admittance. 

nocTo^HH;b!H [postAyanniy] 
a '^h f nocTOHHeH, -a, -o, -bi 
pe-'manent; constant; contin- 
tous; regular {visitor, army, 

nocTo|flTb [pastAyat^] perf 
-K), -Huib, p -HJT, imp no- 
CTOH 1. stand (for a wiiile); 
2. stand up (for), upliold; 
3.: nocT6H(Te)! wait a min- 
ute!; stop! 

nocTpaAaxb see cxpaAaib 2. 

nocTpHHb see cxpH^b. 

nOCTpHHbCfl see CTpHWbCH 

nocTpoeHHle [pastrAye- 
n^iya] n -si building, con- 
struction (of communism, etc). 

nocTpoHTb <:ee cxpoHTb. 

nocTp6HK|a [pAstroylo] / 
-H, nocTpoeK 1. building, con- 
structing, construction, erec- 
tion; 2. building (a thing 

nocxynlaTb [pastupat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, nocry- 
n|HTb [pastup^it^] perf -j{\b, 
nocTynHUJb, p -hji, imp -h 1. 
act, behave; KaK HaM xenepb 

— HTb? what shall we do 
now?; 2. treat (smb in some 
■juay); 3. enter (the universi- 
ty, school, etc), join (the 
army, etc)', take on (a job); 
~aTb Ha pa66Ty go to work; 
get a job; 4. be received, 
come in; '-aib b npoAa>Ky 
be on sale, be in the market; 

— axb B npoH3B6;icxBO go 
into production. 

nocxynloK [pAstupak, -g] m 
-Ka, pi -KH, -KOB act, deed, 
action; pi also behaviour. 

nocTyHaxb see cxy^axb I. 

nccxyHaxbCH see cxy^axbCH. 

nocy;i|a [pASuda] / -bi 
plates and dishes; MaHHan 
~a tea-things; KyxoHHan —a 
kitchen utensils; cxeKJiHHHan 
-^a glassware; 4)ap4)6poBaH 
~a china. 

nocHHxaxbcsi see CMHxaxb- 
CH 1. 

nocbiJi|axb [pasilat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuib, nocji|axb 
[pAslat^] perf nouijiib, no- 
mjieuib, p -aji, imp noiujiH 
send (a letter, etc; smb or 
for smb); dispatch (send off). 

nocbiJiJKa [pAstlka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. sending (of a letter, 
etc); 2. parcel (for the post). 

nocbinaxb see nocwnaxb. 

nocbinjaxb [pasipat^J im- 
perf -ara, -aeuib, nocbin|axb 
[pASi'pat^] perf -jik), -jiemb, 
p -aj\, imp -b sprinkle, strew, 
powd&r (smth with smth). 

nox [pot, -d] m-a(-y), -OB 
sweat, perspiration; o6jih- 
Bancb --OM running /wet 
with sweat; 

<> ~-0M H KpoBbK) in blood 
and sweat; e ~ejiHi;a in the 
sweat of one's brow. 

no-xBoeMy [pAtvoyamu] 
adv corresp to xbi [cf no- 
-BameMy] 1, to your mind, 
in your opinion, you think 
(that...); 2, as you would 
have it; in accordance with 
your suggestion / advice; 
nycxb 6yflex ~ let it be 
your way, have it your own 

noxeM|KH fpAt*'6mk''i] pi 
-OK darkness, the dark. 

— 335 — 

noTCMHeTb seereMHeTb 1, 2. 

noTepn|eTb [pat^i^^rp^et''] 
perf -JiK), noTepnHuib, p -eji, 
imp -H 1. be patient, keep 
one's patience {for some 
time); 2. suffer {damages, a de- 
feat,etc)\ noiepnexb 
KpymeHHe be sliipwrecked; 
3. {in neg sentences, mostly 
in fut) stand, tolerate; h He 
-—JIK) SToro I won't stand / 
tolerate it. 

norepiji [pAt^er^a] / -h, 
p/ -H, -b 1. loss {of smth); 
waste {of time); ~h Tpy^o- 
cnoc66HOCTH disability {the 
state of); 2. {mostly pi) 
losses; casualties; — h b mu- 
BOH CHJie H xexHHKe losses 
in manpower and materiel. 

norepflTb see Tepnib. 

noTepflxbCH see xepHTbcn. 

noTJCTb [pAt^et^] imperf 
-eio, -eeiiib, BcjnoTeTb [fspA- 
t^et^] perf 1. sweat, perspire; 
2. {no perf) fig col toil {at), 
grind (away) {at). 

noTHxoHbKy [pat^'ikhon^'ku] 
adv col 1. slowly; gradually; 
2. noiselessly, silently; on 
the sly, secretly, by stealth. 

noTOK [pAtok, -g] m -a, 
-oB stream, torrent, current, 
flow {also fig). 

noTOji|6K [patAlok, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB ceiling. 

noTOJicxeTb see xojicxexb, 

noxoM [pAtom] adv then, 
afterw?[rds; later (on). 

nox6McxB|o [pAtomstva] n 
-a posterity. 

noxoMy [patAmu] 1 adv & 
cj that's why; 
II as part of c/: — qio be- 

cause, for, as; -'..., mxo 
because, for, as. 

noxoHyxb see xoHyxb. 

noxonMxb see xonnxb III. 

noxoponHxb seexoponnxb 1. 

noxoponHxbCJi see xopo- 


noxoHHlbiH [pAtoch^niy] a: 
~a5i jiHHHH production jline; 
~biH MexoA line produc- 

noxpaxHXb see xpaxHXb. 

noxpe6Hxeji|b [patr^'i^b'''- 
t^iP] m -H, -eft consumer. 

noxpe6jieHH|e [patr^i^bPe- 
n'^iya] n -h consumption, use. 

noxpe6jilflxb [patr^i^bPat^] 
imperf -hio, -neiub consume, 

noxpe6HOCx|b [pAtr^eb- 
nas^t^, -z^d^j / -h necessity, 
requirement, need; demand 
{for raw materials, etc). 

noxpe6oBaxb see xpeSo- 

noxpeSoBaxbcji see xpe6o- 


noxpeB6}KHxb see xpeBo- 

»CHXb 2. 

noxpsicaK)m|HH [patr^i^sa- 
yush^:iy] a [pa] -an, -ee, 
-He tremendous, staggering; 

noxyxHyxb see xyxnyxb I. 

noxyiuHXb see xyuiHXb. 

noxsiHyxbCJi see XHHyxbCH 
3, 5. 

noywHHaxb see yjKHHaxb. 

noxBa./i|a [pakhvAla] / -bi, 
noxBaji praise, commenda- 
tion; C '-OH 0X03BaXbCH 

o KOM-Ji.^ praise smb, speak 
favourably of smb, 
noxBajiHxb see xBajiHxb. 


336 — 

noxea^UTbCfl see xeajiHTb- 


noxBacTaibCfl see xsa- 

noxHiHTb see noxHiuaib. 

noxHimaxb [pakh^ish^'.at^] 
imperf -aw, -aeiiib, noxHT|HTb 
[pAkh^it^'it^] perf noxHiuy, 
-Hiub, p -HJi, imp -h steal 
(documents, etc); kidnap. 

noxjionoTaxb see xjiono- 
Taib 2, 3. 

noxoA [pAkhot, -d] m -a, 
-OB march (the act of march- 
ing); naut cruise, trip; ly- 
pHCTHHecKHH ~ hiking tour, 
hike, tramp; jibiH^Hbift ■^ ski- 
ing trip; BbiciynHTb b — set 
out; take the field; b — e on 
the march. 

noxoiilKa [pAkhotka] / -kh, 
-OK gait, step. 

nox6}K|HH [pAkhozhty] a 
-an, -ce, -He, sh f ~, -a, -e, 
-H alike; ohh oneHb ^HApyr 
Ha Apyra they are very much 
alike; --hh Ha resembl- 
ing, looking like; like (gold, 
etc); 6biTb ~HM Ha resemble, 
look like, be like; sto — e na 
Hero it's just like him, that's 
him all over; 

<> — e Ha TO, HTO... it looks 
as if...; Ha Koro tw ~I col 
just look at yourself! 

noxopoHHTb see xopoHHib. 

n6xopoH|bi [pokharant] pi 
noxopoH, -aM funeral, burial. 

noxy;ieTb see xy^exb. 

nouejioeaxb see uejiosaxb. 

nouejioBaxbCJi see uejio- 


nouejiyiH [patjt^luy] m-H, 
-en kiss; nocjiaxb BoaAyuiHbm 

~H KOMy-ji. wave a kiss to 

n6HB|a fpoch^va] / -u, ^ 
soil (i) the surface of the 
earth; 2) a particular kind 
of earth); 

<> BbiSHXb --y H3-noA Hor 
y Koro-ji. col cut the ground 
from under smb; —aycKOJib- 
saex y hhx hs-hoa Hor col 
the ground is slipping from 
under them; naiuyobiBaxb / 
soHAHpOBaxb ~y explore the 
ground; na ~e Her6-.n. be- 
cause of smth, owing to smth. 

noHeM fpAch^'om] adv col 
1. how much?, what's the 
price?; ■— mchoko? how much 
is the milk?; 2.: — anaxb? 
who can tell?, how should 
we know?; -- h sHaio? how 
should I know? 

noHCMy [pach^'i^mu] adv 
inter & rel why; ~ bm hc 
npHUJJiH Bqepa? why didn't 
you come yesterday?; h ne 
3Haio, -- OH He npHUieji I don't 
know why he didn't [hasn't] 
come; — 6bi ne hohxh xyAa? 
why not go there? 

noHeiviy-xo [pach^'i^mutaj 
adv for some reason, for some 
reason or other. 

noHepK [poch^'irk, -g] m -a, 
pi -H, -OB hand(writing). 

noHccaxb see Mecaxb 1. 




CH 1. 

noHCT [pAch^ot, -d] m -a 
honour (high respect); respect, 

noHexHlwH [pAch^'otnty] a 
sh f noHexen, -a, -o, -bi hon- 
ourable; honorary; --wflrocxb 

— 337 


guest of honour; ~biH Ka- 
payji guard of honour. 

nOMHHHTb see qHHHTb I 1. 

noHJKa I [poch^'ka] / -kh, 
-CK bot bud. 

noHlKH II [poch^'ka] /-kh, 
-eK anat kidney; BocnaJieHHe 
~eK nephritis. 

noMTJa [poch^ta] / -bi 1. 
post-office; 2. post, majl; no 
~e by post; nocjiaxb -~oh 
post, send by post. 

noHxajibOH [pach^tAl^yon] 
m -a, -OB postman, letter- 

noHxaMT [pAch^tamt, -d] 
m -a, -OB post-office. 

noHTeHHJe [pAch^t^en^'iyaJ 
n -H respect, esteem, con- 

noHTdHHlbiH [pAch^t^enniy] 
a sh f noMTCHeH, -a, -o, -u 
honourable, respectable; ven- 
erable {of age). 

noHTH [pAch^'t^i] adv al- 
most, nearly, practically; 
<> — HTO almost, nearly, 

noHTHTejibHlbiii fpAch'^t^i- 
t^iPnty] a sh f noHiHiejieH, 
-a, -0, -bi 1. respectful, defer- 
ential; 2. fig col respectful, 
considerable {distance, etc). 

noHTiHTb [pAch^t^it^] perf 
-y, -Hiub, p -HJi, imp -H hon- 
our {smh by, with stnth); 
pay homage {to smb); —HXb 
naMHXb BCxaBaHMeM stand up 
in honour of smb's mem- 

noHx6B|biM [pAch^'toviy] a 
postal, post {attr)\ ~biH Hm.HK 
letter-box; ^aa MapKa (post- 

age) stamp; — oe 0T;iejieHHe 
post-office; ~aH oxKpbixKa 

noHyBcxBOBaxb see qyBcx- 


noHyjixb see Myaxb. 

nouieji [pAshol], nouiJia 
[pAshla] see noflxH. 

noiujiM [pAshl*"!] imp of 
noc/iaxb; see nocbiJiaxb. 

noiujiHHJa [poshl'^ina] / -bi, 
— duty, tax; customs duty; 
o6jiar^xb —oh impose tax 
on, tax. 

nouijijuH [poshliy] a sh f 
■—, -a, -0, -bi vulgar, banal, 

nouijiK) [pAshPu], no- 
uijieuib [pAshPosh, -zh] 1st Sc 
2nd persons of nocjiaxb; see 

nouiyxHxb see myxHXb 1. 

nomajlja [pAsh'^.ada] / -bi 
mercy, quarter; MOJiHXb o 
~e beg for mercy. 

nom,a;iHXb see luaAHTb. 

nomcKoxaxb see meKOxaxb. 

nomeHHHla [pAsh*':6ch*'ina] 
/ -bi, ~ a slap in the face 
{also fig); a box on the ear; 
Aaxb KoMy-Ji. ~y slap smb 
in the face; box smb's ears. 

nomynaxb see mynaxb. 

no33H|n [poez^iya] f -h 

noaivila [poema] / -bi, ~- 
poem {a narrative composi- 
tion in verse; a composition 
of great beauty). 

no3x [poet, -d| m -a, -ob 

noaxHHecKMH [poet^ich''i- 
sk^'iyj a -an, -oe. -He poet- 


338 - 

noaxoMy [pAetamu] adv 
therefore, that's why; and 

noK) I [pAyu], noeiub [pA- 
yosh, -zh] see nexb. 

noK) II [pAyu] see noHXb. 


nojiBjieHHle [payi^vPe- 
n^iya] n -h appearance, emer- 

nosiBJij^xbcn [payi'^vl^'a- 
ttj9] imperf -nracb, -nembCH, 
noflB|HxbCfl [payi^v^ittja] 
perf -Jiibcb, noHBHiiibCH, p 
-H.iCH, -gjiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb appear, make one's 
appearance, show up; emerge 
{come into view). 

none [poyas, -z] m -a, pi 
-a, -OB 1. belt, girdle; 2.: no 
'^ up to the waist, waist- 
-deep, waist-high; 3. geog 
zone, belt; 
<> cnacaxejibHbiH — lifebelt. 

no5icHeHH|e [payi^s^n^'e- 
n^iya] ti -h, -h explanation, 

noflCHHxb see noHCHHXb. 

noHCHHula [payi^s^'n^itja] 
/ -bi, ~ the small of one's 

no5icH|HXb [payi^s^n^at^] 
imperf -hkd, -nemb, noac- 
HJHXb [payi^s^n^it^J perf 
-K), -HUib, p -HJi, imp -H 
explain, elucidate; exemplify, 
illustrate by example. 

npa.... pre f corresp /o 'great-' 
in words like: npa6a6ymKa 
[prAbabushka] great-grand- 
mother; npaBHyK [pravnuk, 
-g] great-grandson. 

npaB^la [pravda] I / -bi 1. 
truth (that is told, etc, or of 

what was said); §xo ^a it is 
the truth; it is true; 2. jus- 
tice (rightness); 
I! as an adv really, indeed; 
xbi ~a yxojiHiiib? are you 
really leaving?; h sbohhji 
eMy, OH —a 66jien I rang 
him up, he is really ill; 

III parenth true; though; oh, 

— a, y^e yexaji true, he has 
left; H, ~a. He ycxaji, ho... 
though I'm not tired,-still...; 

IV as a cj though; HHorjta, 

— a peAKo sometimes, though 

<> BceMH -^aMH H HcnpaB- 
AaMH ^ by hook or by crook; 
Hxo ~a, xo -^a there's no 
denying the truth; no ~e 
roBOpfl / cKaaaxb... to tell 
the truth...; He — a jin? isn't 
it so? 

npaBAHBJbiH [prAvd^iviy] a 
sh f — , -a, -0, -bi 1. truth- 
ful, upright; 2. true {story, 
etc); ~biH oxBex honest / up- 
right answer. 

npaBAcnofloSHlbiH [pravda- 
pAdobniy] a sh f npaB^ono- 
A66eH, -a, -o, -bi verisimilar; 
probable, likely. 

npaBHJi|o [prav^ila] n -a, 
~ 1. rule {of grammar, etc); 
2.: ^a BHyxpeHHero pacno- 
pH^Ka office [factory, etc] 
regulations; ~a yjiHMHoro 
ABH}KeHHH traffic regulations; 
3. principle, rule, maxim; 
y Hero ~o — ne BMeiiiHBaxb- 
CH B qyjKHe AeJia it is a prin- 
ciple/maxim with him not 
to interfere in other people's 
affairs; 3xo ne b mohx —-ax 
this is contrary to my prin- 

— 339 — 


ciples; BSHTb 3a --o make it 
a rule; bshtb ce6e aa ~o 
make a point of (doing smth); 
O KaK —o as a rule, usual- 


npaBHJibHo [prav^il^na] I 
adv correctly; rightly; 
II impers predic that's right, 
right you are, exactly; it is 

npaBHjibHlbiH [prav^il^niy] 
a sh f npaBHJieH, -a, -o, -bi 

1. correct, right; proper 
(correct); 2. regular (1) fea- 
tures, etc\ 2) ling). 

npaBHTejibCTBJo [prAv^i- 
t^'il^'stvaj n -a, ~ govern- 
ment (the ministry); US ad- 

npaslHTb [prav^'it^] imperf 
-JiK), -HEib, p -HJ7, imp -b 1. 
rule, govern; 2. drive, steer 
(a car, etc). 

npaBjicHHJe [prAvl^en^iya] 
n -H, -H 1. rule, government; 

2. management, board. 
npaBJo [prava] n -a, pi -a, 

--, -aM 1. right (1) a just 
claim; 2) a thing justly claim- 
ed); ~o Ha xpyA the right 
to work; ~o rojioca the right 
to vote, suffrage; Bceofimee 
HsSHpaxejibHoe --o universal 
suffrage; nopasceHMe b ~ax 
disfranchisement; c nojiHbiM 
-—OM rightfully; Bocnojibso- 
eaxbCH CBOHM '—OM exercise 
one's right; 2. law (a sci- 
ence); 3. pi: BOAHxejibCKHe 
~ a driver's license; 
<> 6biTb B --e have the 
right (to do smth); na ~ax 
Koro-ji. as smb, as if I [he, 
etc] were smb. 

npaBonHcaHH|e [pravsp^i- 
san^iya] n -n orthography. 

npaBOcyAH|e [pravAsu- 

d'^iya] n -a justice (adminis- 
tration of law). 

npaB|biH I [praviy] a 1. 
right (handf side, etc); right- 
-hand; 2. po/ -right-wing. 

npaB|biH II [praviy] a sh 
/ ~-, -a -o, -bi 1.; Bbi — bi 
you are right; kto ~? who 
is right?; 2. righteous, just, 
right (cause, etc). 

npaBsmi,|HH [prav^ash^iiy] 
a [pa] -an, -ee, -He ruling 
(classes, etc). 

npasAHHK [praz^n^ik, -g] 
m -a, -oB holiday, festival; 
feast, festive occasion; 3to 
doJibuioH ~- /iJiH Hac this is 
a great occasion for us; c 
— om! many happy returns 
of the day!, besi wishes of 
the season!; 

O Sy^eT H Ha Haiiiefi yjiHU,e 
~! ^ our day will come. 

npasAHJOBaTb [praznavat^] 
imperf -yio, -yeiiib, p -osaji, 
imp -yft, OTjnpasAHOBaTb 
[AtpraznSvat^] perf celebrate 
(a victory, holiday, etc). 

npa3AH|biH [praznty] a sh 
f npasACH, -a, -o -bi 1. idle; 
2. fig useless, unnecessary, 

npaKTHKla [prakt^ika] / -h 
1. practice (ij contrasted with 
theory; 2) at the piano, etc, 
3) of a doctor, etc); na ~e 1) 
in practice {in action), 2) 
'through practice; saHHMaibCH 
MeAHUHHCKOH —OH practisc 
medicine; bohth b —y become 
customary; 2. practice, meth- 


— 340 — 

od; 3. practical (work), prac- 
tice; npoxoAHTb ~ydo prac- 
tical (work). 

npaKTHMecKlHii [prAkf'i- 
ch^'isk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -He 
practical (activity, man, train- 
ing, etc). 

npaKTHHHlbiH [prAkt^'ich''- 
nty] a sh f npaKTHHeH, -a, -o, 
-bi 1. practical {man, etc); 2. 
efficient [method, etc); wear- 
ing well {of a fabric, etc). 

npax [prakh, -qhj m -a 
ashes, remains; 3Aecb no- 
KoHTCH ~ repoH here lies a 
hero {of a grave). 

npaHeHHjaji [prach^ishnaya] 
/ -OH, -bix laundry {an estab- 

npaHJKa [prach^'ka] / -kh, 
'CK laundress, washerwom- 

npe... pref I of verbs de- 
noting an excessive action: 
npeyMeHbuiaTb [pr^'ium'^i^n''- 
shat''] underestimate, belit- 
tle; npeB03HccHTb [pr^'ivaznA- 
s^if*] extol, exalt; 
II of adjectives and adverbs 
denoting a high degree of the 
quality: npeA66pbiH [pr^i^- 
dobriy] extremely kind. 

npe6biBaHH|e [pr^'ibtva- 
n''iy9] n -h stay, sojourn. 

npeBsoHTH see npesocxo- 


npcBOcxofllHTb [pr'^ivaskhA- 
d^'it''] imperf npeeocxojKy, 
npeeocxoAHmb, p -hji, npe- 
B30HJTM lpr''ivzAyt*'i] perf 
-Ay, -Aemb, p npeesoiiieji, 
npeeaoiiiJia, imp -ah exceed, 
surpass, outdo, excel; hhc- 
;ieHHo ~HTb outnumber; 

<> npeBsoHTH caMoro ceSa 

surpass oneself. 

npCBOCXOAHlblH [pr^'lVAS- 

khodniy] a sh f npeeocxoAeH, 
-a, -o, -bi splendid, magnif- 
icent, excellent, perfect, su- 

<0> — aw creneHb ling super- 
lative degree. 

npeBOcxoACTBlo [pr^ivAs- 
kholstva] n -a superiority; mh- 
cjiCHHoe ~o numerical supe- 

npeBpaiMTb see npeepa- 

npCBpaTHTbCJi see npeepa- 

npcBpamlaxb [pr^ivrA- 

sh^iat''] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
npeBpaTJMTb [pr'^ivrAt^'it*'] 
perf npcBpamy, -Huib, p -hji, 
imp -H turn {to, into), con- 
vert (into); reduce (to, into), 

npeBpamlarbCJi [pr^ivrA- 
sh'':atts8] imperf -aiocb, -a- 
embCH, npeBpaT|HTbC5] [pr^i- 
vrAf'ittsa] perf npeepamycb, 

-HUIbCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, 

imp -HCb, -Hiecb turn (into), 
change (into, to), pass (into), 

<> ripeBpaTHTbCJi b cjiyx be- 
come all ears. 

npeBwcHTb see npeBbimaTb. 

npeBbiuijaTb Ipr^'ivishat''] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, npCBu- 
cJHTb [pr^i^vls^'it^'l perf npe- 
Bbiiuy, -Hmb, p -HJI, imp -b 
exceed (the target figures, 
one's authority, etc). 

nperpaAJa [pr^'i^grada] / 
-bi, ~ barrier, obstacle. 

nperpaAHTb see nperpax- 

— 341 — 


nperpawfllaxb [pr^igrAzh- 
dat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
nperpafl'HTb [pr^'igrAd^it**] 
perf nperpa}Ky, -Hiub, p -h.i, 
imp -H bar, block (up), stop 
(stub's way, etc). 

npefl... pref I of verbs 
denoting 'before in time': 
npcABHAexb [pr^i^dv^id^'it^] 

II of adjectives and nouns de- 
noting 'before in place' or 'in 
front of: npeAropbe [pr''i^d- 
gor^ya] foot-hills; npcAno- 
cjieAHHH [pr^itpAs**l^ed^n^iy] 
ast but one, next to last. 

npefla|BaTb [pr^idAvat^] 
imperf -ib, -euib, p -bslji, imp 
-Baft, npefljaxb [pr^i^dat^l 
perf -aM, -aiub, -aci, -aAHM, 
-aAHTe, -aAyT, p npeAaJi, -ajia, 
npeAajio, npeAajiH, imp -aft 
1. betray (to the enemy); 2.: 
~BaTb orHK) commit to the 
flames; — eajb cyAy bring 
to trial; —eaTb rjiacHOCTH 
make known, give publicity 
to; ~BaTb 3a6BeHHio bury 
in oblivion. 

npeAaHHOCT|b [pr'^eda- 

nas^t*', -z^d^] / -h devotion, 

npeAaHHJbiH [pr^'edaniy] a 
[pa\ sh f npeAaH, -a. -o, -bi 
(npeAaH, npeAana, npeAano, 
npeAaHbi, when used with an 
object) devoted, staunch; 
--bift BaM yours faithfully, 
yours truly (in a letter). 

npcAaxejilb [pr^'i^daf'il''] 
m -H, -eft traitor, betrayer. 

npeAaTejibCTB|o [pr^i'^da- 
t^'il^stva] n -a, ~ treachery, 
betrayal, perfidy. 

npcA^Tb see npeAaBaib. 

npeABapMTejibH|biH [pr^i- 
dvAr^it^rPntyl a prelimina- 
ry; no ~biM noACMeraM by 
rough calculation; -~aH npo- 
AajKa 6HjieT0B advance tick- 
ets sale. 

npeAB3flT|biH [pr^i^dvz^a- 
tiy] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 
biassed, preconceived. 

npcACJi [pr^iM^el] m -a, 
-OB limit, bound; b —ax... 
within..., within the limits/ 
bounds (of)\ BbiftxH sa ~bi 
overstep the limits (of), ex- 
ceed the bounds (of); ~ )Ke- 
.naHHH summit of desires; 
noJioHCHTb — qeMy-ji. put an 
end to smth. 

npcAejibHbift [pr^i^d^el^nty] 
a maximum, utmost; ~ cpoK 

npcAHCJioBHle [pr^id^islo- 
v^'iya] n -h, -ft preface, fore- 

npCAJiarjaTb [pr^idlAgaf"] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npcAJio- 
jKJHTb [pr^'idlAzhtt^'l perf -y, 
npeA-noacHiiib, p -hji, imp -h 
1. offer (to help, etc); 2. pro- 
pose, move; suggest (doing 
smth, a plan, etc); —axb 
BHHMaHHK) bring forward, 
call (smb's) attention (to 
smth); 3. order (command); 
eMy npeA^OHCHJiH CACJiaib 
310 HeMeAJieMHo he was or- 
dered to do it immediately. 

npcAJior I [pr^i^dlok, -g] 
m -a, -OB pretext, pretence, 
excuse, plea. 

npcAJior II [pr^i^dlok, -g] 
m -a. -OB ling preposi- 



npejiJioweHHle I [pr^idU- 
zhen'^iya] n -h, -h 1. offer; 
2. proposal, motion; sugges- 
tion (1 ) an act of; 2) an 
idea); bhccth — e put forward 
a proposal, make a motion, 
move, propose; 3. proposal 
(of marriage); cAejiaxb — e 
AeeymKe propose to a girl; 
4. econ supply. 

npcfljioKeHHe II [pr^idU- 
zhen^iya] n -h, -h lin^ sen- 
tence; clause. 

npeAJiojKMTb see 

npeflMecTJbe [pr^'iMm^e- 
s'^f'ya] n -bH, -hh suburb. 

npeAMCT [pr^iMm'^et, -d] 
m -a, -OB 1. object (a thing); 
article (a commodity); —u 
LUHpoKoro noipeSjieHHH con- 
sumer goods; 2. subject, top- 
ic, theme; — cnopa issue, 
pofnt at issue; 3. subject 
(of instruction). 

npeAHasHanjaTb [pr^idnaz- 
nAch^'at'^l imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
npejlHaBHanlHTb [pr^iduAzna- 
ch^'it''] perf -y, -Hiub, p -hji, 
imp -b intend {for), destine 
{for), mean (for); set aside 
ifor), earmark (for). 

npefljoK [pr^edak, -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB ancestor, forefather. 

npeflocTaBHTb see npeAocia- 


npeAOCTaBji|«Tb [pr^ida- 
stAvl^'at''] imperf -hk), -neujb, 
npe;iocTaB HTb [pr'^idAsta- 
v'^it''] perf -j\K), -HUJb, p -hji, 
imp -b 1. give, grant; place 
at smb's disposal; 2.: —nib 

KOMy-Jl. Bbl6op " B MCM-JI. 

leave smth to smb's choice; 

eMy npe^ocTaBHJiH caMOMy 
peiiiHTb 3T0 the decision was 
left to him; 

<> ~«Tb cjioBo Koiy-ji. give 
smb the floor, let smb have 
the floor. 

npefl0CTeper|aTb [pr^ida- 
3b|bjj.fajeg^^bj itnperf -aio, -a- 
euib, npeflocTepe|Hb [pr^ida- 
s^'t^i^r^ech^] joe/-/ -ry, -H<euib, 
p npe/tocieper -rjia, imp 
-FH caution {against), warn 

npeAOCTepe«eHH|e [pr'^ida- 
s^t^ir^i^zhen^iya] n -h, -h 
warning, caution. 

npeiiocTepeHb see npcAO- 

npeAOCTOpojKHocTlb [pr^i- 
dastArozhnas'^t^, -z^d^] / -h, 
-eft precaution; h3 ~h out 
of caution; Mepu —h precau- 
tions, precautionary meas- 

npe;iOTBpaTHTb see npeAOT- 

npeAOTBpamiaTb [pr^idat- 
vrAsh^at^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
npeAOiBparlHTb [pr^'idalvrA- 
t'^it'^J perf npeAOTBpamy, 
-Hiiib, p -HJI, imp -H avert, 
stave off, ward off, pre-' 

npeAoxpaHHTejijb [pr^'ida- 
khrAn^if'il^] m-H, -eft technol 
safety lock, safety (device); 
safety-bolt; electr (safety) 

npeAOxpaHHTb see npeAo- 

n^'at^i imperf -hkd, -neiub, 
npcAoxpaH HTb fpr'^idakhrA- 
n'^it''] perf -w, -Huib, p -hji, 



imp -H protect (from, 
against), preserve (from). 

npe^nojiar |aTb [pr^itpalA- 
gat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
npCAnojioaciHTb [pr^itpalA- 
zhlt^] perf -y, npeAnojio- 
jKHiiib, p -HJi, imp -H 1. sup- 
pose; believe, think (that...); 
surmise, conjecture; assume 
(that...); 2. {no perf) intend, 
contemplate, plan, propose 
{to do); be going {to do); 3. 
{no perf) presuppose. 

npeAnojio«eHH|e [pr^itpa- 
lAzhen^iya] n -h, -h supposi- 
tion, speculation; assump- 

npertitojioKHTb see npe^no- 
jiaraxb 1. 

npe;inocjieAHlHM [pr^itpA- 
s^Ped^n^iy] a last but one, 
next to last. 

npeiinoHecTb see npe^no- 


npe^moHHTJaTb [pr^itpa- 
ch^itat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
npeAnoHJecTb [pr^itpA- 

ch^es^t^] perf -xy, -xemb, p 
-eji, -jia, imp -th prefer, like 
better; h —aio hati^ neiuKoM 
1 prefer walking, I'd rather 

npeflnpHHMHHBJbiH [pr^it- 
pr^iimch^ivty] a sh f — , -a, 
-0, -bi enterprising. 

npeflnpHHHMaTeji|b [pr^it- 
pr^in^imat^iP] m -h, -eft 
employer, proprietor. 

npennpHHHMlatb [pr^itpr^i- 
nMmat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
npe;inpHJH«Tb [pr^itpr^in^at^j 
perf -My, npeAnpHMeuib, p 
npeAnpHHHJi, -HJiJia, npCA- 
npHHJiJio, npeAnpHHHJjH, imp 

-MH undertake {a journey, 
etc); launch {an attack, etc); 
--axb uiarH take steps. 

npeAnpH^THie [pr^itpr^iya- 
t^iya] n -h, -ft 1. enterprise, 
factory, works; 2, undertak- 
ing, enterprise, business. 

npeApaccyA|0K [pr^idrAssu- 
dak, -g] m -Ka, -kob preju- 
dice {religious, etc). 

npcAceAaxeji I b [pr^its^i^da- 
t^il^] m -H, -eft chairman; 

npcACKasaxb see npcACKa- 

npeACKa3biB|axb [pr^i^tska- 
zfvat^] imperf -aio; -aeuib, 
npeACKajsaxb Ipr^itskAzat"^] 
perf -y^y, npeACKa}Kemb, p 
-saji, imp -JKH foretell, pre- 
dict, forecast. 

npeAcxaBHxeji|b [pr^itstA- 
v^itiP] m -H, -eft represent- 
ative {of a firm, class, etc); 

npeAcxaBHxejibH'ibiH fpr^it- 
stAv^it^iPniy] a sh f npeA- 
cxasHxejieH, -a. -o, -bi 1. {no 
sh f) pol representative; 2. 
impressive, dignified, impos- 
ing {appearance, etc). 

npcACxaBHXb see npeACxae- 
jiHXb 1, 2, 3, 5. 6. 

npeACxacHXbCH see npeA- 

npcACxaBJiCHHle [pr^itstAv- 
l^en^'iya] n -h, -ft 1. presen- 
tation, handing in {of docu- 
ments, etc); 2. theat perform- 
ance; 3. notion, idea {of, 
about smth); hh Majieftmero 
~H not the slightest idea. 

npeACxaBjijflxb [pr^itstAv- 
Paf^l imperf -hk), -neuib, 



npcAcxaBHTb [pr^'i^tstav^'it^] 
perf -R\o, -Muib, p -HJi, Imp 
-b 1. produce {evidence, a 
document); present, hand in 
(a document, etc); submit {for 
consideration, etc); 2. present, 
offer {some difficulty, etc); 
— HTb HHxepec [ueHHOcTb] be 
of interest [value]; 3. intro- 
duce {smb to smb); 4. [no 
perf) represent {smb, smb's 
interests, etc); 5.: npeAcra- 
BHTb Koro-Ji. K Harpafle re- 
commend smb for a decora- 
tion [reward]; 6. imagine, 
conceive, fancy, picture, real- 
ize; npeACTaBb(Te) ce6e Moe 
BosMymeHHe imagine how 
indignant I was; Tbi caM 
~Hemb, MTo H3 3Toro nojiy- 
MHTCH you yourself realize / 
you can imagine what will 
come of it; h —hio ce6e ero 
eapocjibiM I imagine him as 
a grown-up man; 7. {no perf): 
'-HTb co66h MTo-Ji. be smth; 
represent smth; mo oh co66h 
'—HeT? what is he like?, what 
kind of person is he?; 
«0^ npeflCTaBb(Te) (ce6e) just 

l^'attja] imperf -Hioch* -Heiub- 
CH,npeACTaB|HTbca [pr^i^tsta- 
v^ittja] perf -Jiracb, -Huib- 
CH. p -HJicH, -Hjiacb, imp 
-bCH, -bxecb 1. introduce 
oneself; 2. present itself, 
occur, arise, offer itself {of 
an opportunity, etc). 

npeACTOJ^Tb [pr^itstAyat**] 
imperf -ht, p -hji be in pros- 
pect, be coming, will take 
place; HaM [eaw u m. d.\ 

~HT... we [you, etc] are 
to {do smth), we [you, etc] 
are faced with {smth), we 
[you, etc] will have to {do 

npeflySe^fleHHJe [pr^idub^i^- 
zhd^en^iya] n -h, -h preju- 
dice (a^a/Ms/), h'ms {against); 


~eM be biassed against 

npeAynpeAHTejibHJbiH [pr^i- 
dupr^i^^it^il^niy] a sh f 
npeAynpeAHTCJieH, -a, -o, -bi 
1. {no sh f) precautionary, 
preventive; 2. obliging, atten- 
tive; courteous. 

npeflynpeflHTb see npCAy- 

npeAynpe)KA|aTb [pr^'idu- 
pr^i^zhdat^] imperf -aio, 
-aeuib, npe;iynpefl|HTb [pr^i- 
dupr^'i^d^it^] perf npcAynpe- 
>Ky, -Huib, p -HJI, imp -H 

1. let know (beforehand); 
give notice, n6tify; warn 
{1) that..., about; 2) against); 

2. prevent, avert {an accident, 
etc); 3. anticipate, forestall 
{smb, events, etc). 

npeAynpoKAeHHJe [pr^idu- 
pr^i^zhd^en^'iya] n -h, -h 1. 
warning; notice, notification; 
2. prevention. 

npCAycMaTpHBlaxb [pr^'idu- 
smatr^ivat^] imperf -aio, 
-aeiiib, npeAycMOTpjexb [pr^^i- 
dusmAtr^et**] perf -k>, npe- 
AycMOTpHuib, p -eji, imp -h 
foresee; provide for, make 
provision for; envisage, stip- 

npcAHyBCTBHle [pr''i^t''ch''u- 


H, -H pre- 

- 345 - 


sentiment, foreboding, mis- 

npeAuiecTBCHHHK [pr'^i^t- 
shes^t^v^m^ik, -g] m -a, -ob 
predecessor, fore-runner, pre- 

npe;mjecTB|oBaTb [pr^i^t- 
shestyvat^] imperf -yex, p 
-oBaji precede, forego, fore- 

npejimecTByiomlHH [pr^i^t- 
shestvuyush'^-.iy] a [pa] -an, 
-ee, -He former, previous, 

npeATjABHTb see npeAi^HB- 


npCfl-bflBjilHTb [pr^idyi^v- 
Pat^] imperf -hk), -neiub, 
npcfl-bJiBlHTb [pr^idyi^v^it^] 
perf -jiK), npeA'tHBHuib, p -h;i, 
imp -H 1. produce, show {docu- 
ments, proofs, etc); 2.: --HTb 
npexeHSHH put forward pre- 
tensions / claims; lay claim 
{to smth); — HTb npaBO Ha 
HTO-ji. lay claim to smth; 

--HTb BblCOKHe [60JIbIlIHe] 

Tpe6oBaHKH K... make high 
[great] demands on..., de- 
mand much of...; ~-HTb o6- 
BHueHHH KOMy-ji. charge smb 
{with smth). 

npeAbiityiUJHH [pr^ididu- 
sh^'iiy] a -an, -ee, -He pre- 
vious {letter, lesson, etc); 
Ha —efl HCAeJie last week; 
B ~eM roAy [MecHue] last 
year [month]. 

npCMiie [pr^ezhd^i] 1 adv 
before, formerly, in former 
times; ~ naAO npoHHxaTb 
3TO first you must read this; 
11 prep with gen before 

<> ^ Bcero first of all; first 
and foremost; above all; ^ 
HCM before. 

npeiKH|HH [pr'^ezhn^'iy] a 
previous, former; b ^-ee spe- 
MH in the old days, in form- 
er times. 

npesHjieHT [pr^iz^id^ent, 
-d] m -a, -OB president {of 
a republic, academy of sci- 

npesMflHyM [pr^i'^z^'id^iumj 
m -a, -OB presidium. 

npesHpjaTb [pr^'iz^irat^j 
imperf -aio, -aemb 1. despise, 
scorn, disdain, hold in con- 
tempt; 2. defy, disdain. 

npe3peHH|e [pr^i^zr^e- 

n^iy9] n -h I. contempt, 
scorn, disdain; 2. defiance, 

npe3pHTejibH|biH [pr^i^zr^i- 
t^il^nty] a sh f npeapHxe- 
jiCH, -a, -o, -bi contemptuous, 
scornful, disdainful. 

npeHMymecTBJQ [pr^iimu- 
sh^:istva] n -a, ~ advantage 
{over), superiority {over); 
<> no ~y mostly, chiefly, 
for the most part. 

npeKJiOHHbiH [pr^i^klonnty] 
a: ~ Bospacx old age. 

npeKjioH|«TbC5i [pr^iklA- 
n^attja] imperf -Hiocb, -Heuib- 
ch: ~HXbCH nepe;^ kcm-ji. 
[nepeA ^em-Ji.] worship, ad- 
mire smb [smth.]. 

npeKpacHJbiH [pr^'i^krasnty] 
a sh f npeKpaceH, -a, -o, -u 
1. beautiful, fine; 2, excel- 

<> B OAHH ~biH ACHb one 
fine day; b oaho —oe yrpo 
one fine morning. 


- 346- 

npcKpaTHTb see npexpa- 

npeKpaxHTbCH see npeKpa- 

npCKpamlaTb [pr^'ikrA- 

sh^'^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
npeKpaT|HTb [pr^ikrAt^'it''] 
perf npeKpaiuy. -Hiub, p -hji, 
imp -H stop, cease, discon- 
tinue; put an end to; break 
off, sever; drop (an argu- 
ment, inquiry); npenpaTHTb 
noflany sjieKiposHeprHH -cut 
off the electricity. 

npeKpamlaxbCH [pr^ikrA- 
sh^:atts9] imperf -aeiCH, npe- 
KpaT{HTbC5i [pr^ikrAt^itts^] 

perf -HTCH, p -HJICH, -H- 

jiacb cease, end, come to 
an end. 

npejiecTHibiH [pr^i^l^esnty] 
a sh f npeJiecTCH, -a, -o, -bi 
charming, delightful, lovely. 

npejiecT|b [pr^el^is^t^, 

-z^d''] / -H charm, fascina- 
tion; KaKan ~b! charming!, 

npeMHpJGBaTb [pr^im^irA- 
vaf*] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiub, p -osaji, imp -yft 
give a bonus / premium {for 
good work, etc); ~OBaTb 
»ieM-ji. award smth as a 

npeMHJfl [pr^em^'iyo] / -h, 
-H prize, reward, bonus; 
premium; npHcy^HTb — lo 
award a prize / bonus. 

npewbepla [pr^'i^m^'yera] / 
-H, ~ theat first night; new 

npcHeSperjaTb [pr^in^i- 
br'' i ^gat** ] /mper/ -aio, -aemb, 
npeHe6p|e4b [pr''in^i^br^ech''l 

oerf -ery, -e)Keuib, p npene- 
6per, -erJia, imp -erH 1. neg- 
lect, disregard {one's duties, 
etc); 2. ignore, scorn {smb's 
opinion, advice, etc). 

npeHeSpewHxejibHJbiH [pi'^'i- 
n^ibr^i^zhft^iPniy] q sh f 
npeHe6pe>KTiTejieH, -a, -o, -bi 
scornful, slighting. 

npeneSpeHb see npenedpe- 

npeHHJfl [pr^en^iya] pi -i* 
debate, discussion. 

npeo6jia;i|axb [pr^iAblA- 
dat^] imperf -aex prevail, 
predominate {over). 

npeojiojieB axb [pr^iAdaPi^- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
npeoAOJi|exb [pr^iAdApet^j 
perf -ho, -eeiiib overcome, 
get over {difficulties, etc); 
surmount, negotiate {obsta- 
cles); npeoAOJiexb oTCxaeaHHe 
make good a lag. 

npenoflaBaxeji|b [pr^ipadA- 
vaf'il*'] m -51, -eft teacher; 

npenoAaleaxb [pr^ipadA- 
vat^] imperf -ib, -eiub,/? -Baji, 
imp -Ban teach {!) Russian, 
mathematics, etc; 2) at an in- 
stitute, etc). 

npenoflHecxH see npenoA- 


npenoAHOcJHxb [pr^ipadnA- 
s^it''] imperf npenoAHomy, 
npenoAHocHiub, p -hji, imp 
-H, npenoflHec'iXH [pr^ipad- 
j^bjegb^bj-j pg^^ .^^ -euib, p 

npenoAHec, -Jia, imp -h 1. 
present, make a present of; 
2, fig col: npenoAHCCXH ciop- 
npH3 KOMy-ji. give smb a 
surprise; npenoAHecxH ho- 

— 347 — 


BOCTb KOMy-Ji. bring smb 
news (mostly bad). 

npennrcTBHle [pr^i^p^atst^- 
v^iya] n -h, -h obstacle, im- 
pediment, hindrance; npe- 
oflojiexb ~e overcome an ob- 
stacle (also fig); surmount / 
negotiate an obstacle. 

npenflTCTB|oBaTb [pr^i^p^a- 
tjtyvat^] imperf -yio, -yeiiib, 
p ' -osaji, imp -yft hinder, 
hamper, lay obstacles (to). 

npepBaxb see npepbisaTb. 

npepbiBJarb [pr^irivat''] im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib, npepB|aTb 
[pr^i^rvat^] perf -y, -euib, 
p -an, -ajia, -ajio, -ajin, imp 
-H interrupt, break (off); cut 
off (a telephone connexion). 

npecjieflloBaxb [pr^i^s^Pe- 
d8V9t^] imperf -yio, -yeiiib, 
p -osaji, imp -yfi 1. pursue, 
chase, be after; 2. fig haunt 
(of thoughts, etc); 3. perse- 
cute, victimize; 4. law pros- 
ecute; 5. pursue (one's own 
ends, object, etc). 

a notorious. 

npecH|biH [pr'esniy] a sh f 
npeceH, -a, -o, -u fresh, sweet 
(water)', unflavoured, insipid. 

npeccja [pr^essa] / -w press 
(periodicals and the people who 
work for them). 

npecTynjie^HJe [pr^istup- 
l^en^iya] n -a, -fl crime, 
offence, felony; yrojiosHoe 
'-e criminal offence. 

npecxynHHK [pr^i^stupn^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob criminal, of- 
fender, felon. 

npereHAloBaTb [pr^it^mdA- 
vat''] imperf -yio, -yeiub, p 

-OBaji, imp -yft lay claim 
(to), have a claim (on), pre- 
tend (to). 

npeieHSHlfl [pr^i^t^en^- 
z'iya] / -H, -ft claim, pre- 
tension; comp-laint, griev- 
ance; aaHBHTb -^-K) no noBO- 
Ay Meroji. make a complaint 
about smth; 

<> 6biTb B —11 Ha Koro-ji. 
have a grudge against smb, 
bear smb a grudge. 

npeyBejiHHHBJaTb [pr^iu- 
v^i^l^ich^ivat^] imperf -aio, 
-aeuib, npeyBejiHH|HTb [pr^iu- 
v^i^Pich^it^] perf -y, -Hiiib, 
p -HJi exaggerate, magnify, 

npH [pr^i; in a stressed 
position — pr^i] prep with pr 
denoting 1. close vicinity: — 
Aopore near / by the road; 
6HTBa — BopOAHHe battle of 
Borodino; npri CMepxH on the 
verge of death, dying; — no- 
cjie^HeM HSAbixaHHH at one's 
last gasp, dying; 2. the state 
of being attached to: -^ 
HHCTHTyxe (ecTb) o6me^HTHe 
there is a hostel attached to 
the institute; oh hchbct — 
cxaHUHH his house is attached 
to the station; 3. the fact 
that smth is taking place in 
a person's presence: AaBaftie 
cAe.JiaeM sto —' hhx let's do 
it in their presence; -- ;;e- 

T5IX [nOCTOpOHHHX u m. n.\ 

in front of / before children 
[strangers, etc]; 4. an epoch: 
~' HBane FposHOM under 
Ivan the Terrible; — Flyiii- 
KHHe in Pushkin's time; -^ 
coBexcKOH BjiacxH under So- 


— 348 

viet Government; after the 
Revolution; 9tot aom cxpo- 
HJiH — MHe this house was 
built when I was / lived 
there; 5. the circumstances 
of an action: ~ ceeie 4)o- 
HapH by the light of a lan- 
tern; ~- CHjibHOM Bexpe when 
a strong wind is blowing; 
6. possession, availability of 
smth: CKoJibKo y Te6H flener 
-— ce6e? how much money 
have you got about you?; 
~ ^eJiauHM given the de- 
sire; ~ ero cnoc66HocTHx oh 
Mor 6bi cAeJiaib 3to JiyMUie 
with his abilities he could 
have done it better; ~ Bceft 
CBoeft CHJie OH He mop ot- 
Kpb'iTb- ABepb for all his 
strength he could not open 
the door; 7.: ~ noMomn 
with the help {of); ~ coach- 
CTBHH Apyaefl with one's 
friends* assistance / help. 

npM... pref I of verbs de- 
noting 1. completion of an 
action at a certain point: 
npHUJibiTb [pr^'ipHt*'] swim 
up, come swimming; npH- 
rnaxb [pr^ignat^] drive home, 
bring home {cattle, etc); 
2. achievement of a certain 
result: npHyqHTb[pr*'iuch*'it^l 
train, school {to smth, to be 
smth); npHKOHMHTb [pr^ikon''- 
ch^it**] finish off; 3. conti- 
guity, contact, approaching, 
drawing near: npHCxasHTb 
lpr''istav*'it*'] set {against), 
put {against); npHTp6HyTbC5! 
[pr^itronuttja] touch {smth); 
4. connecting, fastening to- 
gether: npHAejiaxb (pr^'id^'e- 

bt^] attach {to), fix {to); 
npHiBHTb [pr'ishft^] sew {on, 
to); 5. addition: npHKyuHib 
Ipr^ikup^it^] buy some more; 
6. partial character of an 
action: npHOiKpb'iTb [pr^'iAt- 
krit^] open slightly, half- 
-open; set ajar; 
11 of nouns & adjectives de- 
noting position close to smth: 
npHMopbe [pr^imor^ya] sea 
country, littoral; npHropoA- 
HbiH [pr^igaradnty] subur- 

npH6aBHTb see npHdaBJiHXb. 

npHSaBjij^Tb [pr^ibAvl^at^] 
imperf -hk), -neuib, npH6a- 
elHTb [pr^ibav^'it*'] perf -jiio, 
-Hiiib, p -HJi, imp -h 1. add 
{smth to smth); 2.: ~HTb 
aapnjiaxy raise the wages; 
~HTb mary hasten one's 
steps, increase one's pace; 
~HTb cKopocTb increase 

npH6er|aTb I [pr^'ib^'i^gat*'] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, iipM- 
6em\aTb [pr^'ib^i^zhat^] perf 
npH6ery, -Huib, p -aji, imp 
npH6erH come running / hast- 

npHSerjaxb II [pr^ib^i^- 
gat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
npM6er|HyTb [pr^'ib^egnut**] 
perf -ny, -neuib, p -nyji (~), 
-jia, imp -HH resort {to), fall 
back {upon). 

npH6emaTb see npHSeraxb I. 

npM6MB|aTb fpr'^ib'^ivat^J 
imperf -aio, -aeujb, npMSlHTb 
[pr^ib^'it'^l perf -bib, -beuib, 
p -HJI, imp -eft 1. nail, fas- 
ten with nails; 2. {mostly 
impers) wash ashore, drive 



ashore, throw on to the 

npH6;iH%!aTbc$i [pr^ibl^i- 
zhattjaj linperf -aiocb, -aeiub- 
CH, npH6jiH3|HTbC5i [pr^'ibl^'i- 
z^'ittsa] perf npH6jiH}Kycb, 

-HlUbCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, 

imp -bCH, -bxecb approach, 
come / draw nearer, near. 

npH6;iH3HTejibHO [pr^ibl^i- 
z^'it^il^na] adv approximate- 
ly, roughly; sHaxb mo-j\. secb- 
Ma -' have a vague idea of 

npH6jiM3HTejibH|biH [pr^i- 
bl*'iz^it'il''nty]as/i/ npH6;iH- 
SHxejieH, -a, -o, -bi approxi- 
mate, rough. 

npH6jiH3HTbCfi see npH6jiH- 

npM66|H [pr^ib6y[ m -h 
surf; breakers (waves). 

npH66p [pr^ibor] m -a, -ob 

1. instrument, apparatus; 

2. set {dinner, tea, etc). 
npM6biBlaTb [pr^'ibtvat^] 

imperf -aio, -aeiiib, npM6|biTb 
[pr^ibtt^J perf -yjiy, -yjiemb, 
p npH6biji, -bijia, npH6bmo, 
npridbiJiH, imp -y^b 1. arrive, 
come; 2. increase, grow; rise; 
swell (of water). 

npH6bi;i|b [pr^ibil^] m -h, 
-eft profit{s). 

npH6uTb see npHfiHBaxb. 

npHBaji [pr^'ival] m -a, 
-OB halt (during a march, 

npHsesTH see npHBOSHib. 

npHBepeAJiHB|biH [pr^iv^i^- 
r^ed^l^iviy] a sh f ^, -a, -o, 
-bi fastidious, squeamish. 

npHBepKCHJei; [pr^iv^er- 
ghan^its, -d^j m -ua, -uee 

adherent, follower, support- 

npuBecTH see npHSOAHTb. 

npHBCT [pr^iv^et, -d] m 
-a. -OB regard(s); nepe^aBarb 
~ KOMy-Ji. send / give smb 
one's (kind) regards; nepe- 
iiaftxe — Bameft cecxpe my 
(best) regards to your sister, 
my love to your sister, re- 
member me to your sister. 

npHBeTjiHB|biH [pr^iv^et^- 
l^iviy] a sh f ~, -a, -o^ -u 
friendly, affable. 

npnBexcxB|oBaxb fpr^iv^e- 
tstyvat^] imperf -yio, -yeiub, 
p -OBaji, imp -yfi 1. greet; 
welcome, hail (also fig); 2. 
mil salute. 

npHBHB|aTb [pr^iv^'ivat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npHBHib 
[pr^iv^'it^] perf -bib, -beiub, 
p -HJi, -HJia, -HJio, -HJiH, imp 
-eft 1. bot (en)graft; 2. med 
inoculate with; vaccinate 
with; 3. fig inculcate, im- 
part {a habit, love for, etc). 

npHBHB|Ka [pr^iv^'ifka] / 
-KH, -OK 1. bot inoculation, 
grafting; 2. med inoculation; 

npHBHXb see npHBHsaxb. 

npHBKyc [pr^'ifkus, -z] m 
-a smack, flavour (also fig). 

npHBjieKaxejibHJUH [pr^i- 
vPi^kat^il^nty] a sh f npH- 
BJieKaxejieH, -a, -o, -bi attrac- 
tive, winning; alluring, in- 

npHBjieK|axb [pr^ivl^i®- 
kat*"] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
npHBJie|Hb [pr^ivl^'ech''] perf 
-Ky, -qemb, -Kyx, p npHBJieK, 
-KJia, imp -KH 1. draw, al- 


350 — 

tract; 2. draw in, enlist; 
~aTb Ha CBOK) CTopOHy win 
over / round; 3.: ~-aTb k 
cyAy put on trial, bring to 
trial, take to court; —axb k 


start /take criminal proceed- 
ings against; prosecute. 

npHBOfl|HTb [pr^ivAd^it^] 
imperf npHBOJKy, npHBOAHiub, 
p -HJi, imp -H, npHBelcTH 
Ipr^iv^'i^s^t^i] perf -Ay, 
-AeiiJb, p npHBeji, -Jia, imp 
-AH 1. bring {smh somewhere, 
mostly on foot); 2. lead {of 
footprints, etc, also fig); sxo 
npHBCJio K neqajibHbiM no- 
cJieACTBHJiM it led to unfor- 
tunate results; ■ 3. adduce, 
cite; npHBecTH npHMep give / 
cite an example; npHsecTH 
HTo-Ji. B npHMep cite smth 
as an example; 4.: — htb b 
6emeHCTB0 throw into a rage, 
drive mad; ~HTb b npocib 
infuriate; ~HTb b y>Kac hor- 
rify; ~HTb b HsyMJieHHe sur- 
prise, astonish; ^-htb b ot- 
qaHHHe drive to despair; 
^HTb- Koro-Ji. b qyecTBO 
bring smb to his senses; 
~HTb b HeroAHOCTb put out 
of commission, make useless; 


bring to conformity with 
smth; bring in correspond- 
ence with smth; 5. math: 
~HTb K 66meMy anaMena- 
TCJiio reduce to a common 

npMB03|HTb [pr^ivAz'^it^] 
imperf npHBO>Ky, npHBosHuib, 

P -HJI, imp -H, IlpHBe3|TH 

(pr''iv''i^s''t''i] perf -y, -euib, 

p npHBea, -Jia, imp -h bring 
(by vehicle). 

npHEbiKJaTb [pr^ivikat^] 
imperf -aio, -aetub, npHSbiK- 
H|yTb [pr^ivfknut^] perf -y, 
'euib, p npHBbiK, npHBbiKJia, 
imp -H get accustomed / used 
(to); get into the way (of 
doing smth); be accustomed / 
used (to). 

npHBbiHlKa [pr^ivtch^ka] / 
-KH, -CK habit (of doing 
smth, etc); no (cxapoH) ~Ke 
out of habit, by force of hab- 
it; HMCTb ~Ky AeJiaxb mo-Ji. 
be in the habit of doing 
smth, be accustomed to doing 
smth; 9T0 Bomjio y Hero s 
— Ky it has become a habit 
with him. 

npHB^3aHH0CT|b [pr^iv^a- 
zanas^t^, -z^d^] / -h, -eft at- 
tachment (to, for), affection 
(for, towards). 

npMBflsaTb see npHBHSbi- 

npHB^3biB|aTb [pr^iv^azi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
npHBH3|aTb [pr^'iv^i^zat^] 
perf npHBHHcy, npHBH^euib, 
p -aji, imp npHBH>KH tie, 
bind, fasten (to smth). 

npHFjiacMTb see npnrjia- 

npHrjiamjaTb [pr^iglAshat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npHrjia- 
c|HTb [pr^iglAS^'it^] joer/ npH- 
rjiamy, -Huib, p -hji, imp -h 

1. invite, ask (to dinner, etc); 

2. engage (for service); — aib 
Ha pa66Ty offer work. 

npMrjiauieHHle [pr^'iglAshe- 
n^'iya] n -h, -ft 1. invitation; 
2. engagement (for service). 

351 — 


npHroBapMB|aTb [pr^igAva- 
r^ivat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
npHroBOp|MTb [pr^igavAr^it^] 
perf -K), -Hiiib, p -HJi, imp 
-H sentence {to), condemn 

npHroBop [pr^igAvor] m -a, 
-OB 1. law sentence, judge- 
ment; verdict; BbinecTH ~ 
pass (a) sentence (on); npH- 
secTH -- B HcnojiHCHHe exe- 
cute a sentence; 2. fig con- 
demnation, verdict. 

npHroBopHTb see npHrosa- 

npHroAJHTbcsi [pr^igAd^i- 
tts9] perf npHFOH^ycb, -iimbCH, 
p -HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb be of use, come in 
useful, come in handy, prove 
useful, stand (smb) in good 

npHropo;; [pr^igarat, -d] m 
-a, -OB suburb. 

iipHroTaBjiHB|aTb [pr^igA- 
tavl^ivat^] imperf -am, -aemb, 
npHroTOBlHTb [pr^igAtov^it^j 
perf -JiKD, -Huib, p -HJI, imp 
-b 1. prepare, make ready; 
2. cook (food); make, fix {din- 
ner, etc). 

npMroTOBji|flTb [pr^igatAv- 
Pat^] imperf -hk), -neuib = 

npHflaJBaTb [pr^idAvat^] 
imperf -i6, -eiiib, p -Baji, imp 
-Bafl, npH;i|aTb [pr^'idat^] 
perf -aM, -auib, -acr, -a^.M, 
-a/niTe,-aAyT,p npH^aJi, -ajia, 
npHnajio, npH^ajiH, imp -afi 
1. ^jnil attach; 2.:. — Baxb 
ciLnbi give {smb) strength; 

Baib cMeJiocTH make {smb) 
bold, embolden; — eaxb 66a- 

pocTH / Ayxy encourage, put 
heart {into smb); 3. impart 
{a quality, state); — BaTb4)6p- 
My mapa u m. n. shape 
into a ball, etc ; 4.: — Baxb 
sHaneHHe attach importance 

npHAaH|oe [pr^idanaya] n 
-oro, -bix 1. dowry; trous- 
seau; 2. layette. 

npHAaxb see npH^aBaxb. 

npHflHp|axbc« Ipr^'id^ira- 
ttjaj imperf -awcb, -aembCH, 
npHAplaxbCfl [pr^'idrattja] perf 
npH^epycb, npH^epeiiibCH, p 
-ajicH, -ajiacb, imp npH^e- 
pHCb, npH^epHTecb find fault 
{with), cavil {at), carp {at). 

npH^yMaxb see npH^yMbi- 

npHflyMbiBJaxb [pr^idumi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
npHflyM|axb [pr^idi^mat^] perf 
-aio, -aeiub think up, think 
of, invent, devise. 

npHesA [pr^iyest, -zd] m 
-a, -OB arrival, coming {by 
vehicle); b npouiJibiH ~ during 
one's previous/ last stay; c 
--om! welcome!, glad to see 

npHe3)KiaTb [pr^iyi^zh^iat^] 
imperf -aio, -aenib, npH- 
e^y, npHe^eiiib, p -aji arrive, 
come {by vehicle). 

npHCM [pr^iyom] m -a, -ob 
1. reception (1) of food, sig- 
nals, patients, etc; 2) warm, 
cold, etc; 3) a party); -^ jie- 
KapcxBa 1) the taking of a 
medicine; 2) a dose of medi- 
cine; ycipoHXb "- give a re- 
ception; HaM oKaaajiH pa^ym- 



HbiH -' we were given a 
warm/cordial reception / wel- 
come; 2, enrollment, admis- 
sion, admittance {to a trade 
union, etc); 3.: b oahh — at 
one go, at a stretch; b Asa 
fipH u m. d.] ~a in two 
[three, .etc] motions / stages; 
4. method, technique, device. 

npHeMjieMJbiH [pr'^iyeml^i- 
miy] a sh f ■-, -a, -o, -bi 
acceptable, admissible. 

npHeMHHK [pr^iyomn^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB radio/ wireless set; 
(radio) receiver. 

npHeMHJbiH [pr^iyomnty] I 
a 1.: ~biH fleHb reception 
day; — bie Macbi reception/ 
calling hours; consultation 
hours; 2.' ~aH komhcchh ad- 
mission committee (at an 
institute, etc); —bie SKsaivieHbi 
admission / entrance examina- 

II as a noun npHCMHlaH 
/ -OH, -bix reception-room; 

<> ~biH oxei; foster-father; 
~ an Maxb foster-mother; — wh 
CbiH adopted son, foster-son. 

npHexaxb see npHesMcaib. 

npH3 [pr^'is, -z] m -a, pi 
-b'l, -OB prize (to a person 
winning a contest); npHcy- 
flHTb — award a prize. 

npH3BaHH|e [pr^'izvan^'iya] 
n -H, -H vocation, calling. 

npHSBaTb see npHSbiBaib. 

npHseivfjiHTbcsi see npnaeM- 


npHseMjilnrbcsi [pr^'iz^i^m- 
I'^attja] imperf -aiocb, -nemb- 
CH,npH3eMJi|HTbCJi [pr^iz^'i^m- 
l^'ittsa] perf -ibcb, -HiiibCH, 

p -HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-HTecb av land, touch down. 
npH3Ha|BaTb [pr'^iznAvat''] 
imperf -ib, -emb, p -Baji, imp 
-Bafl, npH3H'aTb Ipr^iznaf'] 
perf -aio, -aemb 1. recognize 
(a state, smh's right, etc); 
2. admit, acknowledge (one's 
guilt, mistakes, etc); ^Baxb 


BHHy law plead guilty; 3. vote, 
pronounce {smth. to he...); 
— Baxb Heo6xoAHMbiM consider 
(smth) necessary, consider it 
necessary; — Baxb kofo-ji. 
BHHOBHbIM law find smb 
guilty; — Baxb HeAeftcxBHieJib- 
HbiM declare invalid, nullify. 

npH3Ha!BaxbC}i [pr^'iznAva- 
ttja] imperf -ibcb, -embCH, 
p -BaJicH, -Bajiacb, imp -Baft- 
CH, -Baftxecb, npH3H|aTbC{i 
[pr*'iznatts8] perf -aiocb, 
-aeuibCH I confess, admit, own 
(up); make a clean breast 
of it; ~BaxbCH b qeM-Ji. con- 
fess srnth; — saxbCH b jik)6- 
Bi5 make a declaration of 

1 1 parenth npHsnaxbCH 
(also npHSHaiocb, ~ibcb) 
to tell (you) the truth. 

npHSHaK [pr^'iznak, -g] m 
-a, -OB sign, indication; 
symptom (of a disease); o6- 
Hapy>KHBaxb -~h Mero-Ji. show 
signs / indications of smth; 
cJiy>KHTb — OM Merd-Ji. be a 
sign of smth; K;iaccH4)HUHpo- 
Baxb no ~y qero-Ji. classify 
on the basis of smth. 

npM3HaHH|e [pr''iznan'*iya] 

n -H, -H 1. acknowledgement, 

L recognition; nojiymixb —e 

353 — 


win recognition; 2, admis- 
sion, confession, declaration; 
— e BHHb'i avowal of guilt. 

npH3HaTejibH0CT|b [pr^izna- 
t''Il^n9sM^ -z^'d^l / -H grati- 
tude, thankfulness. 

npHsnaTb see npHSHasaTb. 

npHSHarbCfl see npHsna- 


npH3paK [pr'^izrak, -g] m 
-a -OB spectre, ghost, appa- 
rition, phantom; illusion (of 
happiness, etc). 

npH3biB [pr^izif, -v] m -a, 
-OB 1. mil call-up, call to 
military service; 2. call, ap- 
peal; OTKJlHKHyTbCH Ha -^ 

respond to a call, take up a 
call; 3. slogan [of a party). 

npHSMBlaxb [pT^\ziwai^]im- 
per) -aio, -aemb, npH3B|aTb 
[pr''izvat*'l perf npnaoBy, 
npHsoBeiiib, p -aji, -ajia, -ajio, 
-ajiH, imp npHsoBH 1. call (for 
smth; upon smb to do smth; 
to smth); 2. mil call up. 

npHHTH see npHxo;tHTb. 


1. 2, ?. 

npHKas [pr^ikas, -z] m -a, 
-OB order, command. 

npHKa3aTb see npHKasbi- 

npHKa3biB|aTb [pr^'ikazt- 
vat''] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
npHKasjarb [pr^'ikAzat*'] perf 
npHKascy, npHKaxceuib, p -aji, 
imp npHKajKH order, com- 

npHKajibiB |aTb [pr^ikalivat*'] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, npHKo- 
jijoTb [pr^ikAlot^l perf -kd, 
npHKOJieiiib, p -oji, imp -ojih 
pin, fasten with a pin. 

npHKac|aTbCJi [pr^ikAsattja] 
imperf -awcb, -aembCH, npH- 
KOCHyTbCH [pr^ikAsnuttsa] 
perf -ycb, -eujbCH, p -yji- 
CH, -yjiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 
touch (slightly) (with the 
hand, a stick, etc). 

npHKjiaAbiBlaxb [pr^'ikladi- 
vat^] imperf -aw, -aemb, 
npHJio>K|HTb [pr^ilAzhtt''] perf 
-y, npHJiojKHmb, p hji, imp 
-H put (close to smth); apply 
(a compress, etc); 
O npHjiojKHTbpyKy K... l)take 
a hand in...; 2) sign, add 
one's signature to... 
— lHpHKjiK)HeHH|e [pr^ikl^u- 
ch^en^iy9] n -h, -h adventure 
(of a hunter, etc). 

npHKOJiOTb see npHKa.iH- 

npHKOCHyTbCfl see npHKa- 

npHKpenHTb see npHKpen- 


npHKpenji|flTb [pr*'ikr*'i^p- 
l^at**] imperf -hk>, -nemb, 
npHKpen'iHTb [pr^ikr^'i^p^it**] 
perf -JiK), -Hmb, p -hji, imp 
-H 1. fasten, fix, secure, at- 
tach; 2. attach, assign (a 
teacher, etc, to a class, etc). 

npHKpbiBJaTb [pr^ikrivat*"] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, npH- 
KpjbiTb [pr^ikrtt''l perf -ofo. 
-oemb, p -hiJi, imp -oh 1. cov- 
er, protect, shelter, shield; 
2. fig conceal, screen; 3. 
close/ shut softly, close / shut 
slightly; cover, screen; 4, col 
liquidate, shutdown (a facto- 
ry, etc). 

npHJiaBJOK [pr^ilavak, -g] 
m -Ka, -KOB counter (m a 


— 354 — 

shop, etc); pa66THHK -^-Ka 
salesman, distributive worker. 

npHjiaraTejibHJoe [pr^ilAga- 
t^il^'naya] n -oro, -bix ling 

npHJiarjaxb [pr^iUgat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npHjio- 
HtjiiTb [pr^ilAzhit^] perf -y, 
npHJi6>KHmb, p -HJi, imp -h 
apply {one's knowledge, etc); 
~aTb ycHJiHH make efforts; 
— aib cTapaHHJi take pains, 
exert oneself; ~-aTb Bce chjih 
do everything in one's pow- 
er, do one's best; make every 

npHJiejKHlbiH [pr^il^'ezhniy] 
a sh f np»JieMceH, -a, -o, -bi 
diligent, industrious; assid- 
uous, studious. 

npHJiHB [pr^'iPit, -v] m -a, 
-OB 1. flow, flood (of tide), 
high tide; — h otjihb flow 
and ebb, high and low tide; 
-^bi H OTJIHB bi tides; 2. fig 
surge, flow; ^ h otjihb flux 
and reflux; 3. med rush {of 

npHJiMMMJe [pr^il^ich^iya] 
n -91, -H decency, decorum; 
propriety {correctness of man- 

npHJiHHHJbiH [pr^'il^ich^nJy] 
a sh f npHJiHMen, -a, -o, -bi 
1. decent, proper, becoming; 
seemly; decorous; 2, col de- 
cent, rather good, tolerable. 

npHJio}KeHH|e [pr^'ilAzhe- 
n^iya] n -h, -h 1. appendix, 
supplement; 2. ling apposi- 

npH;io}KHTb see npHKJiaAbi- 
saTb & npHJiaraTb. 

npHMeHeHHJe [pr^im^i^n^'e- 

n^iya] n -h application, use, 
employment; nojiy^HTb uih- 
poKoe ~e be [become] wide- 
ly adopted. 

npHMCHHTb see npHMeHHTb. 

npHMCHiflTb [pr^im^i^n^at^] 
imperf -hk), -nemb, npHMe- 
HJHTb [pr^im^i^n^It''] perf 
-K>, npHMeHHUJb, p -HJi, imp 
-H apply, use, employ; ~HTb 
Ha npaKTHKe put into prac- 

npHMep [pr^im^er] m -a, 
-OB example, instance; no^a- 
BaTb — set an example; CTa- 
BHTb Koro-Ji. B -- hold smb 
up as an example; noKasaTb 
~ give the lead; no ~y qe- 
ro-Ji. [Koro-Ji.] after the 
example of smth [smb]; in 
imitation of smth [smb]; 
<> He B -- KOMy-ji. col un- 
like smb; K ~-y col 1) by 
way of illustration; 2) par- 
enth suppose, say. 

npHMepHTb see npHMepHTb. 

npHMepHJbiH [pr^im^erniy] 
a sh f npHMepeH,. -a,.-o, -u 
1. exemplary, model; 2. ap- 

iipHMeplflTb [pr^im^i^r^'at''] 
imperf -hk), -aeiub, npHMe- 
pJHTb [pr^im^'er^it^] perf -ra, 
-HLUb, p -HJi, imp -b try on 
{a dress, etc); fit {a dress, 

npHMec|b [pr^im^is*', -z^] 
/ -H, -efi 1. admixture, infu- 
sion, foreign matter; dash {a 
slight admixture); tinge (of 
colour); 2. fig touch, tinge. 

npHwerja [pr^'im^eta] / -m, 
~ sign, token, omen; (dis- 
tinctive) mark; 



<> HMCTb Ha ~e know, have 
in mind; have an eye to / 

npHMcnaHHle [pr^im^i^ch^a- 
n^iya] n -h, -h note, com- 
ment; foot-note; annotation 
(a note). 

npHMHpeHHle [pr^im^ir^e- 
n^'iya] n -a, -h reconcilia- 
tion, reconcilement; concilia- 

npHMHpHTbCSl 866 MHpHTbCH. 

npHHaAJieJKJaTb [pr^inad- 
l^i^zhat^'i imp6rf -y, -Huib, p 
-aji, imp -H belong {to)\ be 
one {of); be a member {of). 

npHHaAJie«HOCT|b [pr^inAd- 
Pezhn9sM^ -zM^] / -h, pi 
-H, -eft 1. {mostly pi) tackle 
{fishing, 6ic)\ accessories, ar- 
ticles {ofy, nHCbMeHHbie —h 
writing-materials; 2. belong- 
ing {to)\ affiliation {to a 
class, party, etc); member- 
ship {of a party). 

npHHCCTH see npHHOCHXb. 

npHHHM|aTb [pr^in^imat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, npHH|«Tb 
[pr^'in^at''] perf npHMy, npH- 
Meiiib, p npHHHJi, -HJia, npn- 
HHJio, npHHHJiH, imp npHMH 

1. admit {to), accept {for); 
'~aTb Ha paSoTy take on, 
give employment {to smb); 

2. receive {people); paAymno 
~aTb welcome heartily; 

3. accept (an offer , etc); pass, 
approve; --aTb KaK AOJi^Hoe 
take as a matter of course, 
accept as one's due; 4. take 
{1} medicine, a bath, etc; 
2) precautions, etc); 5.: —axb 
MbKD-Ji. CTopoHy side with 
smb, take the part of smb; 

•^-axb HTO-Ji. B luyxKy take 
smth as a joke; -~-aTb {na 


BaHHe u m. n.] assume lead- 
ership [command, etc]; ^aib 
rpaHCAancTBo be naturalized; 
become a {Soviet, etc) citi- 
zen; ~-aTb XpHCTHaHCTBO 

adopt Christianity; -rarb aa 
npaBHJio make it a rule; 3to 
laK npHHHTO it is the cus- 
tom; 6. take {smb for smb); 
7. assume {a certain charac- 
ter, air, etc); --axb (|)6pMy 
yero-Ji. take the shape of 

npHHHMlaTbcs! [pr^in^ima- 
ttj9] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 
CH, npHH|flTbcn [pr^in^attsa] 
perf npHMycb, npHMeiiibCH, p 
-HJicH, -HJiacb, imp npHMHCb, 
npHMHxecb 1. begin, start 
{doing smth); 2. set (to), get 
down {to), begin {smth); 
3. take root; take {of an inoc- 

npHHGclHTb [pr^inAs^it^] 
imperf npHHomy, npHHOCHuib, 
p -HJi, imp -i!, npHHec'iTH 
[pr^in^i^s^'t^i] perf -y, -euib, 
p npHHec, -Jia, imp -h 1. bring 
{smb a book, etc); fetch {a 
chair, etc); 2. yield, bear 
{fruit, etc; also fig); 3. bring 
(in) {an income, etc); 4.: ~HTb 
6jiaroAapHOCTb express one's 

npHHyAHxejibHlbiH [pr^inu- 
d^it^il^niy] a sh f npHHyAH- 
xejieH, -a, -o, -bi compulsory, 
enforced; forced {labour). 

npHHyAHTb see npHHyHCAaxb. 

npHHy>KA|aTb [pr^'inuzh- 
dat'] imperf -aio. -aeiub, 


356 — 

npHHyAiHTb[pr''inud*'it*'] perf 
npHHy}Ky,. -Huib, p -hji com- 
pel, force, constrain, coerce. 

npHHUHn [pr^'intsjp, -b] m 
-a, -OB principle; 
^ H3 ^a on principle. 

npHHflTb see npHHHMaxb. 

npHH^TbCJi see npHHHMaxb- 


npHo6pecTM see npHo6pe- 

npHo6peTlaTb [pr^'iabr^i^- 
taf"] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
npHo6pelcTH [pr^iabr'^i^s^t'^i] 
perf -xy, -xeiiib, p npHo6peJi, 
-jia, imp -XH 1. acquire, gain 
experience, knowledge etc); 
2. buy, purchase. 

npHopHTCT [pr^iar^it^et, 
-d] m -a priority {in discov- 
ering or inventing smth). 

npHnafljOK [pr^'ipadak, -g] 
m -Ka, -KOB fit, attack; par- 

npHnee [pr'*ip''ef, -v] m 
-a, -OB refrain. 

npHnHcaxb see npHOHCbi- 

npHnHCbiBJaTb Ipr^ip^isi- 
V9t**] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
npHnH|caTb [pr''ip''isat''j perf 
-my, npHnHiiieuib, p -caji, 
imp -uiH 1. add (to a letter, 
etc); 2. ascribe, attribute 
(to); put down (assign the 
cause of). 

npHp6fl|a [pr'^irods] / -bi 

1. nature (the external world; 
natural scenery); HBJieHHH 
— bi natural phenomena; 

2. nature, character; 

-<> OT ~bi by nature, natu- 

npHpOAHUH Ipr''ir6dniyl a 

1. natural (resources, condi- 
tions, gas, etc); 2. inborn, 

npHpocT [pr^'irost, -zd] m 
-a growth, increase (of the 
population, etc). 

npHCBaHB|aTb [pr^isvai- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
npHCBoJHXb [pr^'isvoit*'] perf 
-K), -Huib, p -Hji, imp -H 1. 
appropriate, take for oneself; 

2. give, confer, award (a de- 
gree, rank, etc); ~axb hmh 
name (after). 

npMCJiarb see npncbiJiaxb. 
npMCJioKHxbCfl see npHcjio- 


npHCjioH|MTbC5i [pr^isUn^a- 
ttja] imperf -Hiocb, -neujb- 
CH, npHCJiOH|HTbC5i [pr'^isU- 
n^'ittja] perf -wcb, -HiubCH 


-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 
lean, .rest (against smth). 
npHCJiymaxbCfl see npHCJiy- 


npHCjiymHB|aTbcsi [pr^'i- 
slushivattja] imperf -aiocb, 
-aembCH, npMCJiyui|aTbc» 

[pr^'islushattja] perf -aiocb, 
-aembCH 1. give ear (to), 
listen (to) (fixing one's mind); 
2. fig give ear (to), lend an 
ear (to); consider (smb's opin- 
ion, advice). 

npMCoeflMHHXb see npHcoe- 


npHCoeAHHHTbCfl see npH- 


npMCoeAHHJflTb [pr^isayid^'i- 
n'^at'*] imperf -hk), -Heuib, 
npHcoeAHHlMTb fpr^'isayid^i- 
n^it^] perf -ib, -Hiub, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. join, adA (one thing 

357 — 


to another)', annex; 2. elect r 
connect, join. 

npMcoeflHH|HTbCfl [pr^is9- 
yid^in^attsQ] imperf -Hiocb, 


[pr^isayid^in^ittsaj per} -ibcb, 
-HiubC5i, p -HJicH, -HJiacb, imp 
-HCb, -Hrecb 1. join {smb, a 
society, etc); 2. associate (one- 
self) *{with), subscribe (to 
stub's opinion, etc). 

npHcnoc66MTb see npncno- 


npHcnoc66MTbCJi see npn- 


npHcnoco6jieHH|e [pr^'ispa- 
SAbl^en^iya] n -h, -h 1. adap- 
tation, accommodation; 2. de- 
vice, contrivance, appliance. 

npMcnoco6ji|flTb [pr^ispa- 
SAbPat^] imperf -aio, -neiub, 
npHcnoc66|HTb [pr^ispAso- 
b^it**] perf -Jiio, -uuih, p -hji, 
imp -b adapt (to), fit (to), 
accommodate (to), adjust (to). 

npMcnocoSjiJMTbCii [pr^i- 
spasAbl^attja] imperf -Hiocb, 
-HeiubCH, npHcnoc66|HTbCH 
[pr^ispAsob^ittsa] perf -Jiiocb, 

-HlUbCfl, p -HJICH^ -HJiaCb, 

imp -bCH, -bTecb adapt one- 
self (to), adjust oneself (to), 
accommodate oneself (to). 

npHCTaJBdrb [pr^istAvaf*] 
imperf -ib, -eiub, p -Baji, 
imp -Baft, npHcraJTb [pr^i- 
stat^] perf -ny, -Heuib, p -ji, 
imp -Hb 1. stick (to), cling 
(to), adhere (to); 2. put in, 
pull in (to the shore, etc);3. 
col worry, pester, annoy; 
badger, importune. 

npHCTaelKa [pr^istafkaj / 
-KH, -OK ling prefix. 

npHCTHJibHlbig [pr'istal^- 
nty] a sh f npHcxajien, -a, 
-o, -bi fixed, intent (look, 
etc); c ~biM BHHMaHHeM with 
great attention, intently. 

npHCTaH|b [pr^istan^] / -h, 
-eft pier, .landing-stage; US 
dock; wharf. 

npMCTaxb see npHCTaBaxb. 

npHCTpacTH|e [pr^istras^- 
t^iya] n -h 1. liking (for), 
weakness (for); 2. bias, par- 
tiality, prejudice. 

npHCTpacTHJbiH [pr^istras- 
niy] a sh / npHcrpacTen, -a, 
-o, -bi partial, biased, prej- 
udiced, unfair. 

npiicTyn [pr^istup, -bj m 
-a, -OB fit, attack; touch, 
bout; paroxysm. 

npMCTyn|aTb [pr'istupat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npHcry- 
n|HTb [pr'^istup^'it^] perf -jik), 
npHCTynHiub, p -hji, imp -h 
begin, start, set about (smth, 
doing smth); get down (to), 
set (to); proceed (to). 

npHcyflMTb see npHcyjK- 

npMcyjKfllaxb [pr^isuzhd^t'] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npHcy- 
AJHTb [pr^isud^it^] per/npH- 
cyjKy, npHcyAHiiib, p -hji, imp 
-H 1. sentence, condemn; 2. 
award (a prize, etc); confer 
(a degree, etc). 

npHcyTCTBHle [pr^isutst^- 
v^iya] n -h presence (in a 
place); b qbcM-ji. —Hinsmb's 
presence, in front of smb; 
in smb's hearing, before 

yvat**] imperf -yio, -yeiub 


— 358 — 

p -oBaJi, imp -yfl be present 
(at), attend. 

npHCbiji|aTb [p-r^isHat*'] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, npH- 
cji|aTb [pr^islat^] perf npH- 
mjub, npHuj/ieiJib, p -aji, imp 
npHLUjiH send (cawie to go or 
be carried, as viewed by 
the receiver). 

npHcnr|a [pr^'is^aga] / -h, 
^ oath [a solemn promise); 
mil oath of allegiance; US 
oath of enlistment; npHBo- 
AliTb Kor6-Ji. K — e swear 
smb in. 

npHTBOpHTbCfl see npHTso- 


npHTBOplnTbcji [pr^itvA- 
r^attsa] imperf -Hiocb, -nemb- 
CH, npHTBOpJHTbcn [pr^'itvA- 
r^ittja] perf -K)Cb, -rimbCH, 
p -HJIC5I, -rijiacb, imp -HCb, 
-HTecb pretend {to be), sham, 
feign, simulate. 

npHTecHeHH|e [pr^it^i^s^- 
n^en^iya] n -h, -h oppression, 
unjust treatment. 

npHTecHHTb see npHiec- 


npHTecH|«Tb [pr^it^i^s^- 
n^'at''] imperf -hkd, -neiiib, 
npHTecH|HTb [pr^'it^i^s^n^it''] 
perf -K), -Hiiib, p -h;i, imp -h 
oppress, keep down. 

npHTOK [pr^itok, -g] m -a, 
-OB 1. tributary (of a river); 
2. flow, influx; indraught. 

npHTOM [pr'^itom] cj (and) 
besides^ (and) at that. 

npHTOpH|biH [pr^'itarniy] a 
sh f npHTOpeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. 
sickly, saccharine, luscious; 
2. fig sugary, luscious. 

npHynjaTb [pr'*iuch''at*'j 

imperf -aio, -aeuib, npH- 
yHJHTb [pr^'iuch^it^] perf -y, 
npHyqHUJb, p -hji, imp -h 
train, school (to smth, to be 

npHxofl [pr^'ikhot, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. coming, arrival, ad- 
vent; 2. receipts, income. 

npHXOA|HTb fpr^ikhAd'^it^] 
imperf npHxojKy, npHXoAHujb, 
p -HJi, imp -H, npM|HTH 
[pr^iyt^'i] perf -^y, -Aeuib, 
p -me;i, -uiJia, imp -;;h 1. 
come (reach, mostly on foot; 
also of a train, ship, letter, 
etc); arrive (of a ship, train, 
letter,- etc); —riib nepBwM 
[BTopbiM u m. d.] come in 
first [second, etc] (of a race); 
2. come {to an agreement, 
etc); arrive {at a conclusion, 
etc); 3.: ~HTb b oxqaHHHe 
give way to despair; ^-Hxb 
B y>Kac be horrified; -~rfTb 
B HeroAOBaHHe become indig- 
nant; ~HTb B ynaAOK fall 
into decay; 

<> — HTb B rojioBy occur to 
smb, come into smb's mind; 
~HTb Ha yM occur to smb, 
come into smb's mind; —htb 
B ceSn come to oneself, re- 
gain consciousness; ^htb b 
HyBCTBO come to oneself, re- 
gain consciousness. 

npHxoA|HTbc« [pr^ikhA- 
d^ittjaj imperf npHxojKycb, 


-HJiacb, npH|HTHCb [pr^'iy- 

^bj'gbj p^jrf -jy^zh, -fleiUbCH, 

p -meJiCH, -lujiacb 1. fit (well) 
(of clothes, etc); 2. fall (on) 
(of dates); 3. impers have to 
(do smth); eMy npHUJjiocb 

— 359 — 


»AaTb he had to wait; 4. {no 
perf) be {one's relative). 

npMuen [pr^itsep, -b] m -a, 
-OB trailer {a vehicle). 

npHwajiMBJaTb [pr^ich^aPi- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
npHHaji|HTb [pr^ich^aPit''] 
perf -K), -Hiub, p -Hji, imp -h 
moor {to). 

npHHacTH|e [pr^ich^as^- 
t^iy9] n -H, -H ling parti- 

npHHCM [pr^ich'om] I cj\ 
Ha 3T0M npeAnpHHTHH Tbicnqa 
pa66qHX, —• nojioBHHa hs 
HHX-— MceHmHHbi there are one 
thousand workers in this fac- 
tory, half of them being wom- 
en; OH KHXcenep, -~- onbiT- 
Hbifi he is an engineer, and 
an experienced one into the 

11 adv. -- TyT H? what on 
earth have I to do with it?, 
how on earth do I come in? 

npHHecaxb see npHMecbi- 

npHHecaxbCji see npHMecw- 


npHHec|Ka [pr^ich\6sk9] / 
-KH, -OK hair-cut; hair-do; 
CAejiaxb ~Ky have one's hair 

npHHecbiBlaxb [pr^ich^dst- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, npn- 
Hec|aTb [pr'ich^i^sat^] perf 
npHqemy, npHqemeiiib, p -aji, 
imp npHMeuiH do, dress {the 
hair); comb {the hair); brush 
{the hair); ~aTb kopo-ji. do/ 
dress smb's hair. 

npHHecbiB|aTbC5i [pr^'ich^d- 
sivattsa] imperf -aiocb, 
-aeiiibcfl, npHHeclaxbCfl [pr^i- 

ch^i*^satts9] perf npHMemycb, 
npHqemeuibCH, p -ajicn, 
-ajiacb, imp npHMeuiHCb, npH- 
iiemHTecb do one's hair, comb 
one's hair; have one's haii 

npHHHHla [pr^ich^ina] / 
-bi, ~ cause {that produces 
an effect); reason {a cause; 
an explanation); yBajKHxejib- 
HaH ~-a good reason, valid 
reason, good excuse; no toh 
HJiH HHOH ~e for some reason 
or other; no ~e because (o/), 
owing {to), on account {of), 
by reason {of). 

npMHHHHTb see npHHHHHTb. 

npHHHH|nTb [pr^ich^'in^at'] 
imperf -hio, -neuib, npHHH- 
H|HTb [pr^ich'^in^it^] perf 

-K), -HUIb, p -HJI, imp -H 

cause, occasion; ~-flTb dojib 
hurt, give pain; ~HTb 6ec- 
noKOHCTBo gi\e trouble, trou- 
ble; put to inconvenience. 

npHuiHB|aTb [pr^ishivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npH- 
luJHTb [pr^ishft^] perf -bib, 
-beuib, p -HJI, imp -eft sew 
{on, to). 

npHu^eMUTb see npHmeM- 


npHmcMjilflTb [pr^ish^ii^m- 
l^at^] imperf -hk), -neiub, 
npHmeM|HTb [pr^ish^:i^m^it^] 
perf -JiK), -HUIb, p -HJI, imp 
-H pinch, squeeze. 

r^ivattsa] imperf -aiocb, 
-aembCH,npHm,yp|HTbcsi [pr^i- 
sh^:ur^itts9] perf -loch, -uuih- 
CH, p -HJicH, -HJiacb, imp 
-bCJi, -bxecb screw up one's 


— 360 — 

npHWT [pr^iyut, -d] m -a 
shelter, refuge. 

npHK)|THTb [pr^iyut^it^] 
per} -^y, -xHiub, p -thji, imp 
-TH shelter, give refuge. 

npHaxejilb [pr^iyat^il**] m 
-51, -eft friend (an intimate 

npMflXHo [pr^iyatna] I adv 
pleasantry, agreeably; 
II impers predic it's pleasant. 

npHflTH|biH [pr^iyatniyj a 
sh /npHflieH, -a, -o, -bi pleas- 
ant, pleasing, agreeable, 

npo [pro; in the first pre- 
tonic position — prA; in the 
second pretonic position — 
pra] prep with ace denoting 
the direction of a conversa- 
tion or thinking: paccKasbi- 
BBTb ~ mo-ji. tell about 
smth; tell of smth; — nero 
3a6biJiH they've forgotten 
a'bout him. 

npo... I pref of verbs de- 
noting 1 . movement through or 
between smth: npoTOJiKnyxb 
[pratAlknut*'] push through 
{a cork, etc); nporepexb 
[prat^i^r^et*'] rub through a 
sieve; 2. an action which re- 
sults in a hole, hollow, crack, 
etc: nporpbiaxb [prAgrls^t^J 
gnaw through; npocBepjiHXb 
[pras^v^i^rl^it^] bore, pierce; 

3. movement past smb, smth: 
npoiuMbirHyxb [prashmtg- 
nut''] steal, slip {past, into); 

4. an action going on 
for a certain period: npopa- 
66xaxb BCK) HOMb work all 
night, spend all night work- 
ing; npocnaxb ^o agchxh 

MacoB yxpa sleep till ten 
a.m.; 5. an action with a 
harmful result: nporjiHAexb 
[pragl'^i^d^et^] overlook (fail 
to see); 6. the perfective as- 
pect: nponexb [prAp^'et''] perf 
of nexb. 

npo... II pref of nouns & 
adjectives meaning 'acting 
in the interests of, 'being a 
partisan of: npo(f)aiiiHcx [pra- 
fAshlst] pro-fascist; npoaMe- 
pHKaHCKHH [prAAm^ir^ikan- 
sk^iy] pro-American. 

np66|a [proba] / -bi, — 1. 
trial, test; try-out; 2. sam- 
ple (a small portion); 3. stand- 
ard {of gold, etc); hallmark; 
aojioxo 56-6h -—bi 14-carat 

npoSerlaxb fprab^i^gat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, npo6e- 
JKJaxb [prab^i^zhat^'l perf 
npo6ery, -Huib, npo6eryx, p 
-aji, imp npo6erH 1. pass 
(running), run by; run (past, 
through, along, over); 2. run, 
cover (a distance); 3. fig col 
look through, skim. 

npo6eji fprAb^el] m -a, -ob 
1. blank, gap; 2. flaw, defi- 
ciency, gap; BOcnoJiHHXb — 
make up for a deficiency; 
meet a lack; fill a want. 

npo6HB|axb[prab''ivat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, npo6|Hxb 
[prAb^it^] perf -bib, -beiub, 
p -HJi, -HJia, -HJio, -HJiH, imp 
-efl 1. make / punch a hole; 
pierce, go through; punch (a 
ticket, etc); breach; puncture 
(a tyre, etc); 2. (p np66HJi 
& -HJI, -HJia, np66HJio & -hjio, 
np66HJiH & -hjih) {no imperf) 

— 361 


have struck, strike {of a 


<> — axb ce6e flopory 1) force 

one's way through; 2) fig 

make one's way in life. 

npo6Hp|aTbC5i [prab^irattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiubCH, npo- 
6p|aTbCfl [prAbrattja] perf 
npo6epycb, npo6epembCH, p 
-aJicH, -ajiacb, imp npo6e- 
pHCb, npoCepHxecb make one's 
way, thread one's way; elbow 
one's way; steal {through, 
into, past); ~aTbCH omynbio 
feel/ grope one's way. 

npo6MTb see. npoSHBaxb & 

6HTb 7. 

np66|Ka [propka] / -kh, -ok 

1. cork; stopper, plug; 2. fig 
(traffic) jam, blocking; traf- 
fic congestion; 3. electr fuze; 
<> OH rjiyn KaK — Ka col ^ 
he is a blockhead / an ass. 

npoSjiCMla [prAbPema] / 
-bi, ■— problem {a matter of 
doubt or difficulty). 

np66|OBaTb [probavat^] im- 
perf -yK), -yeuib, p -oeaji, imp 
-yfl, no:np66oBaTb [pAproba- 
vat^] perf 1. taste (/ood); feel 
{examine by touching); test; 

2. attempt, try {to do smth). 
npo66p [prAbor] m -a, -ob 

parting {in the hair). 

npo6paTbCfl see npo6H- 

npceaji [prAval] m -a, -oe 
failure, fiasco; • miscarriage 
{of plans, etc); 
<> y Hero -^ nariJiTH his mem- 
ory is a blank. 

npoBajiHB|aTbCH [prAvaPi- 
vattsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 
CH, npoBajiJHTbCfl [pravAl^i- 

ttja] perf -locb, nposajiHuibCH, 
p -HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp -ricb, 
-Hxecb 1. fall through, come 
^own, collapse; 2. fig col 
fail, miscarry; 3. fig col dis- 
appear, vanish; 


seMJiK) npOBajiMXbCfl he wished 
the earth/ floor would open 
beneath his feet. 

npoBepHXb see npoBepnxb. 

npoeeplKa [prAv^erka] / 
-KH, -OK verification {the pro- 
cess of); checking, check-up, 
control; test, examination. 

npoeepjaxb [prav^i^r^at^] 
imperf -hkd, -Heuib, npoBe- 
p|HXb [prAv^er^it^] perf -k), 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -b check 
(up), verify; test; -—nxbqacbi. 
set a v/atch [clock] to the 
correct time; — Hxb xexpa^H 
correct {student^') notebooks. 

npoBccxH see npOBOAHXb I. 

npoBexpHB|axb [prAv^etr^i- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
npoBexplHXb [prAv^etr^'it^] 
perf -K), -HUJb, p -HJI, imp 
-H air {a room, clothes, etc); 
ventilate {a room). 

npoBHH|HXbCfl [prav^in^i- 
ttsa] perf -ibcb, -HuibCH, p 
-HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-Hxecb be at fault; be guilty 
{of), commit an offence {in); 
-—HXbCH nepeA kcm-ji. do smb 
wrong, wrong smb. 

npoBOfl [provat, -d] m -a, 
pi -a, -OB electr wire, lead, 

npoBOAlMXb I [pravAd^it^] 
imperf npoBO^y, npoBOfiyiuih, 
p -HJI, imp -H, npoBejcxH 
[prav^i^s^t^i] perf -Ay, -fleiub, 


362 — 

p npoBeji, -Jia, imp -ah 1. 
take, lead {smb ikrough, 
into smth); pibt (ships)- 
2. run, pass (one's hand, etc, 
over smth); 3.: —htb flopory 
lay out a road; —Hib^eJies- 
Hyio Aopory build a railway; 
-^HTb Kanaji build a canal; 
-^HTb sjieKxpHMecTBO install 
electrical equipment; install 
electricity; ~HTb BOAonpo- 
BOA lay on water (supply); 
~HTb raa lay on gas (sup- 
ply ), put in gas pipes; 4. draw 
(a line, etc); 5. hold (a meet' 
ing, etc); carry out (reforms, 
tests, etc); conduct (lessons, 
etc); ~HTb nojiHTHKy pursue | 
follow a policy; ~HTb b 
>KH3Hb implement, realize, 
put into practice; 6. spend, 
pass; BeceJio '-Hib BpeMH 
have a good time, enjoy 
oneself; 7. (no imperf) col 
cheat, dupe, trick, take in, 
fool; Bbi MeuH He npOBe- 
Aeie you can't fool me. 

npOBOAHTb II see npoBO- 

npoBOAHHK I [pr9VAd''n''ik, 
-g] m -a, -6b 1. electr con- 
ductor; 2. fig bearer, cham- 
pion (of ideas, etc). 

npoBOAHMK II [prsvAd'^n^'ik, 
-q] m -a, -6b 1. guide, con- 
ductor; 2. rly guard, conduc- 

npOBOKJaTb [pr8VAzhat''] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, npoBO- 
AlMTb [pravAd^if'l perf npo- 
Bo^y, npoB6Aniiib, p -\\j\ 
imp -H see off; see (smb 
home, etc); accompany (a 
woman, etc)-. 

<> ~aTb rjiaaaMH follow 
with one's eyes. 

npOBOsrjiacMTb see npOBoa- 

npoB03rjiaiij|aTb [pravaz- 
glAshaf^J imperf -aFo, -aemb, 
npoB03rjiac|HTb [pravazglA- 
s^it^] perf npOBOBfJiaujy, 
-HUJb, p 'liJi, imp -Id proclaim 
(a republic, etc); enunciate 
(a theory, etc); — arb Ji63yHr 
advance / set forth a slogan; 
— aib TOCT 3a... drink to..., 
toast to... propose a toast 

npoBOKauMpHHbiH Iprava- 
k9tji6nniy] a provocative 
(act, statement, etc). 

/ -H, 'H 1. provocation, in- 
citement; 2. provocation (in 
politics, etc). 

np6B0ji0K|a [pr6v9l9k9] f 
-H wire (a metal thread). 

npoBopHlbiH [prAv6rniy] a 
sh f npoB6peH, -a, -o, -bi 
adroit, dexterous, agile; 
prompt, quick, swift. 

nporjiaTbiB|aTb [prAglati- 
V9t''] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
nporjiOT|MTb [pr9glAt''it^] 
perf nporjioqy, npor;i6THmb, 
p -ttJi, imp -H swallow (1) 
food, etc; 2) an insult, etc); 
gulp (down). 

npopHaxb see nporoHHib. 

npoFHoa |prAgn6s, -z] m 
-a, -OB prognosis, forecast, 

nporojiOAlaTbcn [pr9g9lA- 
datls9] perf -anDCb, -aembCH 
get hungry; feel / be hungry. 

nporoHJniTb [pragAn'^at''] 
imperf -hio, -jiemb, npo- 
rHJaib [prAgnat''] perf npo- 

363 -^ 


roHK), nporoHHiiib, p -aji, 
-ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, imp npo- 
roHH drive away, send away; 
dismiss, fire, sack. 

nporpaMMJa [prAgramma] 
/ -bi, ~ program! me); curric- 
ulum; syllabus {in a sub' 
Jecty, schedule {in radio, etc). 

npcrpecc [prAgr'^es. -z] m 
-a progress {of science, etc); 
Ao6HTbCH ~a make progress. 

nporyji fprAgul] m -a, -ob 
truancy {an act of). 

nporyjiJKa [prAgulka] / 
-KH, -OK walk {for pleasure); 
trip {to the country, etc); 
drive {in a car, etc)r ride 
{on a bicycle, etc). 

npoAa|BaTb [pradAvat^] im- 
perf -K), -emb, p -eaji, imp 
-Bafl, npoAlaxb [prAdat^] 
perf m, -amb, acT, -a^HM, 
-aAHxe, -ajiy , p npoAaJi, 
-ajia, npojxajio, np6;iajiH imp 
-afl sell' {goods, etc; also fig). 

npoflaejeu, [prsdAv^ets, -dz] 
m -ua, -uoB shop-assistant, 
salesman; seller; vendor. 

npofla}K|a [prAdazha] / -h 
sale, selling; -^a 6HJieT0B 
booking {of tickets); a ~e 
on sale. 

npojiaxb see upojxaBSiTh. 

npoABHrjaxb [pradvigat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, npoflDii- 
H|yTb [prAdv^inut^] perf 
-y, -emb, p -yji, imp -b 
1. move on / forward / further, 
push on / forward / further; 
extend {to, as far as); 2. fig 
col promote, further, advance. 

npOABHr|aTbCM [pradv^i- 
gattja] imperf -aiocb, -aemb- 
ca, npoABHHlyTbca (pfA- 

dv^inuttja] perf -ycb, -embCH, 
p -yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp -bCH, 
-bxecb advance {also fig), 
move forward / on / further; mil 
also gain ground; —axbCH 
enepeA advance, move for- 
ward / on / further. 

npoziBHHyxb see npoflBH- 

npoiiBMHyxbcn see npOABH- 

npOiiejilKa [prAd'^elka] § 
•KH, -OK trick, piece of mis- 
chief; prank. 

npoflMKxoBaxb see ahkxo- 

npoAJieBJaxb [pradPi^vat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, npo- 
flji|nxb [prAclPit*'] perf -ib, 
.'Hmb, p -HJi, imp -H prolong, 
extend (a ticket, term, etc), 

npoAJiHXbcsi see A-^HXbcn. 

npoAOBOjibcxBeHHbiH Ipra- 
dAvoPs^'t^v^'inniy] a: ~ Mara- 
3HH grocery and provision 
shop, food store; ~ CKJiaa 
food storehouse. 

npofloBojibcxBHle [pradA- 
vol^s^t^v^iya] n -h food- 
-stuffs, provisions, victuals. 

npoAOJiroBaxIbiH [pradalgA- 
vatty] a s/i / ~, -a, -o, -bi ob- 
long {greater in length than 
in breadth). 

npoAOJiJKlaxb [pradAlzhat**] 
imperf -aro, ^aemb, npojioji- 
jKJHXb [prAdolzhit''] perf'-y, 
'Huih, p -HJi, imp -H contin- 
ue, go on keep on, proceed 

npoAOji)K|axbCfl [pradAl- 
zhattja] imperf -aexcH last, 
continue, go, be in progress. 

npOA0flweHH|e [pradAbhe' 


— 364 — 

n^'iya] n -h, -h 1. continua- 
tion; sequel {that which fol- 
lows); 2. continued {at the 
beginning of the next portion 
of an article, etc); —e cjie- 
AyeT to be continued {at the 
end of a portion of an article, 
etc); --e b cjieAyiomeM HOMepe 
to be continued in the next 

<> B —e during, tlirougliout, 
in the course of. 

npo;iojiH<HTejibH|biH [pra- 
dAlzh+t^il^nty] a sh f npo- 
AOJiJKHieJieH , -a, -o, -bi long, 

npo;t6ji»MTb see npoflOJi- 

npoiiyKT [prAdukt, -gd] m 
-a, pi -bi, -OB 1. {mostly pi) 
food-stuffs, victuals, provi- 
sions; ~bi HHTaHHH food prod- 
ucts, food-stuffs; 2. product 
(a thing produced, etc); — bi 
ceJibCKoro xosflflcTBa agri- 
cultural produce. 

npoAyKu,Hlfl [prAduktjtya] 
/ -H production, output; Bb'i- 
nycK npoMbiuiJieHHOH ~h in- 
dustrial output. 

npoesii [prAyest, -zd] m 
-a, -OB passage, thoroughfare; 
-^a Her no thoroughfare. 

npoesAOM [prAyezdam] adv 
col in passing, passing 
through; ~ b on the way to. 

npoesjKJaTb [prayi^zh^iat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npoex|aTb 
fprAyekhat^] perf npoe;;y, 
npoe^emb, p -a;i 1. go {past, 
by, through), pass {by, 
through) {both in a vehicle); 
drive {past, by, through); 
ride {past, by, through)', 

pass through {to), go {to) 
{both by vehicle); pass {along), 
go {along) {both in a vehicle); 
cover {a distance, in a ve- 
hicle); 2. miss {a stop, etc). 

npocKT [prAekt, -gd] m -a, 
-OB 1. project, design; 2. 
draft {of a resolution, etc). 

npoexaib see npoesjKaib. 

npOKCKTOp [prAzhektar] m 
-a, -OB searchlight. 

np63|a [proza] / -u prose 
{also fig). 

nposBHiule [proz^v^ish'^.a] 
n -a, — nickname. 

nposBynaxb see sBynaTb. 

nposeeaTb see seBaTb 3. 

nposHMOBaxb see sHMOBaib. 

npospaHHlbiM [prAzrach^- 
nty] a sh f npoapa^eH, -a, 
-Q, -bi transparent {also fig). 

npoHrpaxb see npoHrpw- 

npoMrptielaxb [prAigrivaf*] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, npo- 
Mrpjaxb [praigrat^J perZ-aio, 
-aeuib lose {a game, etc, or 
in a game, etc). 

npoHrpbiiii fproigrtsh, -zh] 
m -a, -efl loss {in a game, 
etc); sport defeat; 6bixb b ~e 
be the loser. 

npoH3Be;ieHHle [praiz^v^i^- 

d^en^iya] n -h. 


production {of art, etc); opus, 
composition; 2. math prod- 

npoHseecxH see npoHSBO- 

AHXb 1, 3. 

npoHSBOflHxejibHocxlb [pra- 
izvAd^if'il^nasH^, -zM'^JZ-H 
productivity {of labour, etc). 

npoH3BOAMTejibHlbiH [pra- 
izvAd^it^'il^ntyJ a sh f npo- 

365 — 


H3B0AHTejieH -a, -o, -bi pro- 
ductive, efficient; 
■^ •~bie cHjibi econ produc- 
tive forces. 

npoHSBOAJHTb [praizvA- 
d^it^] imperf npOHseojKy, 
npoHSBOAHuib, p -HJi, imp -h, 
npOHSBejCTH [praiz^v^i^s^t^ij 
perf -Ay, -Aeuib, p npoHsseji, 
-Jia, imp -AH 1. make {exper- 
iments, calculations, etc); 
execute, carry out {work, 
repairs, etc); 2. {no perf) 
produce, manufacture; 3.: 
— HTb BneqaxJieHHe make ^n 
impression; ^HXb uiyM make 
a noise; 

<> ~HTb Ha CBCT bring into 
the world, give birth to. 

npoH3B6ACTBeHH|biH [pr9- 
izvotjtv^mniy] a production 
{attr); '-an npaKXHKa practi- 
cal (work), practical training; 
-~oe 3aAaHHe output pro- 
gramme; output target; '-oe 
o6yqeHHe industrial training. 

npoHSBOAcrBJo [praizvotjt- 
V9] rt -a 1. production, man- 
ufacture; cn6co6 ^a mode 
of production; cpeAcxea ~a 
means of production; opyAHH 
~a implements of produc- 
tion; H3Aep>KKH ~a cost of 
production; 2. factory, works; 
industry; hohxh Ha ~o be- 
come a factory worker. 

npOHSBOJi [praizvol] m -a 
arbitrary rule; arbitrariness; 

<!> 6p6cHTb / OCraBHTb Ha '- 

cyAbSbi leave to the mercy 
of fate. 
npOHSHecTH see npoHsno- 


npoH3Hoc[HTb [praiznA- 

s^it^] imperf npoH3Hoiuy, 
npoHSHocHiub, p -iij], imp -u, 
npoH3Hec|TH [praiz'^n^i^s^t^i] 
perf -y, -eiub, p npoHSHec, 
-jia, imp -H 1. pronounce, 
articulate; 2. pronounce, ut- 
ter, say; -—Hxb pe^b make/ de- 
liver a speech. 

np0H3H0iueHHle [praiznA- 
shen^iya] n -h pronunciation 
{of words, etc). 

npoH30HXH see npoHCxoAHTb 
1, 2. 

npoHcxoA|HTb [praiskhA- 
d^it^] npoHcxojKy, npoHcxo- 
AHUib, p -HJI, imp -H, npo- 
H30h1xh [praizAyt^i] perf 
-Aex, p npoH3oiiie;i, npOHSo- 
uijia, imp -AH 1. happen, 
occur, take place; mxo SAecb 
npoHcxoAHx? what's up?; 
what's going on here?; 2. be 
the result {of), take place as 
a result {of); 3. {no perf) 
come {from) {by origin); de- 
scend {from), come {of). 

npoHCxo)KAeHH|e [prais- 
khAzhd^en'^iya] n -h origin; 
birth, descent, extraction. 

npoHcuj€cTBH|e fpraishe- 
s^'t^v^iya] n -h, -h incident, 
event'; accident {an unfortu- 
nate event). 

npoHXH see npoxoAHTb. 

npOKjiaAbiB|axb [prAkladi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
npojiO)K|HXb [pralAzhtt^] perf 
-y, npojioJKHmb, p -hji, imp 
-H 1. lay (a pipeline, etc); 
build (a tunnel, etc); --axb 
Aopory / nyxb build a road; 
make a path [also see 
<0>]; ~axb ce6e Aopory work 
one's way; elbow one's way 


— 366 — 

[also see <>]; 2. interlay 
(lay between); 

^ ~aTb ziopory / nyxb pave 
the way; ~aTb ce6e Aopory 
make one's way in life; —axb 
HOBbie nyiH blaze new trails. 
npOKjiflTHJe [prAkl^at^iya] 

I n -«, -ft 1. damnation, 
imprecation; 2. curse, impre- 

II asanint (also npOKJiHTbe) 
damn!, confoundl 

npoKOHcyjibTHpoBaTbCJi see 


npoKypop [prakuror] m -a, 
-OB public prosecutor, public 

npojierapHaT [praPitar^iat, 
-d] m -a proletariat (the 
working class). 

npojierapHlfi [pral^i^tar^iy] 
m -H, -eB proletarian; -~h 
Bcex crpaH, coeAHHHHxecb! 
workers of the world, unite! 

npojieTapcK|HH [pral^i^tar- 
sk^'iy] a -an, -oe, -He prole- 

npojiHB [prAl^if, -v] m -a, 
-OB strait(s) (a water-way). 

npojiHBJaTb [pral'^ivat^j 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, npojilHib 
[prAl'^it^] perf -bib, -beuib, 
p npoJiHji (-HJi), -Hjia, npo- 


imp -eft 1. spill [a liquid); 
2. shed {blood, tears); 

<> ~aTb CBCT Ha HTO-JI. 

throw /shed light on smth. 

npojiojKHTb see npoKjiaAW- 

npowax [promakh, -gh] m 
-a, -OB 1. miss {in shooting); 
2. fig blunder; slip (an error). 

npOMaxHlyTbcii [pramAkh- 

nuttsa] perf -ycb, -embCH, p 
-yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp -ftcb, -h- 
lecb miss (one's aim), fail 
to hit, miss the mark {also 

npoMefljieHH|e [pram^i^dl^6- 

n^'iya] n -h delay, lingering. 

npoMeiKyT|oK [pram^i^zhu- 
tak, -g] m -Ka, -kob 1. space, 
gap; 2. interval, period of 
time (between). 

npoMOKarejibHlbm [pramA- 
kat^iPniy] a: ~?yi 6yMara 

npOMOKJaTb [pramAkat^] 
imperf -aw, -aeuib, npoMOK- 
H|yTb [prAmoknut^] perf -y, 
-euih, p npoMOK, npoMOKjia, 
imp -H 1. get wet /soaked/ 
drenched; npoMOKHyib jip 
Kocreft get wet / drenched to 
the skin; 2. [no perf) let 
water through, not be water- 

npoMonlHTb [pramAch^it^] 
perf -y, npoMOMHUib, p -hji, 
imp -H get (smth) wet; drench, 

npOMToeapIbi [pramtAvari] 
pi -OB (=npoMbiiiiJieHHbie lo- 
eapbi) manufactured goods. 

npOMbiLUJieHHOCT|b [prAml- 
shPmnas^t^, -z^d^] / -h in- 
dustry {1) the mining and 
manufacturing part of a na- 
tional economy; 2) any branch 
of this); Ao6biBaK)maH ~b ex- 
tractive industry; o6pa6aTbi- 
Baioman ~b manufacturing 
industry; KpynHan — b large- 
-scale industry. 

npOMbiuj.neHHb:ft [prAmtsh- 
Pmnty] a industrial {enter- 
prise, etc). 

^ 2567 — 


npoH3HTejibH|biM [pFAn'z'i- 
f'lPniy] a sh f npoHSHTejien, 
-a, -0, -bi shrill, piercing, 
sharp {voice, look, etc), 

npOHUKJaTb [pran^'ikat^] 
imperf -ara, -aeuib, npoHHK- 
Hlyxb [prAn^iknut^] perf -y, 

-eUIb, p npOHHK, npOHHK- 

jia, imp -H penetrate {into, 
through]) also fig)* go 
{through)^ pass {through). 

npoHuuaTejibH|biH [pran^i- 
tjat^il^'niy] a sh f npoHHua- 
xejieH, -a, Vo, -u shrewd, pen- 
etrating, acute, perspica- 
cious; piercing {look, etc). 

nponaraHA|a [prapAganda] 
/ -bi propaganda {dissemina- 
tion and elucidation of theo- 
ries and ideas). 

nponaraHflMpjOBaTb [pra- 
pagAn^d^'iravat^] imperf -yio, 
-yeiub, p -OBaji, imp -yfi 
advocate, propagandize; pop- 
ularize {science, achieve- 
ments, etc). 

nponafllaxb [prapAdat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npona|cTb 
[prApas^t^] perf -Ay, -Aeuib, 
p -Ji, imp -AH 1. be missing, 
be lost; 2. disappear, vanish; 
die, pass {of feelings); 3. per- 
ish, die, be done for, be 
lost; 4. be wasted {of iime, 

<► FAe Bbi —ajiH? where have 
you been?; ohuih nponajio 
col it is as good as lost. 

nponexb see nexb 1, 

iiponHcaxb see nponHCbi- 

nponHc|Ka [prAp^iska] / 
-KH, -OK registration {at the 
place of residence). 

npooHCbiBJaxb [prAp^isi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
nponHc|axb [prap^'isat^] perf 
nponumy, nponuuieuib, p -aji, 
imp npoDHUiH 1. register {ai 
the place of residence); 2. pre- 
scribe {a medicine). 

nponoBeAJb [pr6pav'it^,-d^] 
/ -H, -eu sermon preach- 

nponopuHOHajibHibiH [pra- 
partstAnaPnty] a sh f npo- 
nopuHOHajieu, -a, -o, .-u pro- 
portional, proportionate. 

nponycK [propusk, -zg] m 
-a, pi -H (-a), -OB (-6b) 1. {pi 
-a, -6b) pass (a document); 
2. {pi -H, -ob) blank, gap, 
interval; 3. {pi -h, -ob) ab- 
sence, non-attendance. 

nponycK|axb [prapuskat^] 
imperf -aK),~ -aeuib, npony- 
cx[Hxb [prapus^t^it^] perf 
nponymy, nponycxHuib, p 
-HJi, imp -H 1. let pass, let 
go (past), make way for; let 
in, admit; let {smb) out {of 
a room, etc); 2. {no perf) let 
pass (through) {water, 'etc); be 
transparent; be pervious to 
{water, etc); 3. miss {a lec- 
ture, etc); let slip {an op- 
portunity, etc); 4. omit, leave 
out, skip. 

npopBaxb see npopbmaxb. 
/npopBaxbCfl see npopu- 


npopbiB [prArif, -v] m -a, 
-OB 1. mil break-through; 2. 
fig hitch {in work, etc); lag, 
lagging behind the plan; 
jiHKBHAHpoBaxb ^ catch up 
with the plan; make good 
(m one's work); BUBecxH npeji- 


npH^THe H3 ~a help an en- 
terprise out {of serious pro- 
duction difficulties); help an 
enterprise catch up with the 

npopbiB[aTb [prarivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, npopB|aTb 
[prArvat*'] perf -y, -eiiib, p 
-aji, -ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, imp -h 
break (through) {also mil). 

npopbiB|aTbCj! [prarivattsa] 
imperf -aiocb, -aembcn, npo- 
pelaTbcn [prArvattsa] perf 
-ycb, -euibCH, p ajick, -ajiacb, 
-ajiocb (-a;iocb), -ajiHCb (-a- 
jiiiCh),imp -HCb, -Hiecb 1. tear, 
become torn, burst; 2. burst 
open; break {of an abscess, 
dyke, etc); 3. force one's way 
(through), break (through) 
{also mil); 4. fig burst forth, 
burst out {of anger, etc). 

npocBemeHH|e [pras^v^i^- 
sh^:en^iy9] n -h education, 
national education; enlighten- 

njJoclHTb [prAs^it^] imperf 
npomy, npocHiub, p -hji, imp 
-H, noinpocHTb [paprAs^it**] 
perf 1. ask, beg {smb to do 
smth, permission, etc); ask 
for, beg for; -— Hxb mhjioctlihio 
beg, go begging; 2. plead, 
intercede {with smb for smb); 
3. invite, ask; 

<> npomy Bac! 1) please!; 2) 
help yourself, please!; npo- 
cflT He KypHTb! no smoking, 

npocKjioH«Ti> see ckjio- 


npocjiymaxb see npocjiy- 


npocjiyuiMBJaib [prAslushi- 

V9t^] imperf -aK), -aeuib, npo- 
cjiyiu|aTb [prAslushat^] perf 
-aK), -aeiiib 1. hear, listen to; 

2. hear, attend {lectures, etc)*, 

3. (no imperf) miss, not catch 
{what has been said). 

npocMaTpHB|aTb [prAsmat- 
r^ivat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib^ 
npocMOTplexb [prasmAtr^ef^] 
perf -K), npocMOTpHUib, p -eji, 
imp -H 1. look through / over, 
run over 5 2. {no imperf) over- 
look, miss; 3. see {a film, 
etc); preview {a film, etc). 

npocHyibCfl see npocbi- 


npocnaxb see npocbinaxb I. 

npocneKT [prAs^p^ekt, -gd] 
m -a, -OB avenue {a street). 

npocnpjiraTb see cnpHraxb. 

npocp6HHB)aTb [prAsroch^i- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
npocp6H|HTb [prAsroch^it^j 
perf -y, -mub, p -hji, imp 
-b exceed the time-limit; 
npocpOHHTb ynjiary fail to 
pay in time. 

npocTepexbcsi see npocxH- 

npocxHp|axbcH [pras^t^i- 
rattsa] imperf -aexcH, npo- 
cxepexbCH [pras^f'i^r^ettsa] 
perf p npocxepcH, npocxep- 
jiacb stretch {of a forest, etc); 
~-axbCH ji,o qero-ji. reach 
smth, stretch to "smth. 

npocxHXb see npouj.axb. 

npocxHXbCfl see npomaxbCH. 

npocxo [prosta] I adv 

II impers predic it is simple 
{to do smth); it is easy {to 
do smth); 

III part intens & r^str cqI; 

— 369 -- 


'- yscac! it's just awful!; oh 
— He MojKei pa3o6paTb sto 
he simply cannot make it 
out; OH -~ HHqero ne snaex 
he just knows nothing; 
<> ~ TaK for no particular 

npocxloH I [prAstoy] a sh f 
'—, -a, npocTO, npocTbi {-hi) 

1. simple; easy {not diff-' cult); 

2. common, ordinary; plain, 

<> ~biM rjiasoM with the 
naked eye. 

npocTolfl II [prAstoy] m -h, 
-eB standing idle; time 
wasted (standing idle), period 
of idleness; demurrage {de- 

npocTOKBauila [prastAkva- 
sha] / -H sour milk. 

npocT6pH|biH [prAstorniy] 
a sh f npocTopen, -a, -o, -bi 
spacious, roomy; loose, wide 

npocTpaHCTBlo [prAstran- 
stva] n -a space (1) unlim- 
ited room', 2) room between 
smth); 6e3B03flymHoe ~o 1) 
phys vacuum; 2) outer space; 
nycToe ~o void, space. 

npocTyflHTbCJi see npocry- 


npocTy}K|aTbC5i [prastuzha- 
ttj9] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH. 
npocTy;ilHTbCfl [prastud^ittsa] 
perf npocTy}Kycb, npocry- 

JlHUIbCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, 

imp -HCb, -HTecb catch (a) 

npocxynloK [prAstupak, -g] 
m -Ka, -KOB misdemeanour, 
bad deed, bad conduct. 

npocTbiHlfl [prasttn^'a] / 

-H, pi npOCTUHH, npOCTblHb, 

-HM (bed-)sheet. 

npocbinaxb see npocbi- 
naTb II. 

npocbinlaxb I [prasipat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, npocn|aTb 
[prAspat^] perf -Jiib, -Hiub, p 
-a./i, -ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, imp 
-H 1. oversleep (oneself); 2. 
{no imperf) sleep (//// or for 
a certain time); 3. col (over- 
sleep and) miss {a train, etc). 

npocbm|aTb II [prastpat^] 
imperf -k\o, -aeuib, npocbi- 
n|aTb [prAstpat^] perf -jiio, 
-Huib, p -aji, imp -b spill 
{sugar, flour, etc). 

npocbm|aTbcsi [prasipattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiUbCH, npo- 
cHJyTbCH [prAsnuttja] perf 
-ycb, -euibCH, p -yjicH, -yjiacb, 
imp -HCb, -Hxecb wake (up), 

np6cb6|a [proz^ba] / -u, ^ 

1. request {1) the act of; 2) 
what is asked for); o6pau;axb- 
CH c —OH make a request; 
y MeHH K BaM —a may I ask 
you a favour?; ~a ne my- 
Mexb silence, please!; —a ne 
KypHXb no smoking, please!; 
2.: ~a o HOMHJioBaHHH ap- 
peal for mercy, appeal for 
a pardon. 

npoxcKJaxb [prat^i^kat^] 
imperf -aex, npoxelnb [prA- 
t^ech^] perf -ner, -Kyx, p 
npoxeK, -Kjia 1. {mostly im- 
perf) flow, run {of a stream); 

2. be leaky, leak; 3. ooze, 
leak; 4. elapse, pass (of time); 
5. fig proceed {of a process); 
~axb HopMajibHO take its 
normal course. 


370 — 

npoxecT [prAt'est, -zd] m 
-a, -OB protest; BbipasHXb ^ 
make a protest, remonstrate; 
noABTb — lodge a protest 
(with some organization). 

npoTecTlosaTb [prat^'istA- 
vat''] Imperf *-yio, -yeuib, p 
-oeaji, imp -yn protest, re- 
monstrate {against). 

npOTCHb see nporeKaTb. 

npOTHB [prot^if, -v] I prep 
with gen denoting 1. position 
opposite smth: ~ Moero oKHa 
pacTCT 6epe3a there is a birch 
opposite my window; CH^eTb 
Apyr ^ APyra sit facing each 
'other; 2. movement in the 
opposite direction: ^ leqeHHn 
[Beipa, CBeia u m. n.] 
against the current [wind, 
light, etc]\ 3. opposition to 
smb or smth; the fact that 
smth is done in spite of smh's 
opinion^ etc. BbiCTynarb -^ 
npeflJiojKeHHH oppose / come 
out against a proposal; speak 
against a proposal; HMeib 
qxc-Ji. ~ have smth against, 
mind; ~ bojih against one's 
[smb's] will; 4. the fact that 
the object of the action is to 
be done away with: jienap- 
ctbo ~ Kamji5i medicine for 
coughing; fiopoibCH ~ ^a- 
lUHSMa fight / struggle against 

II as an adv. h xo^y sto 
CAeJiaTb, a OH — I want to 
do it, and he is against it/ he 
objects to it; 5i coecewi He ~ 
I've nothing against it. 

npOTMBHHK [prAt^ivn^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob 1. opponent; 
adversary; 2. mil enemy. 

npOTHBHO [prAt^ivna] I adv 
in a disgusting manner; — 
naxHyib stink, have a bad/ 
disgusting smell; 
II impers predic it is dis- 
eMy ~ he is disgusted. 

npoTHBHlbiH [prAt^ivniy] a 
sh f npoTHBen, -a, -o, -bi 
nasty, offensive, unpleasant; 
OH MHenpOTHBeH I can't stand 

npoTHBorda [prat^ivAgds, 
-z] m -a, -OB gas-mask. 

npoTHBOfl^ficTBHle [prat^i- 
vAd^'eys^'t^v^'iya] n -Ji, -fi 
opposition, counteraction. 

npoTHBonoJi6«HocTlb [pra- 
t^ivapAlozhnas^t^, -z^d'^] f 
-H, -efl 1. contrast, opposi- 
tionj 2v philos opposite; 3. op- 
posite, antipode, antithesis; 
npHMan ~b exact opposite; 
nojinan '~b exact antithesis; 
<0> B ~b HeMy-ji. contrary to 
smth; B ~b KOMy-ji. unlike 

npOTHBono.n6»{HlbiH [praf'i- 
vapAlozhniy] a sh f npoiH- 
BonojiOH^en, -a, -o, -bi oppo- 
site {side, direction, opinion)-, 
contrary, opposed. 

npOTHBonocTdBHTb see npo- 


npoTHBonocTaBjilflTb [pra- 
t^ivapastAvl^at^] imperf -mo, 

-HeiDb, npOTHBOnOCTaBlHTb 

[prat^ivapAstav^it''! perf 
-jiio, -HUJb, p -Hji, imp -b 1. 
contrast {smth with smth); 
2. oppose {smth to smth). 

npoTHBopcHHle [praf'ivA- 
r^ech^'iya] n -n, -h contra- 
diction; npHXOAHTb B -^e c... 

~ 371 — 


come in conflict with...; na- 
xoflHTbCH B ~H c... be at 
variance witli... 

np0THB0pe4|HTb [prat^ivA- 
r^ech^it^] imperf -y, -Hiub, 
p -HJi, imp -h 1. contradict 
{stub), gainsay; 2. contradict 
(smth), run counter (to), be 
at variance {with). 

npoTKHyxb see npoibiKaxb. 

npoTOKOJi [pratAkol] m -a, 
-OB 1. minutes {of a meeting, 
etc); BecTH — tal<e the min- 
utes; 2. protocol {diplomatic). 

nporyxHyxb s^e TyxHyxb II. 

npOTbiK|aTb [pratikat''] im- 
perf -aK), -aeujb, npOTKH|yTb 
[prAtknut^] perf -y, -euib, p 
-yji, imp -H pierce (through); 

npOTHrHB|aTb [prAt^ag^i- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeinb, npo- 
TJiH|yTb [prot^i^nut^] perf 
-y, npoTHHeuib, p -yji, imp 
-H 1. stretch {along or as far 
as smth); 2. stretch out, reach 
out, extend; offer, proffer; 
3. {no imperf) col last, lin- 
ger, live; 

<0> npOTjiHyTb HOPH col ^ die, 
turn up one's toes. 

npoTfl)KeHH!e [prat^i^zhe- 
n^iya] n -h extent, stretch; 


for a distance of ten kilo- 
metres; Ha BceM ~H all (the 
way) along, the full length 

<> Ha ~H... for (the space 
of) {several days, etc). 

npOTJiHyTb see npoTHPH- 

npoyH|Hxb [prauch^'it^] perf 
-y, npoyHHuib, p -idJi, imp 

-i5" col teach a (good) les- 

npo(|)eccHOHajibHbiH [praf^i- 
s^iAuaPniy] a professional; 
occupational {disease, etc); 
vocational {training, etc). 

npocjjeccHJji [prAf^es^iya] / 
-H, -H profession, occupation, 

npo(j)eccop [prAf^esar] m 
-a, pi -a, -OB professor (a 

np64)Hji|b [prof^il^] m -h, 
-efl 1. profile; 2. speciality (o/ 
an educational institution); 
type {of school); cneuna- 
JiHCx uiHpoKoro -~5i special- 
ist of broad specialization. 

npO(})coK)3 [prafsAyus, -z] 
m -a, -OB (=npo4)eccHOHajib- 
HbiH coK)3) trade union. 

npo$coK)3HbiH fprafsAyuz- 
niy] a trade-union {attr). 

npoxjiaAH|b!H [prAkhladniy] 
a sh f npoxjiaflCH, -a, -o, -bi 
fresh; cool {also fig). 

npoxoA [prAkhot, -d] m 
-a, -OB passage {1) the act of; 
2) a corridor); passage-way, 
pass; aisle; —' saKpbix no 
passage; --a Hex no passage; 
<> 3a;iHHH — anat anus; 
zool vent; ne aaeaxb -~-a 
(~y) KOMy-ji. pursue smb 
pestering and badgering him. 

^poxo;^)Hxb [prakhAd^it^] 
imperf npoxoxcy, npoxoAHuib, 
p -HJI, imp -H, npOH|xH 
[prAyt^i] perf -Ay, -j\euib, p 
npomeji, npoiujia, imp -ah 
1. walk {move); go {on foot) 
{both mostly in a certain di- 
rection or for a certain dis- 
tance); go {along a certain 


— 372 — 

route in a vehicle); fly (over, 
along); drive (along); sail 
(along); —htb no Mocry cross 
abridge; ~HTb flBaAUaxb kh- 
jiOMexpoB B AeHb cover twen- 
ty kilometres a day; npoft- 
flHTe ciofla come over liere; 
npoHTH cjiaBHbiH nyib cover 
a glorious path; 2.: ~HTb 
MHMO go by, pass (by) (both 
on foot or in a vehicle); 
3. spread (of rumours, etc); 
npomeji cjiyx, mo... it was 
rumoured that...; it has been 
rumoured that...; 4. run, lie, 
pass (of a road, etc); 5. pass, 
elapse, go by (of time); ex- 
pire (of a term); slip away 
(of time); 6. go off, pass (of 
a performance, lesson, etc); 
noBCioAy npoxoAHT mhthhth 
rallies are held everywhere; 
7. be over, pass (of a season, 
illness, etc); 8. col study (a 
subject at school, etc); perf 
also cover, complete (a sub- 

npox6)KfHH [prAkhozhty] m 
-ero, -Hx passer by. 

npouBerjaTb [pratjv^i^tat^] 
imperf -^k), -aeiub prosper, 
flourish; thrive (of economy). 

npoucHT [prAtjent, -d j m -a, 
-OB 1< per cent; percentage, 
rate; 2. interest (on capital). 

npouecc [prAtjes, -z] m -a, 
-OB 1. process (1) of growth, 
etc; 2) technol; 3) a course 
of events); — pasBHTHH de- 
velopment; 2. law trial; pro- 
ceedings; legal action; law- 
suit, suit; 3. med'. — b jier- 
KHX tuberculosis (of the 

npouHTHpoBaxb see uHTHpo- 

npoHecTb see qHiaxb. 

np6H|HH [proch^iy] I a -an, 
-ee, -He other (different); 
I! as a noun n p 6 h | He pi 
-Hx: Bce ~He (all) the others; 
<> H ~ee et cetera, and so 
on; noMHMO ecero ~ero in 
addition, besides. 

npoHHiaTb see ^HTaxb. 

npOHHlbiH fproch^nty] a 
sh f npoHCH, -a, o, -bi (-h) 
1. strong, solid; durable; 2. 
fig 'irm {stand, etc); lasting 
(peace, etc); sound (knowl- 

npoHb [proch^, -j^] adv 
away, off; —I go away!, 
away with youl; ~ oxcfb^al 
get out of here!, clear out!; 
~ c AopoFH! get out of the 
way!, make way!; 
<> He — 1) have nothing 
against (doing smth), have 
no objections to (doing 
smth); 2) be willing (to do 
smth), would like(^o do smth). 

npouijibiH [pr6shUy] I a 
past (life, etc); last (year, 

II as a noun n p 6m Ji joe n 
-oro the past. 

npomafi(xe) [prAsh^:ay(t^i)] 
Int good-bye! 

npoiu,ajibHbiH [prAsh^:al^- 
niy] a parting (words, etc); 

npomaHHle [prAsh^.an^iya] 
n -H, -H farewell; parting, 
<> Ha ~e at parting. 

npomlaxb [prAsh^'.at^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeujb, npocxlHib 

373 — 


[prAs^'t^it''] perf npomy, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -H forgive, 
pardon; remit (a debt); npo- 
CTH(Te) mchh! excuse me! 

npoiu,|aTbCfl [prAsh^:atts3] 
imperf -arocb, -aeuibCH, npo- 
crlMTbCH [prAs^'t^'ittsa] perf 
npomycb, -HuibCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hiecb, noi- 
npomarbcfl [paprAsh^iattsa] 
perf say good-bye {to), take 
(one's) leave {of). 

npome [pr6sh'':i] comp of 
npocTOH & corresp adv. 

nposKsaMeHOBaTb see 3K3a- 

npOHBHTb see npOHBJIHTb. 

npoHBji(flTb [prayi^vl^'at^] 
imperf -hkd, -neuib, npoHBlHTb 
[prayi^v^it^] perf -jik>, npo- 
HBHiub, p -HJI, imp -H 1. 
show, display, manifest 
{some feeling, etc); ~HTb ne- 
peiuHxejibHocTb hesitate, be 
in doubt; 2. photo develop; 
<> '— «Tb ce6fl 1) prove one's 
worth; 2) prove oneself to be 
(a good teacher, etc). 

npyA [prut, -d] m -a, -6b 

npy)KMH|a [pruzhtna] / -bi, 
^ spring {in a watch, etc; 
also fig). 

npyx [prut, -dj m -a (-a), 
pi -bH, -beB 1. twig, switch; 
withe; 2. rod {of metal, etc). 

nphirjaxb [prtgat''] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, npbirHJyxb [prtg- 
nut^] perf -y, -euib, p -yji, 
imp -H jump, spring, leap; 
bound {of a dog, etc); perf 
also take a leap / jump. 

npbiwIoK [prizhok,' -g] m 
-Ka, -KOB jump, spring, leap; 

~6k b Bbicoxy high jump; 
-OK B ;;jiHHy (long) jump; 
~6k r mecxoM pole vault; 
~KH B BOAy diving; high 

npbim [prish^:, -zh^:[ m 
-a, -eft pimple, blotch. 

npflfljb [pr^at^, -d''] / -h, 
-eft lock {of hair). 

np«)K|Ka [pr^'ashka] / -kh, 
-CK buckle, clasp. 

npHMO [pr^ama] adv 1. 
straight {in a direct line); 
2.: CHAexb ~ sit upright / 
erect; 3. straight, directly {to, 
from some place, etc); right 
{to); 4. fig frankly, openly, 

^jipnMJOH [pr^i^moy] a sh 
f — , -a, npHMo, npHMbi 1. 
straight {line, etc); 2. upright, 
erect; 3. direct {answer, elec- 
tions, etc); through {train, 
etc); 4. frank, sincere, out- 
spoken; straightforward; 
<> ~a5i KHuiKa anat rectum; 
~6h yroji math right angle. 

npaHHK [pr^an^ik, -g[ m 
-a, -OB treacle-cake; honey- 
-cake; gingerbread. 

npMJxaxb [pr^atat^] imperf 
-My, -'leuib, p -xaji, imp -Mb, 
cinpHxaxb [spr^atat^] perf 
hide, conceal {also fig). 

npfl|xaxbCJi [pr^atattja] im- 
perf -^ycb, -qeuibCH, p -xajicH, 
-xajiacb, imp -^bCH, -^bxecb, 
c:npflxaxbcfl [spr^atattja] 
perf hide, conceal oneself. 

ncHXHHecKJHH [ps^ikh^i- 
ch^'isk'^iy] a -an, -oe, -ne psy- 
chic(al), mental. 

ncMXOJiorH'ifl [ps'^ikhAlo- 
g^iya] / -h psychology. 


— 374 — 

niHuja [pt^itsa] / -bi, '~- 
bird; fowl; nepejieiHan —a 
bird of passage (also fig). 

nyejiMKJa [publ^ika] / -h 
public; audience (at the the- 
atre, etc); the spectators. 

nySjiHRJOBaTb [publ^ikA- 
vat^] imperf -yio, -yeiub, p 
-oeaji, imp -yfl, o;ny6jiHKo- 
EaTb [Apubl^ikAvat^] perf 
publish; carry {of a newspa- 
per, etc). 

nySjiMHHbiH [publ^ich^niy] 
a public (library, lecture, 

<> ^ AOM brothel, house of 

nyr|dTb [pucjj^*'] imperf 

-aio, -aeuib, hc 
gat^] perf, Ha 

nyraib [ispu- 
nyraxb [napu- 

gat^j perf 1. frighten, scare; 
2. threaten (smb). 

nyrjaxbCM [pugattja] im- 
perf -aiocb, -aeiiibCH, Hc;ny- 
raxbcn [ispugattj9[ per/, na;- 
nyraxbCJi [napugattja] perf 
be frightened; take alarm. 

nyrjiHBlbiH [pugPivty] a 
sh f ~, -a, -0, -bi easi- 
ly frightened / scared; fearful 
(look, etc); shy (animals). 

nyroBHu|a [pugav^itja] / 
-bi, — button (a fastening or 

nyA [put, -d] m -a, pi -u, 
-OB pood (16.38 kg). 

nyAp|a [pudra] / -bi (face) 

nyAp|HXbCfl [pudr^ittja] im- 
perf -KDCb, -HLUbCH, p -HJICH, 

-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hiecb, 

HainyflpHx'bCH [nApudr^ittsa] 

perf powder (one's face), 
use powder. 

nyabipjb [puzk^] m -h, 
-eft 1. bubble, bladder; 2. 
col blister (on the skin); 3. 
anat bladder; MoqeBOH --b 
urinary bladder. 

nyjieMex [pul^i^m^'ot, -d] 
m -a, -OB machine-gun; pyq- 
HOH ~ light machine-gun; 
cxaHKOBbiH — medium ma- 
chine-gun; 6^5 heavy ma- 

nyjibc [pul^s, -z] m -a 
pulse (also fig); pulse rate. 

nyji|fl [pul^a] / -h, -b 

nyHKx [punkt, -gd] m -a, 
-OB 1. point (a place); onop- 
HbiH -- mil strong point, 
stronghold; 2. station (for 
recruiting, etc); neperoBop- 
HbiH — trunk-call office; Me- 
AHUHHCKHii ■— dispensary; 3. 
item, point; 4.: KyjibMHHa- 
UHOHHbiH ~ culmination [the 
highest point); 

<> HacejieHHbiH — settle- 
ment (a town or a village); 
populated area; inhabited 

nycKJaxb [puskat"^] imperf 
-aio, -aeuib, nycx|Hxb [pus^- 
t^it''] perf nymy, nyciHiiib, 
p -HJi, imp -H 1. let (smb go 
somewhere); allow (smb to go 
somewhere); 2. let (smb) in; 
3. start, put in action; set 
working; set in motion; turn 
on (water, etc); 4. bot put 
forth; --axb KopHH take root 
(also fig); 

<> ~axb B npoMSBOAcxBO put 
in production; ~axb e xofl 
Bce cpcACXBa ^ pull every 
string, leave no stone un- 

— 375 


turned: --axb cjiyx spread a 

nycTJOH [pustoy] a sh f ^, 
-a, nycTO, nycru 1. empty 
{box, etc); uninhabited 
(house), deserted (town, etc); 

2. fig idle (talk, etc)', shal- 
low (person)', -^-bie cjioBa 
mere / empty words; 

^ -^oe MecTO nonentity; 
nepejiHBarb h3 —ore b no- 
p6)KHee col ^ mill the wind; 
beat the air. 

nycTbiHH|biH [pusttnniy] a 
sh f nycTbiHeH, -a, -o, -bi 
desert (lands, etc); deserted 
(street, etc). 

nycTbiH|fl [pustln^a] / -h, 
-b desert, wilderness. 

nycTb [pus^t^, -z^d''] 1 
part'. —' OH BOHAeTl let him 
(come) in!; -^ 6yAeT no-Ba- 
meMy have it your own way; 
II cj though, even if. 

nycTHK [pus^t^ak, -g] m 
-a, -OB trifle (a thing of lit- 
tle value); 

<> ~m! col 1) it's nothing!; 
2) nonsense!; 3) never mind! 

nyxaHHula [putan^'itsa] / 
-bi confusion, mess, muddle. 

nyTJaxb [putat^] imperf 
-aK), -aemb 1. tangle (threads, 
etc); 2. confuse, mix (up); 

3. confuse, muddle, bewilder. 
nyxeelKa [put^ofka] / -kh, 

-OK accommodation ticket/ 
card; voucher (to a rest- 
-home, etc). 

nyxeeoAHxejilb [put^ivAd^i- 
t^il**] m -H, -efi guide-book 
(for travellers). 

nyxcM [put^om] prep with 
^en by means of. 

nyxemecxeeHHHK [put^i®- 
shes^t^v^m^ik, -g] m -a, 
-OB traveller (one who trav- 
els); explorer. 

nyxemecxBHle [put^i^she- 
gbj-bybjygj ^ .jj^ .g journey, 

travel, trip; voyage. 

nyxeuiecxeloBaxb [put^i*^- 
shestyvat^] imperf -ywi, -yeuib, 
p -OBaji, imp -yH travel, 
make a journey; voyage. 

nyxjb [put^, -d^l m -u, 
-efi 1. way, track, path; 
npoHAeHHbiH — b traversed 
path; 2. journey, trip; voy- 
age; oxnpaBHTbCH / nycTHTb- 
CH B ~b set out, start on a 
journey / trip; naxoAHTbCH 
B — H be en route, be on 
one's way; 3. fig means, 
way; mhphhm — -cm peace- 
fully, in a friendly way; 
Apyroro / hhofo -^h hct 
there are no two ways about 
it; 4. fig way, path; no jie- 
HHHCKOMy --H aloug the path 
blazed by Lenin; hath no — h 
qero-Ji. follow the path of 
smth; npOHTH -—b ox pa66- 
Mero Ao MHHHcxpa work one's 
way up from worker to min- 

<> Bcxaxb Ha ~b 4er6-ji. 
embark on the path of smth, 
take the road of smth; no 
--H 1) on the way; 2): BaM 
no '-H CO MHOH? are you 
going my way?; npOBO»axb 


attend smb's funeral; cnacx- 
jiHBoro ~h! happy journey!, 
bon voyage! 

nyx [pukh. -gh] m -a (-y) 
down (soft feathers); 


— 376 — 

<> HH ~-a HH nepa! = good 
luck!; B — H npax utterly 
(defeat, rout); pasGHib b — 
H npax rout (smb). 

nyiuHCT|biH [pushlstiy] a 
sh f ^, -a, -o, -bi fluffy, 

nyiij|Ka [pushka] / -kh, 
-eK gun, cannon. 

nyiijHHH|a [pushn^ina] / 
-bi furs. 

nymy [push^'iu] 1st person 
of nycTHTb; see nycKaxb. 

nnejija [pch^i^la] / -bi, pi 
rmejibi, nweji bee • (an in- 

nuieHHUJa [psht^n'^itja] / 
-bi wheat; npoBan ~-a spring 
wheat; osHMan ~a winter 

nmeHJo [pshi^no] n -a 

nbiji [pil] m -a (-y) ardour, 

^ B — y cnopa in the heat 
of an argument; b — y cpa- 
»eHHsi in the thick of a 
fight; B — y rHCBa in a fit 
of anger. 

nbijijarb [ptlat''] imperf 
-aK), -aeuib 1. be ablaze; 
flame, blaze; glow [of the 
face, etc); 2. fig burn (with); 
~aTb FHCBOM be in a rage. 

nbijiecoc [ptl^'i^sos, -z] m 
-a, -OB vacuum cleaner. 

nbiJiK|HH [ptlk'^iy] a -an, 
-oe, -He, sh f nujioK, -a, -o, 
-H ardent, passionate, fer- 

nbiji|b [pil*'] / -H dust (a 
powdery matter); spray (small 
drops); CMexaib ~b c Mer6-;i. 
dust smth; 

<C> nycKaib —b b rjiasa col 

= cut a dash, show off. 

obiJibHlbiH [piPniy] a shf 
ObiJieH, -a, -o, -bi dusty 
(road, etc). 

nbiTJaxb [pitat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeujb torture, torment 
(also fig). 

nbiTlaibCji [pitattja] im- 
perf -aiocb, -aeujbCH, no:nbi< 
xaTbcn [papitattja] per/ try, 
attempt; endeavour. 

nbiTJKa [pftka] / -kh, -ok 
torture, torment (also fig); 
anguish; noABepraxb -— Keput 
to torture. 

nbimH|biM [pfshniy] a sh f 
nbimen, -a, -o, -bi 1. fluffy, 
luxuriant; 2. pompous (words, 
etc); splendid, magnificent. 

nbec|a [p^'yesa] / -bi, -- 
theat play; mus piece; cra- 
BHTb ~y stage a play. 

nbK) fp'^yu], nbeuib 

[p^yosh, -zh] see nHXb. 

nb$iH|eTb [p^yi^n^et*'] im- 
perf -eK), -eeiiJb, ojnbsiHeTb 
[Ap^yi^n^et^] per/ get drunk; 
get intoxicated (also fig). 

nbflHHu|a [p^yan'^itja] m & 
f -bi, ~ drunkard, toper. 

nbHH|biH [p^yaniy] I a sh 
f ~, -a, -o, -bi drunk, tipsy; 
intoxicated (also fig); na- 
HHTbCH —biM get drunk; 
II as a noun n b h h | bi ft m 
-oro, -bix drunk man. 

n5iTep|Ka [p'^i'^t^'orka] / 
-KH, -OK 1. five (a figure); 
2. five, excellent (a mark 
at school); 3. col fiver, 
five-rouble note. 

HMxepio [p^at^'ira] num 
collect -ux. -WM, -bix (-0), 

~ 377 


■b'lMH, (o) -bix five; nac 6biJio 
~o there were five of us. 

nflTH66pb|e [p^it^ibor^ya] 
n -H sport pentathlon. 

naTHitecsiTHJiCTHle [p^it^i- 
d^is^it^il^et^iya] n -h, -ft 1. 
fifty years; 2. fiftieth anni- 
versary; fiftieth birthday. 

njiTHjiecaTibiH [p^it'^id^i^- 
s'^atiy] num. ord fiftieth; 
^bie roAW the fifties. 

nflTHJieTJKa [p^it^il^etka] / 
-KH, -OK five-year plan. 

nHT|HTbCfl [p^at^ittja] im- 
perf HHHycb, -HiiibCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -bCH, -bxecb, 
noinnxHTbcji [pAp^'at^'ittja] 
perf back, move back. 

nflT|Ka [p^atka] / -kh, -ok 
heel {of the foot). 

nnxHaAuaTbiH [p^i^tnattja- 
tiy] num ord fifteenth. 

n«THaAU,aT|b [p^i^tnattjat^, 
-d^] num card -h, -bK) fifteen. 

n^THHu|a [p^at^n^itja] / 
-bi, ~ Friday; 
<> y Hero ccMb -^ Ha He^ejie 

col ^ he is always changing 
his mind. 

nHTHJo [p^i^tno] n -a, pi 
HHTHa, nnxeH. nnxHaM spot, 
stain {aho fig); blotch, blot; 
<> poflHMoe —6 birth-mark. 

nflT|biH [p^atiy] nam ord 
fifth; nojioBHHa -~-oro half 
past four; eMy ~bift roA he 
is in his fifth year. 

nflTJb [p^at'', -d^] num 
card -H, -bK) five. 

njiTbflec^T [p^id^d^i^s^at, 
-d] nufn card nHiHAecHTH, 
nHTbiOAecHTbK) fifty. 

nsiTbcoT [p^i^tsot, -d] num 
card njiTHCOT, nHTHcxaM, ~, 


five hundred. 
HHHycb [p^ach^us^, -z^] see 


pa6 [rap, -b] m -a, -6b 
slave {also fig). 

pa^OTJa [rAbota] / -u, pi 
-bi, -^ 1. work {1) labour; 
2) something to do; task, 
duty; 3) something made or 
done; 4) phys); o6ii;ecTBeH- 
Han ~a social / public work; 
6biTb Ha pyKOBOAHiueft —e be 
one of the leadership; hold 
a responsible post/ posit'on; 
jioMaiiiHHH —a home-work; 
KypcoBan ~a course /term 
paper; AHnJioMHan ~a grad- 
uation / diploma thesis; 2. 

work, job; CHHTb c —bi dis- 
miss, sack; 6biTb 6e3 ~bi be 
out of work; nojieBwe ~bi 
field work; npHHyAHTejibHbie 
— bi fenced labour. 

paSoTJaxb [rAbotat^l im- 
perf -aio, -aeuib 1. work {1) 
do work; 2) be employed: 
3) operate, be in action); 
—aTb yMHTCJieM work as a 
teacher; KeM bm — aexe? 
what do you do?, what's 
your occupation?; -—axb Ha 
Koro-Ji. work for smb; —axb 
HaA HCM-Ji. work at smthj 


— 378 — 

^aTb CBepxypoqHo work 
overtime; 2. be open (of a 
library, etc); 

^ ~aTb Haji coGoH im- 
prove / perfect one's profes- 
sional skill [knowledge, etc]. 
paSoTHHK [rAbot^n'^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB worker (1) excel- 
lent, skilled, etc, said of 
mental and manual workers; 
2) in the field of art, etc); 
HayMHbiH — scientific work- 
er; research worker; schol- 
ar; — HapoAHoro o6pa30Ba- 
HHH, -- npocBemeH.HH educa- 
tional worker; oxBeTCTBen- 
HbiH — executive, official; 


Horo xpy^a workers by hand 
and brain. 

paSoTHHula [rAbot^n^itja] 
/ -bi, ^ (woman- )worker. 

pa6oTOcnoc66HocT|b [rAbo- 
taspASobnas^t^, -z^'d'*] / -h 
(great) capacity for work, 
efficiency (of a worker). 

pa66H|iiH I [rAboch^iy] m 
-ero, -HX worker, workman, 
labourer; '-He h cjiyjKamHe 
industrial and office work- 

pa66H|HH II [rAboch^iy] a 
-an, -ee, -He 1. workers', 
working, labour (attr)^ ~hh 
KJiacc the working class; 
~ee flBH}KeHHe working-class 
movement; labour movement; 
•~HH nocejiOK workmen's 
settlement; 2. working {time, 
clothes, day, etc); 
<«- --He pyKH hands (labour- 
ers); '-aa cHjia manpower, 
labour power. 

pa6cK|HH [rapsk^iy] a -an, 

-06, -He 1. slave (attr); 2. fig 
servile, slavish. 

pa6cTB0 [rapstva] n -a 
slavery, servitude. 

paeeHCTBlo [rav^mstva] n 
-a equality. 

paBHHH|a [rAvn^ina] / -u, 
^ plain, flat country. 

paBHOBecHJe [ravnAv^'es^iya] 
n -51 balance, equilibrium 
(also fig); nojiHiHqecKoe ~e 
balance of power; AyiuesHoe 
~-e mental equilibrium; bu- 
BecTH H3 ^n 1) upset the 
balance (of); 2) fig upset 
(smb), upset (smb's) equanim- 

paBHo;iyuiH|biH [rsvnAdush- 
nty] a sh f paBHo;iyuieH, -a, 
-o, -bi indifferent, apathetic. 

paBHOMepH|biH [ravnAm^'er- 
niyj a sh f paBHOMepen, -a, 
-o, -bi even (distribution, 
developmeni , etc); uniform 
(motion, acceleration, etc). 

paBHonpaBH|e [ravnApra- 
v'iya] n -Ji equality (of 

paBHlwH [ravnty] a sh f 
paneH, -a, -6, -bi equal (in 
amount, size, value, etc); 
paccTOHHHe, '— 'Oe o^noMy 
KHJioMCTpy a distance of one 
kilometre; A-nHna ~a AByM 
MexpaM the length is two 
metres; oxHOCHXbCH k KOMy-Ji. 
KaK K -—OMy treat smb as 
one's equal; b --oh cxenenH 
equally, to the same degree; 
npH npo^HX ~bix ycjioBHHX 
other things being equal; 
<> ~biM oSpasoM equally, 

paBHlflTbCfl [rAvn^attja] 

— 379 — 


imperf -niocb, -^euibCJi, 
cipaBHHTbCfl [srAvn^attsa] 
perf 1. {no perf) dress (corns 
into line); 2. {no perf) be 
equal {to), be equivalent (/o); 
amount (to); Asa njiioc abb 
~HeTCH qeTbipcM two and 
two makes / is / is equal to 
four; 3. col vie (with), com- 
pete {with); 4. {no perf) fig: 
— HTbCH Ha Koro-Ji./no KOMy- 
-jih6o follow suit/smb's exam- 

pafl [rat, -d] predic -a, 
-o, -bi: H [oh u m. d.] ^ I 
am [he is, etc] glad; ona 
~a STOMy she is glad about 

paAH [rad^i] prep with 
gen for the sake of; myxKH 
— lor fun; qero ~? what 

-^ ^ 66ra for goodness' 

paAHO [rad^io] n indecl 

1. radio, wireless; no ~ 
over the radio; by radio; 

2. col radio / wireless set. 
pa^HO... first element of 

compounds pertainin:; to 'ra- 
dio', 'wireless': pa^HOBemaHHe 
[rad''iav'*i^sh'*:an^iy9] broad^ 
casting; pa^HOjiaMna [rad^ia- 
lamp9] valve; US tube; pa- 
AHonepeAaqa [rad^'iap^'ir^i^- 
dach^a] broadcast, transmis- 
sion; programme {items of 
a broadcast)', pa^HOCBHSb 
[rad^ias^v^as^, -z^] radio/ 
wireless communication. 

paAHonpHeMHHK [rad'ia- 
pr^iyomn'ik, -gj m -a, -ob 
radio set; radio receiver. 

paAH0CTaHi;H|fl [rad^lA- 

stantsiya] / -h, -fl radio 
station; broadcasting station. 

paAHCT [rAd^ist, -zd] m 
-a, -OB wireless/ radio opera- 

paAHyc frad^ius, -z] m -a, 
-OB math radius. 

paAJoBaTb [radavat^] im- 
perf -yio, -yeiub, p -OBaji, 
imp -yH, o6:paAOBaTb [Abra- 
davat^] perf make glad/ 
happy, cause joy, gladden; 
3T0 H3BecTHe oSpaAOBaJio 
MeHH I was happy to hear 
the news. 

paAloeaTbcn [radavattsa] 
imperf -yioch, -yeuibCH, p 
-oBajicH, -OBajiacb, imp -yft- 
CH, -yftxecb, o6;paAOBaTbcsi 
[Abradavattja] perf rejoice, 
be happy /glad {about smth. 
for smb's sake). 

paAOCTH|biH [radasniy] a 
'h f paAocreH, -a, -o, -u 
joyous, joyful; ~oe HSBe- 
CTHe happy / glad news. 

paAOCT|b [radas^t^, -z'd^] 
/ -H, -efi joy, gladness; ot 
^H for/ with joy. 

paAyrja [raduga] if -h, ^ 

paAyiiiH|biH [rAdushniyJ a 
r/i / paAymen, -a, -o, -u 
cordial {welcome etc); --ufl 
X03HHH generous / engaging 

pas 1 [ras, -z] m -a (-y), 
pi -bi, ^, -aM 1. time(i) an 
occasion-, 2) a repeated in- 
stance); Ha 3T0T / Ha cefl -^ 
this time, on this occasion; e 
cJieAyiomHH — next time; 
nepBbiH '- the first time; 
for the first time; -- b AeHfe 


- 380 — 

[b HCAeJiKD u, m. d.\ once a 
day [week, etc\\ BCHKHft --, 
KorAa... whenever...; oahh 
'- at one point, once; c nep- 
Boro ~-a from the first; hh 
--'y not a single time; never; 
2. indecl one (m counting); 
<> '^ (h) HaecerAa once 
(and) for all; ne ^ several 
times, more than once; time 
and again; ~ Ha ~ He npH- 
xoflMTCJi it's not always the 
same; e caMbifl ^ be an 
excellent fit (0/ clothes, 

pas II [ras, -z] cj denot- 
ing consequence, condition, 
cause or reason: ~ oh 3ao- 
poB, oh noHJier c naMH since 
he is well, he'll come with 
us; ~ OH CKasaJi, to sto 
fleftcTBHTejibHO TaK if he has 
said it, then it's really so; 
-— xaK... in that case... 

pas..., paso..., pasTj..., 
pac... pref of verbs denot- 
ing 1. breaking up, divi- 
sion: pa3py6HTb [razrub^it^] 
cut (into two, into pieces); 
pacHHJiHTb [rasp^'il^it**] saw 
up, cut up; 2. distribution: 
pasjiHBaib BHHO no 6yTbiJi- 
KaM bottle wine; 3. the 
spreading of an action in 
different directions: paa- 
6pbi3raTb [rAzbrtzgaf*] splash 
(a liquid); 4. achievement of 
a result; pas-bHCHHib [raz''- 
yi^s*'n^it^] explain, elucidate 
{smth to smb); pasSorareTb 
(razbagAt^et''] become rich; 
5. reversal of an action: pas- 
jiK)6HTb (raz^j^'ub^'it''] cease 
to love, stop loving; pasMar- 

HHTHTb [razmAgn^it^it^] de- 
magnitize; 6. an excessive 
character or a' high degree 
of an action: pacxeajiHTb 
[raskhvAPit*'] chower praise 
on; pacKpHTHKOBaTb [raskr^i- 
t^ikAvat''] criticize severely; 
pasBOJiHOBaxbCH [razvalnAva- 
ttja]get excited / agitated. 

pasSaoHTb see pa36aBJiHTb. 

pa36aBJi|nTb [razbAvl^'at^] 
imperf -hk), -fleiub, pasSa- 
BJHTb [rAzbav^it^] perf -Ji\o, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -h dilute 
(a liquid). 

pasSerjaTbCH [razb^i^ga- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 
pa36e3K|aTbC5i [razb^'i'^zha- 
ttja] perf pasSerycb, -HUJb- 
CH, pa36eryTCH, p -ajiCH, -a- 
jiacb, imp pa36erHCb, pas- 
6erHTecb I. make one's run, 
run up {before jumping, etc); 
2. scatter, run away in dif- 
ferent directions; 
<> y Hero rjiasa ~aK)TCJi he 
doesn't know what to choose 
{when there is a wide choice, 
abundance, etc). 

pa36HB|dTb [razb^ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pa36|HTb 
[rAzb^it^] perf pa3o6bib, 
pa3o6beuib, p -hji, imp -efi 
1. break, smash; crash {an 
aircraft, etc); 2. break up / 
divide into parts; 3. lay out, 
mark out {a garden etc); 
pitch, set up (a tent, etc); 
4. hurt badly, fracture {the 
head, etc); 5. defeat, rout, 
beat, smash {also fig); paa- 
6HTb HaroJiOBy defeat utterly; 
— axb apryMCHTbi smash ar- 

— 381 — 


' pa36HB|aTbCJi [razb^iva- 
ttsa] imperf -aiocb, -aeiub- 
CH, paaSlMTbCJi [rAzb^ittsa] 
perf pa3o6bK)Cb, paaoSbeiubCH, 
p -HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp -eflcfl, 
-CHxecb 1. break, get broken, 
be broken; crash (0/ an air- 
craft, etc); 2. hurt oneself 
badly, bruise oneself; 3. break 
up, divide {into groupie, said 
of people). 

pasSHpjaxb [razb^irat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiub, pa3o6p|aTb 
[razAbrat^] perf pa36epy, 
pa36epemb, p -aji, -a.7ia, -ajio, 
-ajiH, imp pasdepH 1. take 
to pieces, disassemble, dis- 
mantle; pull down (a wall, 
etc); 2. take {all the things 
one by one); buy up {all the 
goods, food-stuffs); 3. arrange 
in order; sort out; 4. inves- 
tigate, inquire into; consid- 
er,, discuss; 5. make out 
(smb's handwriting, speech, 
etc); imperf also try to make 
out; 6. col: ero -^aer Aoca^a 
[3aBHCTb u m. n.] he is 
filled with vexation [envy, 
etc]; ero ~-aeT 3Ji66a he is 
overcome with anger; ero 
^aer CMex he is bursting 
with laughter. 

pasSHplaxbCH [razb^'irattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aembCH, paso- 
6plaTbC5i [razAbrattjaJ perf 
pasSepycb, pa36epeiiibCH, p 
-ajicH, -ajiacb,-aji6cb(-aJiocb), 
-ajiHCb (-ajiHCb), imp pas- 
6epHCb, pa36epHTecb: ~-aTb- 
CH B qeM-Ji. understand smth; 
know smth well; imperf 
also examine smth; try to 
understand smth; perf also 

get /gain an insight into smth, 
gain an understanding of 

pasSHTb see pa36MBaTb. 

pasSHTbcsi see pasdnBaTb- 


pasSoHKHK frAzboyn^ik, -g] 
m -a, -OB robber, highway- 

pa366pHMBJbiH [rAzborch^i- 
vty] a sh f ~, -a, -o, -bi 

1. legible {handwriting, etc); 

2. fastidious, dainty, partic- 
ular; discriminating, exact- 

pa36pacbiBlaTb frAzbrasi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
pa36poclaTb [razbrAsat^] perf 
-aio, -aeiiib throw about, scat- 
ter (about), strew. 

pasSyflHTb see 6yAHTb. 

pa3BajiHB|aTb [rAzvaPi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
pa3Baji|HTb [razvAl^it^] perf 
-K>, pasBajiHUJb, p -HJi, imp 
-n 1. pull down, destroy; 
2. fig spoil, mess up {man- 
agement, work, etc). 

pa3BajiHB|aTbC5i [rAzval^i- 
vattsa] imperf 'arccb.-aeuib- 
CH, pa3Baji|HTbCfli [razvAl^i- 
i\s^] perf -KDCb, pa3BajiHmbCH, 
p -HJiCH, -Hjiacb, imp -HCb, 
•Hiecb 1. crumble, dilapidate; 
fall to pieces {also fig); 2. 
col sprawl, lounge {on, in a 
chair) . 

pa3BajiHH|a [rAzval^ina] / 
-bi, pi -bi, ~ 1. pi ruins {of 
a town, etc); 2. col decrepit 

paseajiHTb see pasBajiHsaxb. 

pasBajiMTbCfl see pasBajiH- 



— 882 — 

pasBC [raz'^v^i] part denot- 
ing surprise: «0h npHexaji». 
«Pa3Be?» "He's come". "Real- 
ly?" / "Is that so?"; -^ oh 
npHexa;i? has he come?; ~ 
Bbi He sHaeie? don't you 

pa3BeB|aTbCfl [r9zv^i^va- 
ttj9] imperf -aercH flutter, 
fly {of flags, etc). 

paBBeflJKa [rAz^v^etka] / 
*KH, -OK 1. mil reconnais- 
sance; intelligence; 2. intel- 
ligence service, secret serv- 
ice; 3. geol prospecting. 

pasBeflHHK [rAz^'v^et^ch^'ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob 1. mil scout; 
intelligence officer; 2. secret 
service man, secret agent. 

pasBepHyTb see paaeepTbi- 

paseepHyTbCfl see paasep- 


pa3BepTbiB|aTb [rAz^v^or- 
ttvat''] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
pa3BepH|yTb [raz^v'^i^rnut*'] 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp 
-H 1. unfold (a paper, etc); 
unwrap; unroll, unfurl; 2. 
fig show, display {one's tal- 
ent); 3. fig develop {social- 
ist construction, criticism, 

pa3BepTUB|aTbCH [rAz*"- 
v^orttvattja] imperf -aracb, 
-aembCH, pasBepHJyTbCH 

[raz^v^i^rnuttja] perf -ycb,^ 
-euJbCH, p -yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp 
-HCb, -Hiecb 1, unfold {of smth 
folded); become unwrapped; 
unroll, unfurl; 2. fig 
show oneself, display oneself; 
3. fig spread {of a campaign, 
etc)\ paCoTa pa3BepHy.nacb 

the work is well under way; 
6opb6a pasBepnyjiacb bo- 
Kpyr... the struggle raged 
around...; 4. turn, swing 
around {of a car, etc). 

pa3BecTH see pasBOflHXb. 

paseecTHCb see paseoAHTb- 


pa3BHBlaTb [razv^ivat^] im- 
perf -aK), -aeuib, pa3B|HTb 
[rAz^'v^it''] perf pasoBbib, 
pasoBbeuib, p -HJi, -HJia, -hjio, 
-HJiH, imp -eft develop {the 
body, mind, an idea, indus- 
try, etc); promote {cultural 
intercourse, etc). 

pa3BHQ|aTbCH [razv^iva- 
ttjaj imperf -aiQCh, -aeiiibCH, 
pa3B|HTbc$i [rAz^v^ittja] jDg/-/ 
pa30BbK)Cb, pasoBbeiUbCfl, p 
-HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp -eflcH, 
-eftrecb develop {of a child, 
industry, etc). 

pa3BMTHle [rAzv^it^iya]./i 
-H development {mental, in- 
dustrial, political, etc). 

pa3BHT|6H [razv^itoy] a 
sh f pa3BHT, -a, pasBHTO, pas- 
BHTbi 1. developed {industri- 
ally, mentally, politically, 
etc); 2. intelligent {child, etc); 
well-developed {cultured, 

pa3BMTb see pa3BHBaTb. 

pa3BHTbCfl see pasBHBaibCH. 

pasBjieKJaib [razvl^'i^kaf'J 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pa33jiel4b 
IrAzvl^'ech''] per/ -Ky, -qeuib, 
-Kyr, p pasBJieK, -KJia, imp 
-KH amuse, entertain. 

pa3B;ieK|aTbCfl [razvlM^ka- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 
CH, pa3BjielHbCJi [rAzvl^ech**- 
t^9\ peri -Kycb, -seiubca, 

— 383 — 


-KyTCH, p pa3BJieKCfi, -KJiacb, 
imp -KHCb, -KHiecb have a 
good time, amuse oneself. 

pasBjieneHHle [razvPi^ch^e- 
n'^iya] n -h, -h entertain- 
ment, amusement; relaxation 

pasBjieHb see pasBJieKaTb. 

pasBJieHbCM see pasB/ie- 


pSLSBOji [rAzvot, -d] m -a, 
-OB divorce; ;iaTb KOMy-ji. — 
agree to divorce smb. 

pa3Bo;iiHTb [razvAd^'it^] 
imperf pasBOH^y, pasBOAHUib, 
p -HJi, imp -H, pasBejCTH 
[raz^'v^i^s^t^'i] perf -jxy, 
-Aeuib, p pasBeji, -jia, imp 
-m 1. take, conduct {each to 
his place); 2. pull / bring 
apart; ~HTb moct draw a 
bridge; raise a bridge; 3. di- 
lute {a paint, etc); 4. breed, 
rear {animals, etc); cultivate 
{plants); 5.: -~HTb KOCTep 
make a (camp) fire; ^Hib 
oroHb light a fire; 
<> -~HTb pyKaMH s? make a 
helpless gesture, lift one's 
hands {in dismay or despair). 

pa3Bo;i I HTbc Ji ] razv Ad^ittja ] 
imperf pasBOH^ycb, pasBo- 
AHLLbCH, p -HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp 

-HCb, -HieCb, pa3Be|CTHCb 

[rsz^v^i^s^t^is''] perf -j[ycb, 
-AeuibCH, p pasBejicH, -jiacb, 
imp -AHCb, -jiHiecb 1. di- 
vorce, get a divorce; 2, mul- 
tiply, breed {of animals, etc). 
pa3BpaT frAzvrat, -d] m 
-a depravity, lewdness; de- 
bauchery, dissipation; npe^a- 
BaTbCH --y indulge in lewd- 
ness / debauchery. 

pasBpaTHTbsee pasBpamaxb. 

pa3BpaTH|biH [rAzvratnty] 
a sh f pasBpaieH, -a, -o, -bi 
depraved, dissipated (life, 
etc); lewd, debauched {person, 

pa3Bpaiu,|aTb [razvrA- 

sh^'.at''] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
pa3BpaT|HTb [razvrAt^it''] 
perf pasBpamy, -Huib, p -hji, 
imp -i! corrupt, deprave, de- 

pa3B5i3aTb see pasBHSbisaTb. 

pa3B«3HlbiH [rAz^v^aznty] 
a sh f pasBHseH, -a, -o, -bi 
unduly familiar, pert, too 

pa3Bfl3biB|aTb [rAz^v^azi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
pa3BH3laTb [raz^v^i^zat^j 
perf pa3B5iH<y, pasBHH^emb, 
p -aji, imp pa3BH>KH untie, 
unbind; undo {a knot, etc); 
<> ^axb BOHHy unleash 

pa3ra;iaTb see pasra^bmaTb. 

pa3rajibiB|aTb [rAzgadivat''] 
imperf -aro, -aeiiib, pasra- 
AJaib [razgAdat^] perf -aio, 
-aeuib guess {a riddle, smb's 
thoughts, etc); unriddle, un- 

pa3rap [rAzgar] m -a: 6biTfa 
B ~e be in full swing; be 
well under way; b — ecnopa 
[6HTBbi u m. n.] at the height 
of the argument [battle, etc]. 

pasrjiacHTb see pasrjiamaTb. 

pasrjiamjaTb [razgUshat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pa3rjia- 
c|HTb frazglAs^it^] perf pas- 
pjiauiy, -Huib, p -liJi, imp -ii 
divulge; betray, give away 
(a secret). 


— 384 — 

pa3roBapHB|aTb [razgAva- 
r^ivat''] imperf -aio, -aeuib 
1. talk, speak; 2. col be on 
speaking terms {with smb). 

pasroBop [razQAvor] m -a, 
-OB conversation, talk; aaen- 
sbiBaib ~ enter into (a) con- 
versation; 3aBo;;HTb ~ o 
MCM-Ji. bring smth up {for dis- 
cussion)', no;t;;ep^HBaTb '- 
keep up a conversation; 
<> 6e3 — 'Ob! co/ and no argu- 
ment!; and no talking back! 

pa3roBop|HTbC5i [rdzgavA- 
r^ittja] perf -ibcb, -HiiibCH, p 
-HJicH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, 
-HTecb get / enter into con- 
versation, get talking. 

pasroBOpHHK [rszgAvorn^ik, 
-g] m -a, -ob phrase-book. 

pa3roB6pHHB|biH [razgAvor- 
ch^iviy] a sh f '■^, -a, -o, 
'h\ talkative. 

pa3roHl«Tb [rszgAn^at^] 
imperf -hk), -neuib, pa30- 
rHJarb [razAgnaf*] perf pas- 
roHK), pasroHHuib, p -aji, 
-ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, imp pas- 
roHH 1. disperse, scatter (a 
crowd, etc); dissolve, disband 
(a meeting, etc); 2. speedup, 
race (a horse, etc). 

pasroplaTbCJi [razgArattja] 
imperf -aercH, pasropleib- 
cji [razgAF^ettja] perf -htch, 
p -eJiCH, -ejiacb flame up, 
flare up {also fig). 

pasropsiHHTbcsi see ropH- 


pa3rp6M [rAzgrom] m -a, 
-OB 1. rout, utter defeat {of 
the enemy, etc); 2. havoc, de- 
struction; complete disorder. 

pa3rpy%|aTb [razgruzhat^] 

imperf -afo, -aemb, pasrpy- 
3|HTb [razgruz'^it''] perf pas- 
rpyjKy, pasrpysHuib (-rimb), 
p -HJi, imp -H I. unload, dis- 
charge {cargo; a ship, etc); 
2. fig col relieve {smb of 
part of difficult or extra 

pasAaJBaTb [razdAvat^] 
imperf -ib, -eiiib, p -Baji, imp 
-Baft, pa3fl|aTb [rAzdat**] 
perf -aM, -auib, -acT, -a;tHM, 
-aAHTe, -aAyi, p p63Aaji(-aji), 
-ajia, px33Aajio (-ajio), poa- 
AajiH (-ajiH), imp -aft distri- 
bute {to smb, among smb); 
give out, dispense. 

pasjiaJBaTbCfl [razdAvattja] 
imperf -ercH, p -BajicH, -Ba- 
Jiacb, pasAJaTbCfl [rAzdattja] 
perf -acTCH, -a^yTCH, p -ajicH, 
-ajiacb be heard, resound {of 
a cry, bell, etc); pas^ajica 
CTyK there was a knock (at 
the door). 

pasflaib see pas^aBaxb. 

pa3AaTbCJi see pasAaBarbCH. 

paaABHrjajb [razdv**!- 

gat^] imperf -2iK)', -aeiub, 
pa3ABHH|yTb [rAzdv^inut^J 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp 
-b move apart; draw apart. 

pa3AeB|aTb [raz^d^'i^vat^J 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pa3Ae|Tb 
[rAz^d^'et^] perf -ny, -Heuib, 
p -Ji, imp -Hb undress, strip 

pasACBlaTbcii [raz^d^'i^va- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, 
pa3Ae|TbCfl [rAz'^d^'ettsa] perf 
-Hycb, -HeuibCH, p -jicH, -Jiacb, 
imp -HbCH, -Hbxecb undress, 
strip, take off one's clothes; 
take off one's coat and hat; 

— 385 


— aibCH Ao noHca strip to 
the waist; ~aTbCH jiorojia 
take off all of one's clothes, 

pasAeJi [rAz^d^el] m -a, 
-OB 1. partition, division {of 
property, eic); 2. section {of 
a book, etc). 

pasACJiHTb see pasAejiflxb & 

pasAejiMTbCfl see AejiHXbCH 1 . 

pasAejij^iTb [raz^d^i^l^at^] 
imperf -^k), -nemb, pasAC- 
jiJHTb [raz^d^i^Pit''] perf -yo, 
pasAejiHUib, p -HJi, imp -h 
1. separate, keep apart; 2. 
share {smb's opinion, etc). 

pa3AeTfa see paaAeearb. 

pasACTbCfl see pasAeeaTbCH. 

pa3Apa}K|aTb [razdrAzhat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pasApa- 
>K|MTb [razdrAzhft^] perf -y, 
-Hiiib, p -HJI 1. irritate, an- 
noy, vex, exasperate; get on 
{smb's) nerves; 2. irritate (//le 
skin, etc). 

pa3Apa2KeHH|e [razdrAzhe- 
n'^iya] n -h irritation. 

pa3ApaH(HTejibH|biH [razdrA- 
zhtt^il^niy] a sh f pasApa- 
>KHTejieH, -a, -o, -w irritable, 

pa3Apa}KHTb see pasApa- 


pasApoSHTb see Apo6HTb. 

pa3AyBlaTb [razduvat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, pasAlyxb 
[rAzdut^] perf -yio, -yeiub 
1. blow, fan {a fire, etc); 2. 
impers col', y Hero pasAyJio 
meny [jihuo u m. n.] his 
check [face, etc] is swollen; 3. 
fig col exaggerate {the news, 
etc); fan {war hysteria, eic). 

pa3AyMlaTb [rAzdumat^] 
perf -aK), -aeiub change one's 
mind; think better of (doing 

pa3AyMbiBlaTb [rAzdumi- 
vat^] imperf -aK), -aeiub med- 
itate, ponder, muse, rumi- 
nate; deliberate, consider; He 
—an without hesitation. 

pasAyxb see pasAyBaxb. 

pa3iKeHb see pasjKHraxb, 

pa3iKHr[aTb [razh:igat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pas^enb 
[rAzh:ech^] perf pasb- 
x^ry, pa3o>K}Keiiib, pasojKryx, 
p pasjKer, pasojKrjia, imp 
pasojKFH 1. kindle {a fire); 
2. fig rouse, kindle, stir up. 

pa3jiar|aTb [razlAgat^] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, pa3jio- 
JKJHXb [razlAzhit^] perf -y, 
pa3Ji6}KHmb, p -HJI, imp -h 

pasjiHB [rAzPif, -v] m -a, 
-OB flood, overflow {of a riv- 

pasjiHslaxb [raz^l^ivat^] 
impe'-f -aio, -aemb, pa3Ji|HTb 
[rAz^l^it^] perf pasojibib, pa- 
30Jibemb, p -HJI, -HAa, -hao, 
-HJiH, imp -eS 1. spill (a 
liquid); 2. pour out {tea, etc); 
ladle out {soup, etc); 
O BOAOH He pasojibeiub col 
^ (as) thick as thieves. 

pa3JiHHJaxb [raz^l^ich^at''] 
imperf -aio, -aemb, pa3JiH- 
H|MXb [raz^l^ich^'it^] pe/-/ -y, 
-Hmb, p -HA, imp -H 1. dis- 
tinguish, tell {smth from 
smth); 2, make out, discern. 

pa3jiH4H|e [rAz^'l^ich^'iya] 
n -fl, -H difference {between); 
distinction {between); --e sg 


— 386 

harjiijiax difference of opin- 

pa3JiMMMTb see paajiHqarb. 

pa3„iH4HibiH [rAz^'l^ich^niy] 
a sh f pasjiH^eH, -a, -o, -bi 

1. different [not the same); 

2. different, various. 
pa3jio>KeHH|e [rszlAziie- 

n'^iya] n -h 1. decomposition, 
disintegration, decay, rot; 2. 
decay, corruption; MopajibHoe 
'-e demoralization, moral 

pasjiOMtMTb see paCKJiaAU- 
BaTb & pasjiaraib. 

pasjiyKJa [rAzlukal / -h 
1. separation, being apart; 
mHTb B ~e c KeM Ji. live apart 
from smb; 2. parting (the ac- 
tion of). 

pa3JiK)6;HTb [raz^l^ub'^it''] 
perf -jiib, pasjiibSHUJb, p -iiJi, 
imp -H stop loving; love no 
longer, fall out of love, stop 
liking; like no longer. 

pasMax [rAzmakh, -gh] m 
-a (-y), -OB 1. swing, sweep; 
yAapHTb c ~y strike v/ith a 
swing; co ocero ~y with 
all one's might; 2.: ~ Kpb'i- 
jibee wing-span; 3. fig scope, 

pa3MaxHB|aTb [rAzmakh^i- 
vat''] imperf -aio. -aemb swing 
{arms, etc); brandish. 

pa3MeHM3!aTb [rAzm*'en''i- 


I m per I 

-aio, -aemb, 

pa3MeH|nTb |r9zm''i^n''at''] 
perf -flKD, -Hcujb change (mon- 

pa3Mftp IrAzm'^er] m a, pi 
-bi, -OB 1. dimensions; size 
(/) of a room; etc'i 2) of shoes, 
etc); 2. degree, extent, pi 

also proportions; b 6ojibmHX 
[b liiHpoKHX] ~ax on a large 

pasrviecTHTb see pasMcmaib. 

pa3MecTHTbc« see pasMe- 

pasMemaxb see pasMeujH- 

pasMciuHBlaTb IrAzm'^eshi- 
vat^] imperf -ara, -aemb, 
pa3Mem!aTb [razm^i^shat''] 
perf -aio, -aemb stir (sugar, 
tea, etc). 

pa3Mem,laTb [razm^i®- 

sh'':at''] imperf -aio, -aemb, 
pasMCcxlHTb [r9zm''i^s''t^it*'] 
perf pa3Mem,y, -Hmb, p -hji, 
imp -6 1. accommodate, 
place, locate, put; quarter, 
billet; ?. place, distribute 
{orders, etc); invest (capital). 

pasMemjaxbca [razm^i®- 
sh'^iattja] imperf -aiocb, 
•aembCH, pa3MecT|HTbc« [raz- 
m^i^s^t^iiisd] perf paswemycb, 
•limbCH, p -HJicH, -HJiacb, 
imp -ikb, »HTecb find and 
take seats: find room; find 

pa3MK0)K|aTbcji IrazmnA- 
zhatts3l imperf -aeiCH propa- 
gate, reproduce, breed; mul- 

pasMHOKeHHJe (razmuAzhe- 




pasMbimjieKHJe [razmish- 
l^en'^iya) n ^a, -u reflection, 
meditation, musing, rumina- 
tion; iiaBOAHTb Ha ~Ji make 
(smb) think / wonder. 

pa3MbiiiJJii«Tb [razmisli- 
l^'at^] imperf -hk), -aeurb 
reflect, meditate, ponder, 



muse, ruminate; deliberate, 

pasMMTb see mhtb 1. 

pasHecTH see pasHocHXb. 

pa3HHi;|a [raz^n^itsa] / -bi 
difference (between); ~a b 
OAHH Meip a difference of one 
metre; ~a b tom, hto... the 
difference is that...; 
<> KaKaji —a? col it makes 
no difference!; what's the 

pasHO... first element of 
compounds denoting 'differ- 
ent', 'various': pasHOueex- 
HbiH [raznAtjv^etniy] multi- 
coloured; pasHoro^iocbiH [raz- 
nagAlosiy] discordant, disso- 
nant; pa3Ho66fl [raznAboy] 
lack of co-ordination. 

pa3HOBH.iH0CT|b [raznA- 
v^idnas^t^, -z^d^] / -h, -eft 
variety, species. 

pa3HorjiacM|e [raznAgla- 
s^iya] n -h, -h difference, 
discord, disagreement; ~e bo 
BSfJiHAax difference of opin« 
ion; ycTpaHHTb --h settle 

pa3Hoo6pa3H^biH [raznAAb- 
razniy] a sh f pa3Hoo6pa- 
sen, -a, -o, -u various, dif- 
ferent, diverse. 

pa3Hop6AH|biH [raznArod- 
niy] a sh f pasHopo^eH, -a, 
-o, -bi heterogeneous. 

pa3HoclHTb [raznAs^it^] 
imfierf pasHouiYf pasHocHiub, 
p HJi, imp -H, pa3Hec|TH 
[raz^'n^i^s'^t^ij perf -y, -eiub, 
p pasHec, -Jia, imp -li 1. deliv- 
er (letters, etc); 2. fig col 
spread (news, etc); 3. col 
smash (to piecisy, 4, //^co/ 

attack, criticize severely (a 
book, etc). 

pasHocTOpOHHlHH [razna- 
stAron^'n^'iy} a shf pasHocxo- 
poHeH, -H, -e, -H many-sided, 
versatile; all-round (educa- 
tion, etc). 

pasHbiH [razniy] a 1. dif- 
ferent (not the same), 2. dif- 
ferent, various. 

pa3o... see pas... 

pasoSjiaHJaTb [razablA- 

ch^at''] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
pa3o6jiaH|HTb [razablAch^it^J 
perf -y, -HUJb, p -iijijmp -h 
expose, unmask. 

pa3o6paTb see p.a36Hpaxb. 

pasoSparbCfl see pa36Hpaxb- 


pasorHaxb see pasroHHXb. 

pa3orpeBiaxb [razagr^i®- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
pasorpjeTb [razAgr^et^] perf 
-CK), -eemb warm up (food, 

pa303jiHXb see sjiHXb. 

pa303JlHTbC51 see SJlHXbCH. 

pa30HXHCb see pacxo^HXb- 


pa30pBaxb see paapuBaxb. 
pa3opBaxBCfl see pa3pbi- 


pasopHxb see paaopnxb. 

pa3opHxbCH see pasopnxbCH. 

pa30py>K|axb [razaruzhat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, pa3opy- 
MJHxb [razaruzhlt^] perf -y, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -H disarm 
(soldiers, etc). 

pa3opy»eHHle [razaruzhc- 
n'^iya] n -h disarmament, h nojiHoe ~e gen- 
eral and complete disarma- 


— 388 

see pa3opy- 


pasoplflTb [razAr^at^] im- 
perf -HK), -Heiub, paaopJMTb 
[rdZAr^it^] perf -ib, -Hiub, p 
-HJi, imp -H 1. destroy (a vil- 
lage, etc); ravage, pillage; 
2. ruin {make bankrupt). 

pa30p|«TbCfl [razAr^attsa] 
imperf -Hiocb, -neiubCH, pa- 
sop JHTbCji [razAr^'ittsa] perf 

-ibCb, -HLUbCH, p -HJICH, -H- 

Jiacb, imp -HCb, -Hiecb ruin 
oneself, go bankrupt. 

pasocjiaxb see paccbiJiaxb. 

pasoTpH [razAtr^i] imp of 
pacxepexb; see pacTHpaxK. 

pasoTpy [razAtruJ, paao- 
Tpeuib [razAtr^osh, -zh] 1st 
& 2nd persons of pacxepexb; 
see pacxHpaxb. 

pasoHapoBdHHJe [razach^'a- 
FAvan^iya] n -h, -h disap- 
pointment (the state or act 

pasoHapoeaHHlbiH [raza- 
ch^'i^rovanniy] a [pa] sh f 
pasoMapoBaH, -a, -o, -bi 
disappointed, disillusioned. 

pasoHapoBaxbCfl see paao- 

pa304ap6BbiB|axbCJi [raza- 
chM^rovivattjaj imperf -aiocb, 
-aeuibCH, pa30Hap|oBaxbcji 
[razach^irAvattja] perf -yiocb, 
-yembCH, p -OBajiCH, -0Ba;iacb, 
imp -yficH, -yfixecb get disap- 
pointed; be disappointed. 

paspawjaxbcn [razrAzhattja] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeiiibCH, pa3- 
pasJHxbCfl [razrAz^ittja] perf 
paspajKycb, -HiubCH, p -h;ich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 1. 
break out, burst out {of a 

storm, war, etc); 2„ burst 
{into tears, etc); burst out 
{laughing, etc). 

pa3pe3 [rAzr^es, -z] m -a, 
-OB 1. cut, slit; 2.: nonepe4- 
HbiH ~ cross section; npo- 
flojibHbiH -— longitudinal sec- 

paspesaxb see paspesaxb. 

paspesjaxb [razr^'i^zat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeujb, paspe- 
3|axb [rAzr^ezat^] perf pas- 
pejKy, paspeJKemb, p -aji, 
imp pa3pe>Kb cut {divide 
with a knife, etc); slit. 

paspemjaxb [razr^'i^shat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, paspe- 
uilMxb [razr'^i^shit^] perf -y, 
-HUJb, p -HJI, imp -H 1. al- 
low, permit, let; 2. solve (a 
problem, etc); settle {a ques- 
tion, etc); 3. {no imperf): 
~H(xe) allow me [us]..., may 
I [we]..? 

pa3pem|axbCfl [razr^'i^sha- 
ttja] imperf -aexcH, paspe- 
uijiixbCfl [razr^'i^shlttja] perf 
-HXCH, p -HJICH, -HJiacb 1. be 
solved {of a problem, etc); 
be settled {of a question, 
etc); 2. (no perf) be allow- 
ed {of smoking, etc). 

paspeiueHHle [razr^i^she- 

n^iya] n -h, -h 


sion, permit; 2. solution {of 
a problem, etc); settlement 
(of a question, etc). 

paspeiuHxb see paspemSxb. 

paspeuiMxbCfl see paspe- 
luaxbCH 1. 

pasposHeHHbiH [rAzroz*'- 
n^'mnty] a [pa] 1. separate, 
unco-ordinated; 2. odd {vol' 

— 389 — 


paspyxja [rAzrukha] / -h 
(economic) disorganization; 

paspymjaTb [razrushat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, paspy- 
ui|HTb [FAzrushU^] perf -y, 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -b 1. de- 
stroy, demolish, ruin; —axb 
AO ocHOBaHHH raze to tlie 
ground; 2. fig destroy, frus- 
trate, ruin. 

paspbiBJaxb [rszrtvat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, pasopelaTb 
[razArvat^] perf -y, -euib, p 
-aji, -ajia, -ajio, -ajiH, imp 
-H 1. tear (up) (pull apart); 
2. fig break (with); paao- 
psaTb AHnjioMaxH^ecKHeoTHO- 
lueHHH break off diplomatic 

paspbiBJaTbCJi [razrivattja] 
imperf -aexcn, paaopBlaxbCJi 
[razArvattsa] perf -excji, p 
-ajicji,-ajiacb, -aji6cb(-ajiocb), 
-ajiiicb (-ajiHCb) 1. tear, be- 
come torn; break, burst (of a 
rope, etc); 2. burst, explode; 
<> y Hero fly ma / cepAi^e 
~aexcfl his heart is breaking. 

paspflfl [rAzr^at, -d] m -a, 
-OB 1. category, rank; kind, 
sort; 2. class, grade, rating. 

paayM [razum] m -a 1. rea- 
son (the power to think); 
2. reason, common sense; 
mind, intellect, intelligence. 

p'aayMHlbiH [rAzumnfy] a 
sh f paayMeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. 
clever, intelligent; 2. reason- 
able, rational, sane, wise. 

pa3yHHB|axb [rAzuch^ivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiiib, pasynliixb 
[razuch^it^] perf -y, p^ay- 
HHiiib, p -HJI, imp -H iearn I 

(a song, etc); study (a role, 

pas-b... see pas... 

pas-bCAHHHXb see paateAH- 


paBTieflHHlHxb [raz^yid^i- 
n^at^] imperf -mo, -neiiib, 
pasiieAHHlHxb [raz^yid**i- 

n^it''] perf -ib, -Huib, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. disconnect, break; 
cut off (wires, etc); 2. sepa- 
rate, part (smb). 

pas-besA [rAz^yest, -zdj m 
-a, -OB 1. departure (of gue^t&y 
etc); 2.: 6bixb hocxohkho b 
—ax be always on the move, 
be always travelling about; 
3. rly double-track station 
(on a single-track railway). 

pas-besxlaxb [raz^yi^- 

zh^:at^] imperf -aio, -aeuib 
drive around / about, ride 
around /about; travel around / 

pas'besKldxbCfl [raz^yi^- 
zh'^-.attsa] imperf -aeMCH, -ae- 
xecb, -aioxcH, pa3i>ex|axbcsi 
[rAz^yekhatt^a] perf pasii- 
e^eMCH, pasTsCAexecb, paa-b- 
CAyTCH, p -ajiCH, -ajiacb, 
-ajiHCb 1. depart (of guests, 
etc); 2. pass one another (of 
vehicles in a narrow street); 
3. col run / slide apart (of/ 
skis, etc). 

pa3i>flCHeHH|e [raz^yi^s^- 
n^en^'iya] n -h, -h explana- 
tion, elucidation. 

paaiijicHHxb see paatHC- 


pas-bHCHlflxb [raz^yi^s*- 
n^at^] imperf -hk), -neuib, 
pa33>flCH|iixb [raz^yi^s*'n''it^] 
perf -K), -HUib, p -HJI, imp 


— 390 — 

-Ji explain, elucidate (smth 
to smh). 

pasbirpaib see pasbirpbi- 

pasbirpbiBlaTb [rAzlgrtvat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeiub, pasbi- 
rp|aTb [raztgrat^] perf aio, 
-aeiub 1. draw {decide by 
chance)', raffle; 2, col kid 
{for amusement)', play a prac- 
tical joke on. 

pasbicKarb see pasbiCKH- 

pa3bicKHB|aTb [rAzls^k^i- 
V9t^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
pa3biCK|aTb [raziskat^] perf 
pasbimy, pasbimeiiib, p -aji, 
imp pasbiLUH look for, search 
for; perf also find. 

pan [ray] m pan paradise. 

paHKOM [rAykom] m -a, 

-OB ( = paH6HHbIH KOMHTei) 

district committee, district 
committee of the Communist 

paJfOH [rAyon] m -a, -ob 
1. area, region; b '-e K^iHHa 
in the vicinity of Klin, in 
the Klin area; 2. (adminis- 
trative) district. 

pafioHHbiH [rAydnniy] a 
district {attr)\ area {attr). 

paK I [rak, -g] m -a, -ob 
zool crayfish, crawfish. 

paK II [rak, -g] m -a med 

paKCTJa [rAk^eta] / -bi, — 
rocket; xnissWo^ {guided); -~-a- 
-HocHTCJib carrier-rocket; aa- 
nycTHTb ~y launch a rock- 

paxerlKa [rAk^'etka] / -kh, 
-OK sport racket. 

paKOBHHJa [rakav^'ina] / -bi^ 

~ 1. shell (o/ invertebrates); 
2. sink {under a tap). 

paw I a [rama] / -bi, ^ frame 
{of a picture, etc). 

paM|Ka [ramka] / -kh, pi 
-KH, -OK 1. small frame, 
frame {of a picture, etc); 2. pi 
fig limits, bounds; BbixoAHTb 
3a --KH exceed the limits 
{of); jtepjKaibCH b — Kax keep 
within the limits / bounds 
{of); B ~Kax saKOHa within 
the law. 

pan la [rana] / -bi, — wound. 

paHCHbifi [ran^miy] I a 
wounded, injured; 
n as a noun paHeH|biHm 
-oro, -bix wounded man, cas- 

paHJHTb [ran^it''] perf & 
imperf -lo, -Hmb, p -hji, imp 
-b wound, injure. 

paHH|HH [ran^n^iy] a early 
(/) morning, etc; 2) spring, 
etc; 3) fruit, etc). 

pano [rana] I adv early; 
II impers predic it is early; 
cnaTb eme — it is too early 
to go to bed; 

<0> ~ HJiH nosAHO sooner or 

paHbUje [ran^sht^] I comp 
of pano; 

II adv 1, beiove {earlier); oh 
ymeji ~ nac he had left 
before us; — - BpeMCHH earlier 
than necessary; ahead of time; 
2. formerly, in the past, pre- 

pac... see pas... 

pdcja [rasa] / -bi, — race 
{a distinct ethnical stock). 

pacKaHB|aTbcsi [rAskaiva- 
ttja] imperf -awcb, -aeuibCH, 

391 — 


pacKa|flTbCJi [rAskayattsa] 
perf -K)Cfa, -euibCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb, imp -HCH, -Hiecb 
repent, feel remorse; regret, 

pacKajieHHbiH [rsskAPon- 
niy] I pa: -- AOKpacHa 
II a scorching, burning hot. 

pacKasiTbCfl see pacKaH- 


pacKJiaAbiBJaTb [rAskladi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
pa3jioiK|HTb [razlAzhft^] perf 
-y, pasjio^Hiub, p -HJi, imp 
-H L put {things in a num- 
ber of places); distribute 
{things among a number of 
places); —axb eemn no Mec- 
TaM put things in their prop- 
er places; 2. lay out, spread 
{paper, etc); 3. make, build 
{a fire). 

pacKjiaHHBlaTbcn [rAskla- 
n^iv9ttj9] imperf -aiocb, 
-aeuibCH, pacKjiaH|«TbCfl 

[rAsklan^attja] perf -Hiocb, 
-HeuibCH exchange greetings 
{with smb); make one's bow; 
lift one's hat {to smb). 

pacKOjiOTb see KOJioib II. 

pacK6n{KH [rAskopk'^i] pi 
-OK excavations {in archeol- 

pacKpacHTb see pacKpa- 


pacKpauiMB|aTb [rAskrashl- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiiib, 
pacKpac|MTb [rAskras^it^] 
perf pacKpamy, -Hiub, p -hji, 
imp -b colour, paint. 

pacKpbiBJaTb [raskrivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pacKpjbiTb 
[rAskrtt^] perf -oio, -oeuib, 

p -biJi, imp -OH 1. open (a 
window, book, etc); 2. re- 
veal, discover, disclose. 

pacoBbiH [rasaviy] a racial. 

pacnafl|aTbC5i [raspAdattjaJ 
imperf -aeicH, pacna|cTbcsi 
[rAspastsa] perf -aeicH, p 
-jicH, -Jiacb t. disintegrate; 
chem dissociate; 2, fig break 
up, come to an end. 

pacnaxMBJaxb [rAspakh^i- 
vat^] imperf -aK), -aeuib, 
pacnaxH|yTb [raspAkhnut''] 
perf -y, -emb, p -yji, imp 
-H throw open, fling open; 
open wide. 

pacneHaxaxb see pacne^a- 

pacneHaxbiBJaxb [rasp^i^- 
ch^attvat^] imperf -aio, 
-aeuib, pacneMaxjaxb [ras- 
p^i^ch^atat^] perf -aio, -aeiub 
unseal; open {a letter, etc). 

pacnHcaHH'ie [rasp^isa- 

n^iya] n -h, -h time-table, 
schedule; no — lo according 
to the time-table. 

pacnMcaxbcsi see pacnHCbi- 


pacnHCJKa [rAsp^iska] / -k-h, 
-OK receipt {a document); 
CAaxb KOMy-Ji. ^xo-Ji. noji, 
~Ky make / have smb sign for 

pacnHCbiBlaxbCsi [rAsp^'ist- 
vattsa] imperf -arocb, -aemb- 
CH, pacnHCJaxbCfl [rasp^'i- 
sattsa] perf pacnHuiycb, pac- 
nHiueiiibCH, p -ajiCH, -ajiacb, 
imp pacnwrnHCb, pacnHuiH- 
xecb 1. sign (one's name); 
—axbCH B noJiyqeHHH qero-Ji. 
sign for smth; 2. col regis- 
ter one's marriage. 


— 392 — 

pacnjiaTJa [rAsplatg] / -bi 
1. payment {the act of); 2. 
fig atonement (for a wrong). 

pacnjiaxHTbCM see pacnjia- 


pacnjiaHMBlaxbCM [rAspla- 
ch^'ivattja] imperf -aiocb, 
-aeuibCH, pacnjiaT|HTbCJi 

[rasplAf'ittja] perf pacnjia- 
qycb, pacnJiaTHLUbcH, p -hji- 
CH, -HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 
1. pay off, pay back; pay 
the bill; settle accounts; 
'-aTbCH no cqexy pay (up) 
a bill; — axbcn c ^oJiraMH 
pay off one's debts; 2. fig 
col pay (smb) out; get even 
(with smb); be quits (with 
smb); 3. fig pay {for one's 
fault, etc). 

pacnjibiBMax|biH [rAspHf- 
ch^atiy] a sh f ^ , -a, -o, -bi 
diffuse {style, etc); dim, 
vague (idea, etc). 

pacnojiarjaxb I [raspaU- 
gat**] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
pacnojiOKJMXb [raspaUzhit^] 
perf -y, pacnoji6>KHmb, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. dispose, arrange, 
place, put; napK pacnoJi6>KeH 
B ueHXpe ropoAa the park is 
situated in the centre of the 
city; 2.: pacnojiojKHXb kofo-ji. 
B CBOK> nojibsy win smb's 
favour; win smb over; ~axb 
Koro-Ji. K ce6e gain / win 
smb's favour. 

^ pacnojiarjaxb II [raspaU- 
gat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub 
have smth at one's disposal, 
have smth available, have 
smth to spare. 

pacno;iar|axbC5i [raspaU- 
gat^a] imper[ -aiocb, -aeuib- 

C5I, pacnojio%|Hxbcsi [raspa- 
lAzhtttja] perf -ycb, pacno- 

Jl6>KHmbCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, 

imp -HCb, -Hxecb settle (down), 
make oneself comfortable 

pacnojioKeHHle [raspalA- 
zhen^iya] n -h, -h 1. arrange- 
ment, disposition; 2. situ- 
ation, location, position; 3. 
favour, inclination; nojibso- 
eaxbCH qbHM-Ji. -^eM enjoy 
smb's favour, be liked by 

pacnoji9}KHXb see pacnojia- 
raxb I. 

pacnojiOKHXbcn see pacno- 

pacnopjiflHxbcji see pacno- 
pH>KaxbCH 1, 3. 

pacnopfl>KlaxbCfl [raspo- 
r^i^'zhattsa] imperf -aiocb, 
-aembCH, pacnopJiAlHXbCfl 
[raspar'^i^d^ittja] perf pacno- 


-HJiacb, imp -HCb, -Hxecb 1. 
order, give orders (that 
smth be done); perf also 
have {smth done); 2. {no 
per/) give orders, give instruc- 
tions, be in charge, boss; 3.: 
•—axbCH MCM-Ji. use smth 
{in some way, said of money, 
property, etc). 

pacnopfl}KeHHle [raspar^i^- 
zhen'^iya] n -h, -ft instruc- 
tion, order; oxAaxb — -e give 
instructions / orders; flo oco- 
6oro ~H until further notice; 
<> B HbCM-ji. ~H at smb's 
disposal; Hiviexb b CBoeM 
— 'H have at one's disposni. 

pacnpaBJa [rAsprava] / -bi 
massacre, slaughter; use of 

393 — 


violence (against smb); re- 
pacnpaBHTb see pacnpaB- 


pacnpaBJi|flTb [rasprAv- 
Pat**] imperf -A\o, -fleuib, 
pacnpaB|HTb trAsprav^it^] 
perf -JiK), -Huib, p -HJi, imp -b 
straighten (out), smooth oiit; 
•<> --flTb Kpujibfl spread 
one's wings. 

pacnpeiiejiHTb see pacnpe- 

pacnpefleji|flTb [rsspr^id^i^- 
l^at^] imperf -hk), -Heiub, 
pacnpeflejiJHTb [raspr^id^i^- 
l^it^J perf -K), -Huib, p -HJi, 
imp -H distribute, allot; 
—HTb CBoe epeMH ' regulate 
one's time. 

pacnpocTpaHeHHie [rsspra- 
strAn^en^'iya] n -h spreading, 
diffusion; propagation, dis- 

pacnpocTpaHeHHbiH [rospra- 
strAn^onniy] a {pa\ wide- 
spread, common. 

pacnpocTpauHTb see pac- 

pacnpocTpaHHTbCfl >ee pac- 


pacnpocTpaH|flTb [raspra- 
strAn^at^] imperf -hio, -neuib, 
pacnpocTpaH|HTb [rasprastrA- 
n^it^] perf -ib, -HUib, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. spread [news, 
knowledge, influence, ru- 
mours, disease, etc); dissemi- 
nate, propagate; popularize 
(advanced methods of work, 
etc); 2. give out (a smell, etc); 
3. circulate (a document, etc); 
distribute (books, etc). 

pacnpocTpaH|flTbCfl [ras- 

prastrAn^attja] imperf -hct- 
CH, pacnpocTpaHJiiTbCH [ras- 
prastrAn^ittja] perf -htch, 
p -HJicH, -HJiacb 1. spread (of 
news, a disease, rumour, etc); 
2.: ero ejiacxb He ^nexcH na 
3T0 this is not within his 
authority / power / commis- 
sion; saKOH He —flexcH na 
3TH cjiy^aH the law does not 
apply to these cases; the law 
does not affect these cases, 

pacnycK|aTb [raspuskaf*] 
imperf -aro, -aeiiib, pacny- 
CT|HTb [raspus^t^it^] perf 
pacnymy, pacnycTHuib, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. dismiss, break up 
(a meeting, etc); disband (an 
organization, etc); 2. col 
slacken the discipline of; 
spoil (a child); 3. col set 
afloat (a rumour). 

pacnycK|aTbCfl [raspuska- 
ttja] imperf -aiocb, -aenibCH, 
pacnycT|HTbCJi [raspus^t^i- 
ttja] perf pacnymycb, pac- 

nyCTHUIbCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, 

imp -HCb, -Hiecb 1. blossom 
out, open; come out, break 
into leaf; 2. col become un- 
disciplined / unruly. 

pacnycTHTb seepacnycKaxb. 

pacnycTHTbCH see pacny- 


pacnyiaxb see pacnyxH- 

pacnyTHi;|a [rAsput^itsa] 
/ -bi bad roads, impassablli- 
ty of roads (because of slush); 
the season of bad roads. 

pacnyxbiBJaxb [rAsputivat''] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pacny- 
x|axb [rAsputat^[ perf -aio, 
-aeiub 1. untangle, disentan- 



gle, untwine; 2. fig puzzle 
out, untangle, unravel. 

pacnyiueHH|biH [rAspu- 

sh'':inty] a [pa] sh f pac- 
nymeH, -a, -o, -bi 1. undis- 
ciplined; spoilt {child); 2. 
dissolute, loose, immoral. 

paccBCT [rAs^'s^v^et, -d] 
m -a, -OB dawn, daybreak. 

pacceHB|aTb [rAs^'s^eivat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pacc^jsiTb 
[rAs^s^'eyat^J perf -yo, -euib, 
p -HJi, imp -H disperse, scat- 
ter; dispel, dissipate {also 


pacceHB|aTbc$i [rAs^s^ei- 
vattja] imperf -aiocb, -aeiub- 
CH, pacce|HTbcsi [rAs^s^eya- 
tts9] perf -locb, -eiubCH, p 
-HJiCH, -HJiacb, imp -hch, 
-Hiecfa 1. disperse, scatter; 
dissipate {also fig)\ 2. fig 
divert/ amuse oneself. 

paccepA|HTbC5i Iras^s^i^rdi- 
ttja] perf paccep>Kycb, pac- 

CepAHIIIbCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, 

imp -HCb, -Hiecb get / become 

pacceflHH|biH [rAs^s'^eya- 
niy] a [pa] 1. scattered 
{here and there); diffused 
(light, etc); 2. {sh f pacceHH, 
-a, -o, -bi) absent-minded; 
— biH BsrjiHA vacant glance. 

pacceflTb see pacceHBaxb. 

paccesiTbCfl see paccenBaxb- 


paccKas [rAskas, -z] m -a, 
-OB 1. account, narrative; 2. 
story, narrative. 

paccKasarb see paccKasbi- 

paccKasbialaib ["Askazt- 
vat^J imperf -aw, -aeujb, 

paccKalaaxb [raskAzat^] perf 
-jKy, paccKa^euib, p -aaji, 
imp -HCH tell, narrate, relate, 
give an account of; 
<> ~aH KOMy-ji. (ApyroMy) 
col = tell it to the marines. 

paccjieAOBaHH|e [rAs^s^l^e- 
davan^iya] n -h, -h investi- 
gation, inquiry {into); na- 
3HaqHTb --e order an investi- 
gation / inquiry {into). 

paccjieAJOBaTb [rAs^s^'Pe- 
davat^] perf & imperf -yio, 
-yeiiib, p -OBaji, imp -yft 
investigate, inquire into. 

paccMaTpHB|aTb [rAssmat- 
r^ivat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
paccMOTplexb [rassmAtr^et''] 
perf -K), paccMOTpHuib, p 
-eji, imp -H 1. examine, scru- 
tinize; 2. consider (a matter, 
etc); 3. {no perf) consider, 
regard {as); 4. {no imperf) 
discern, see clearly, make 

paccnpauiMBJaTb [rAsspra- 
shivaf*] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
paccnpoc|MTb [rassprAs^it^] 
perf paccnpomy, paccnpo- 
cHuib, p -HJi, imp -H ques- 
tion, ask questions of; ask 
questions {about), make in- 
quiries {about). 

paccpoHJKa [rAssroch^ka] 
/ -KH, -ck: npcAocxaBHTb 
^-Ky Ha roA grant a year 
for installments; 
<> B ~Ky by installments; 
on an installment plan. 

paccTa|BaTbC5i [rastAva- 
ttja] imperf -ibcb, -embCH, p 
-BajicH, -Bajiacb, imp -Baftca^ 
-BaHTecb, paccTJaTbCJi [tas- 
tattjaj perf -anycb, -aHeiUb- 

-- 395 


CH, p -ajiCH, -ajiacb, imp -aHb- 
CH, -aHbxecb 1. part {with 
stub); leave (one's country, 
etc); 2. fig give up (an idea, 
paccraBHTb see, pacciaB- 


paccxaBjilflTb [rasstAv- 

l^at^] imperf -hk), -neuib, 
paccTaBJHTb [rAsstav^it^] 
perf -JIK), -Hiiib, p -HJi, imp 
-h 1. arrange, place (in a 
certain manner)', — nxb cexH 
set / spread nets; 2. place 
apart, move apart (one's 
legs, etc). 

paccTaxbcfl see paccxaeaxb- 


paccxerHB|axb [rAs**t^6g^i- 
vat^l imperf -aro, -aeuib, 
paccxerHJyxb [ras^'t^i^gnut^] 
perf -y, -euib, p -yji, imp -h 
undo, unfasten (a ^oat, etc); 
unbutton; unhook; unclasp; 
unbuckle; unzip. 

paccxerHBJaxbCJi [rAs^t^o- 
g^'ivattja] imperf -aiocb, 
-aeiubCH, paccxerHlyxbCfl 

[ras^f'i^gnuttja] perf -ycb, 
-euibCH, p -yjiCH, -yjiacb, imp 
-HCb, -Hxecb 1. get undone/ 
unfastened (of a coat, etc); 
get unbuttoned; get unhooked; 
get unclasped} get unbuckled; 
2. undo / unfasten / unbut- 
ton / unhook one's coat [shirt, 

paccxernyxb see paccxern- 

paccierHyTbCfl see paccxe- 


paccxoflHHle [rastAyan^iya] 
/I -H, -H distance (also fig)- 
space, room (between); Ha 

oAHHaKOBOM — H at the same 
distance; at regular intervals. 

paccxpaHBJaxb [rAstraivat**] 
imperf -am, -aeiiib, paccxp6|- 
Hxb [rAstroit^] perf -lo, 
-Huib, p -HJI, imp -H 1. put 
into disorder, disturb, throw 
into confusion; — axb pnAii 
break the ranks; 2. shatter 
(nerves, etc); disorder (one's 
health); paccxpoHXb Mcejiy^oK 
cause indigestion; 3. upset, 
frustrate, disturb (smb's 
plans, etc); 4. upset, put out 

paccxpaHBJaxbCH [rAstrai- 
vattja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 
CH, paccxpolHXbCJi [rAstroi- 
ttja] perf -locb, -HUJbCH, p -hji- 
CH, -H,nacb, imp -hch, -flxecb 
1. fall to the ground, be up- 
set (of plans, etc); 2. get up- 
set; be upset; 3. get out of 
tune (of an instrument). 

paccxpeji [rAstr^'elj m -a 1. 
shooting (down) (of a demon- 
stration, etc); 2. execution 
(by shooting). 

paccxpejiMBJarb [rAstr^ePi- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, pac- 
cxpeji'jHXb [rastr^'i^l^at^] per^ 
-HK), -Heuib 1. shoot (down) 
(a murderer, etc); 2. use 
(up) (cartridges). 

paccxpoHTb see paccxpa- 

paccxpOHxbCfl see paccxpa- 


paccxpOHCTB 1 o [ rAstroyst- 
va] n -a, -^ 1. disorder, 
confusion; npHBOAHXb b ~'0 
put into disorder, throw into 
confusion; 2.: ^o HcejiyAKa 
stomach disorder, indigestion; 


396 — 

3. derangement, frustration 
(0/ plans, etc). 

paccyjTHTejibHlbiH [rassud^'i- 
t^iPniy] a sh f paccyAHTe- 
jieH, -a, -0, -bi reasonable, 
judicious, wise sober-minded. 

paccyAJOK [rAssLidal<, -g] 
m -Ka 1. reason {the power 
to think); 2. reason, common 
sense; mind, intellect. 

paccyiK;ilaTb [rassuzhdat^] 
imperf -aio, -^euib reason 
{think things out); reason 
{about), discuss; argue 

paccyiKAeHHle [rassuzhd^'e- 

n^iya] n -h, -h 


2. argument, discourse. 

paccHHTarb see paccMHibi- 
BaTb 1, 2. 

paccHHTaTbCfl see paccqHXbi- 


paccHMTbiB|aTb [rAsh^iitt- 
vot^] imperf -aro, -aeuib, pac- 
CMHT|aTb [r8sh*':itat*'] perf 
-aio, -aeiiib 1. calculate, rate; 
He paccHHTaxb cbohx chji 
overrate one's strength; 2. 
discharge, dismiss; 3. {no 
perf) mean, intend; expect 
(to do smth.); 4. {no perf) 
count {on), reckon {on). , 

pacc4HTbiB|aTbcji [rAsh^:i- 
tivattja] imperf -aiocb, -aeuib- 
CH, paccMHTldTbcji [rosh^.i- 
tattj9[ perf -aiocb, -aeiubCH 
settle accounts. 

paccbiJi|aTb [rasstlat^] im- 
perf -aio, -aeiiib, pa30CJi|aTb 
[razAslat''] perf paaoiujiib, 
pa 30111 Jieiub, p -aji, imp pa- 
aouiJiH send, dispatch {letters, 
etc, in different directions). 

pacchinaTb see paccbinaTb. 

paccbin|aTb [rasstpat*'] im- 
perf -aio, -aeujb, paccbinjaTb 
[rAsslpat^] perf -jikd, -jieiiib, 
p -aji, imp -b 1. spill {sugar, 
flour, etc); 2. pour out, pour 
{sugar, flour, etc, into sacks, 

pacTanjiHB|aTb I [rAstapPi- 
VBi^] imperf -aK), -aeuib, pac- 
TonlHTb [rastAp^if*] perf 
-JiK), pacTonHiiib, p -Hji, imp 
-H kindle, light {a stove). 

pacTan»iHB|aTb II [rAstap- 
l^ivaL**] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
pacTon|MTb [rastAp^it''] perf 
-jiK), pacTonHujb, p -Hji, imp 
-H melt, render (down). 

paciajiTb see xaHTbl, 3, 4. 

pacTBop [rAstvor] m -a, 
-OB chem solution. 

pacTBOpHTbcii I see pacTBo- 

pHTbCH I. 

paCTBOpMTbCH II igg pBC- 

pacTBOplflTbCfl I [rastvA- 
r^attja] imperf -HercH, pac- 
TBop|HTbCJi [rastvAr^ittjaJ 
perf pacTBopHTCH, p -hjich, 
-HJiacb open {of a door, etc). 

pacTBOp|flTbcsi II [rastvA- 
r^attja] imperf -HexcH, pac- 
TBOp|HTbCJi [rastvAr^'ittja] 

perf -HTCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb 

chem dissolve. 

pacTeHHJe [rAS^'t^'en^iya] n 
-fl, -H plant {a vegetable or- 

pacxepeTb see pacTHpaxb. 

pacxepJiHHbiH [rAs''t^er*'a- 
niy] a [pa] embarrassed, con- 
fused, perplexed; at a loss. 

pacTep|flTbCJi [ras^t*'i^r*'a- 
ttsaj perf -aiocb, -neuibCH 
become confused, become 

— 397 — 


embarrassed, become perplex- 
ed, lose one's head; be ta- 
ken aback. 

pac|Tii [rAs^t^i] imperf -Ty, 
-Teuib, p poc, pocjia, imp -th 

1. grow up {of children, etc); 

2. grow, increase, mount. 
pacTHpjaTb [ras^t^ir^t"'] 

imperf -aio, -aeiub, pacTepexb 
[ras^t^i^r^et''] perf paaoTpy, 
paaoTpeiub, p pacrep, pacxep- 
jia, imp pasoTpH 1. grind {to 
powder, etc); 2. massage, rub. 

paCTHTeJIbHOCT|b [rAS^'t^'l- 

t^iPnas^t^, -z^d^] / -h vege- 
tation, verdure. 

pacTHTejibHbiH [rAs^t^it^il^- 
niy] a vegetable {diet, oil, 
etc); ^ MHp the vegetable 

pacTOjiOHb see TOJioMb. 

pacTonMTb I see pacTanjiH- 
Baib I. 

pacToniiTb II see pacranjiH- 
BaTb II. 

pacToprjaxb [rastArgat^] 
imperf -aio, -aeuib, pacxopr- 
H|yxb [rAstorgnut^] perf -y, 
■euib, p pacxopr {-yji), pa- 
cxopFJia, imp -h annul, can- 
cel, abrogate, dissolve {a 
treaty, agreement^ etc). 

pacxop)KeHH|e [rastArzhe- 
n^iya] n -a. annulment, cancel- 
lation, abrogation; dissolu- 
tion (of a marriage, etc). 

pacxop6nH|biH [rsstArdp- 
nfy] a sh f pacxoponen, -a, 
-o, -bi prompt, quick, effi- 

pacxpaxja [rAstrata] / -bi, 
^ embezzlement, peculation. 

pacxporaHHbiH [rAstrdga- 
niy] a [pa\ moved, touched. 

pacxporjaxb [rAstrogat^j 
perf -aK), -aeuib move, touch, 

pacxHTMBJaxb [rAs't^ag^i- 
vat^] imperf -aio, -aeiub, pac- 
xflH|yxb [ras^'t^i^nut''] perf 
-y, pacxHHeujb, p -yji, imp -h 

1. stretch {rubber, leather, 
etc); 2. sprain, strain, pull; 
3. drag out (a report, etc); 
prolong {pleasure, etc). 

pat:x«rHBlaxbCJi [rAs^t^a- 
g^'ivattsa] imperf -aiocb, 
-aembCH, pacxJiHlyxbCfl [ras**- 
t^i'^nuttja] perf -ycb, pacxH- 
HeujbCH, p -yjiCH, -yjiacb, 
imp -HCb, -Hxecb 1. be drag- 
ged out, draw in length; 

2. stretch oneself, sprawl. 
pacxflHyxb see pacxHrHsaxb. 
pacxHHyxbCji see pacxarw- 


pacxa}KHB|axb [rAskhazht- 
vat*"] imperf -aw, -aeuib walk/ 
stroll about; strut about; 
pace {the floor). 

pacxoA [rAskhot, -d] m -a, 
pi -bi, -OB {mostly pi) ex- 
penses, expenditure; 

<> BBCCXH KOrO-Jl. B — - put 

smb to expense. 

pacxoAJMXbCJi [raskhAd^i- 
ttja] imperf pacxoHtycb, pac- 


imp -HCb, -Hxecb, paaofiixHCb 
[razAyt^is^] perf -Aycb, -Aeuib- 
CH, p paaoiuejicji, paaouiJiacb, 
imp -AHCb, -AHxecb 1. go away, 
depart {of guests, etc); dis- 
perse, break up {of a crowd, 
etc); 2. fail to meet, miss 
each other {said of two mov- 
ing people, cars, etc); 3. part 
{cease associating); drift apart 


— 398 — 

(of people); get divorced; be 
divorced; 4. diverge, branch 
off; 5. fig d'lUev {in opinion); 
y Hero cjiosa He pacxoi^HTCH 
c AeJioM his words and deeds 
are never at variance; 6. be 
sold out; be out of print; be 
spent (of money, etc); 7. fig 
fly into a rage / temper; 
let oneself go. 

pacxofljOBaxb [rAskhoda- 
vat*'] imperf -yio, -yeiiib, p 
-OBaji, imp -yft, HsipacxoAo- 
Baxb [izrAskhodavat^] perf 
spend, expend; iise (co/isume); 
perf also use up, run out of. 

pacxowAeHHie [raskhAzhd^e- 
n^iya] n -ji, -h divergence, 
difference {of opinion, etc); 

pacxoxo|TaTbcji [raskhakhA- 
tattsa] perf -^ycb, pacxo- 
xoMeuibCH, p -xajicfl, -xajiacb, 
imp -qHCb, -qHxecb burst 
into laughter, burst out laugh- 

pacusecxH see pacitBexaxb. 

pacuBex [rAstjv'^et, -d] m 
-a 1. bloom, blossoming, 
efflorescence; 2. fig heyday, 
flourishing, golden age; 6yp- 
Hbifi — rapid growth, astound: 
ing growth; b ~e chji' in the 
prime of life. 

pacuBex|,axb [rastjv^i^ta^''] 
irnperf -aip, -aeiiib, paci;Be|- 
cxii [rastjv^i^s^t^'i] perf -xy, 
-xeiiib, p pacuBeji, -Jia, imp 
-XII 1. blossom (out), bloom; 
2. fig flourish, prosper. 

pacueHHB|axb [rAstjen^i- 
vat''] imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
pacueHJHXb [rastst^n^it''] perf 
•K), pacueHHiub, p -h;i, imp 

-H 1. estimate, assess; 2. fig 
qualify, regard, consider; KaK 
Bbi -—aexe axo saivieqaHHe? 
what do you think of this 

paci^eHlKH [rAstsenk^'i] pi 
-OK {sing pacueHK|a / -h) 
rates, prices. 

pacHecaxb see pacqecbisaxb. 

pacnecbiBlaxb [rAsh*':6st- 
vat^j imperf -aio, -aeiub, 
pacHejcaxb [rash^i^sat^] perf 
-my, pacqemeuib, p -caji, imo 
-uiH 1. comb {the hair); 2. 
scratch raw {the skin). 

pacHex [rAsh^:6t, -d] m 
-a, -OB 1. calculation {also 
technol); estimate {prelimi- 
nary calculation); 2. settling- 
(of accounts) {with); no 6e3- 
najiHWHOMy -— y by written or- 
der {of buying, etc); 3.: Aaib 
~ discharge, dismiss; B3HXb 
•~ quit, leave one's job; 4..: 
Hex —a AeJiaxb axo col it's 
not worth the trouble / doing 

<> npHHHMaxb B — take into 
consideration / account; 6wxb 
B --e c KCM-Ji. be quits with 
smb; B ~e Ha hxg-ji. count- 
ing on smth. calculating on 
smth; H3 ~a at a rate {of). 

pac4exjiHB|biH [rAsh^iof*- 
l^iviy] a sh f ^, -a, -o, -bi 
econornical (perso/i); prudent, 

pacuiHpHXb see pacuiHpHXb. 

pacuiMpl«xb [rashiir^at''] 
imperf -hio, -neuib, pacuiH- 
p|HXb [rAsh:fr^it''] perf -k), 
-Huib, p -HJi, imp -b widen, 
broaden, enlarge, expand, 

— 399 — 


pacuiH^poeaTb see paciim- 


paciuH(})p6BbiB|aTb [r8sh:i- 
froviv^t^] imperf -aio, -aeuib, 
pacuiH(|)p|oBaTb [rashiJfrA- 
vat^] perf -yio, -yeuib, p 
-OBaji, imp -yfl decipher {also 


pacmenjieHHle [rash^:i^p- 
Pen^iya] n -a phys, chem 
splitting; fission; breaking 

pa(})HHaA [raPinat, -d] m 
-a lump sugar. 

pauHOHajiHsauHJsi [rgtsia- 
nal^'izatsiya] / -h rationali- 
zation; improvements {in 
production, technique, etc). 

pauHOHajibH|biH [ratjtAnal^- 
niy] a sh f pauHonajieH, -a, 
-0, -bi rational {expedient). 

pea [rva], pBoe [rvof, -v] 
see poB. 

pBaH|bijf [rvaniy] a torn 
{coat, etc); lacerated {wound). 

pBaJTb I [rvat^] imperf 
psy, pBeiiib, p -ji, -jia, pBajio, 
pBajiH, imp pBH, nopEJaxb 
IpArvat^J perf -y, -euib, p 
-aji, -ajia, imp -h 1. tear, 
rend; 2. {no perf) pick {flow- 
ers, etc); 3. fig break (off) 

<> —Tb 3y6bi extract teeth, 
pull out teeth; '--xb h mc- 
xaxb col ^ be in a rage. 

pBaxb II [rvat^] imperf 
pBex, p pBajio, BbipBJaxb 
[virvat^] perf -ex, p -ajio 
impers vomit, throw up; ero 
psex he is vomiting, he vom- 

pBa|xbCfl [rvattj9] imperf 

pByCfa, pBeuibCH, p -JICH, 

-Jiacb, -jidcb (-jiocb), -JiHCb, 

(-JIHCb), imp pBHCb, pBHXeCb 

1. tear {become torn); 2. burst 
{of shells, etc); 3. fig be dy- 
ing, strain (/o do smth); ^xb- 
cji B 6oH be spoiling for a 

pBeHHJe [rv^en^iya] n -h 
zeal, fervour, ardour, enthu- 

pBex [rv^ot, -d] see 
pBaxb II. 

pBH [rv^i] see pBaxb I. 

pBMCb [rV^is^, 'Z^j, pBH- 

xecb [rv^it^'is^, -z^] see 

pBoxja [rvota] / -bi vomit- 
ing, vomit. 

pBy [rvu], pBCuib [rv^osh, 
-zh] see pBaxb I. 

pBycb [rvus^, -z^J, pBeiub- 
csi [rv'^oshs^'a] see pBaxbCH. 

pearMpjoBaxb [r^iAg^'ira- 
vat^] imperf -yio, -yemb, 
p -oBaji, imp -yfl 1. biol, 
chem react; 2. react {to), res- 
pond {to). 

peaKXHBHbiH [r^iAkt^ivnty] 
a jet {attr) {engine, etc). 

peaKUHOHHibiM [r^'iAktjtdn- 
niy] a sh f peaKUHoneH, -a, 
-o, -bi reactionary. 

peaKUHlsi I [r^i^aktsiya] / 
-H, -H reaction {to). 

peaKHH|si II [r^i^aktsiya] / 
-H pol reaction. 

peajiHSM [r^iAl^izm] m -a 

peajibHJbiH [r^'i^al^ntyj a 
sh f peajieH, -a, -o, -bi l.real 
{facts, etc); 2. practical, real- 
istic; practicable, feasible. 

pe6eH|oK [r^i^b^'onak, -g] 
m -Ka, pi pe6axa, pe6flx, pe- 

— 400 

6HTaM child, kid; baby, in- 
fant {also fig). 

peSpjo [r^'i^bro] n -a, pi 
pe6pa, pe6ep, pe6paM anat, 
technol rib; 

<0> cxaBHTb Bonpoc ~6m put 
a question point-blank. 

pe6flTa [r^i^b^ata] see pe- 

pee [r^of, -v] m -a 1. roar 
{of animals, the sea, wind)', 
2. col howl, weeping. 

peBJexb [r^i^v^et^] imperf 
-y, -eiEb, p -eji, imp -h 1. roar 
{of animals, the sea, wind)', 
2. col howl, weep. 

peBH3H|H [r^i^v^'iz^iya] / 
-H, -H I. inspection [an offi- 
cial examination, check-up)', 2. 
revision {distorting changes). 

peBMaTH3M [r'^ivniAt^izm] 
m -a med rheumatism. 

peBHHB|biH [r^i^vn^'iviy] a 
sh f '^, -a, -o, -bi jealous 
{wife, etc). 

peBH|oBaTb [r^ivnAvat^] 
imperf -y\o, -yeiiib, p -oeaji, 
imp -yft feel jealousy {of a 
lover)', be jealous of {one's 
wife, etc). 

peBHOCTJb [r^evnas^'t^, 

-z^d^] / -H jealousy {of a lov- 
er); MyKH ---H torments of 

peBOjiiouHOHep [r^ival^u- 
tstAn'^er] m -a, -ob revolu- 

peB0jiK)U,H6iiH|biH [r^'ivaPu- 
tjionnty] a sh f peBOJiiouHo- 
HCH, -a, -o, -bi revolutionary 
{movement, etc). 

peBOjiibuH|fl [r'^ivAl^'utjiya] 
/ -H, -H revolution {1) pol; 
2) a complete change). 

perHCTpaxypla [r'lg^istrA- 
tura] / -bi, — registry {an 

perHCTpHploBaxb [r^'igist- 
r^iravat^l /mper/ -yio, -yeinb, 
p -oeaji, imp -yft, 3a!perH- 
cxpHpoBaxb [zar^ig^istr^'i- 
ravat^J perf register, rec- 

perHCxpHp|oBaxfaCji [r^ig^'i- 
str^iravattsa] itnperf -yiocb, 
-yembC5r,p -oeajiCH, -oeajiacb, 
imp -yftcH, -yiiTecb, saiperH- 
cxpHpoBaxbCfl [zar^ig^istr^i- 
ravattsa] perf 1. register 
oneself, register one's name; 
2. register one's marriage. 

perjiaMeHx [r^i^glam^'mt, 
-.d] m -a time-limit {at a 
meeting)', regulations of pro- 
cedure, standing order {at a 

peryjiMpjoBaxb [r^igul^ira- 
vat^j imperf -yK), -yeuib, p 
-oeaji, imp -yfl regulate 
{speed, prices, etc). 

peryjiflpHlbiH [r^'igul^arnty] 
a sh f peryjiHpeH, -a, -o, -u 
regular {life, army). 

peAaKXHp|oBaxb [r^idAkt^i- 
ravat^] imperf -yio, -yeiiib, 
p -oeaJi, imp -yft, oxjpeAaK- 
xHpoBaxb [Atr^idAkt^iravat''] 
perf edit. 

pcAaKxcp [r^i^daktar] m -a, 
-OB editor; oTBexcxBeHHbiH -^ 

pCAaKUHlfl [r^i^daktjtya] / 
-H, -H 1.: noA —eft... edited 
by.s.; 2. wording {new, fresh, 
etc, of a text); 3. variant, 
reading {of a hook); 4. edi- 
torial board; editorial staff; 
5. editorial office, 



pcuHcIna [r^i^d^iska] /-KH, 
-OK radish. 

peAKlHH [r^etk^iy] a sli f 
peAOK, -a, -o, -H 1. thin, 
sparse, rare; 2. rare {guest, oc- 
currence, etc). 

peflKOCT 1 b [ r^etkas^t^ , -z^d^ ] 
/ -H, -eft rarity; 
<0- Ha ~h A66pbiH [KpacM- 
Bbiii u m. n.] of rare kindness 
[beauty, etc\\ very / excep- 
tionally kind [beautiful, 

pence [r^ezhi^] comp of 
peAKHH and corresp adv. 

pejKHM [r^i^zhlm] m -a, -ob 

1. regime (also pal)', ^ hh- 
TaHHH diet; co6jiiOAaTb no- 
CTejibHbiH '— tned keep one's 
bed; 2. technol rate, condi- 
tions {of temperature, etc); 
<^ — aKOHOMHH economy, pol- 
icy of economizing. 

pewHCcep [r^izhis^or] m 
-a, -OB producer {of a play, 

pe)Ky [r'^ezhu], pcHceiub 
[r^'ezhash, -zh] see pesaxb. 

pe)Kb [r^esh, -zh] see p§- 

3a TK. 

pea] ax b [r^ezat^] imperf 
pe»cy, pesceuib, p -aji, imp 
pe>Kb, Baipeaaxb [zAr^ezat^] 
perf \. {no perf) cut {1) di- 
vide with smtfi sharp; 2) 
cause pain, as of a string); 

2. kill, slaughter (ca///e, etc); 

3. {no perf): ~axb cjiyx jar 
on the ears; ---axb rjiaaa irri- 
tate the eyes. 

pe3B|biH [r^'ezviy] a sh f 
'-', -a, -o -bi 1. frisky, 
sportive; 2. fast {horse). 

pesepB [r^'i^z^erf, -v] m -a, 

-08 reserve(s) (1) mil; 2) of 
raw materials, etc). 

pesHHla [r^ 

pe3HH|Ka [r^i^z^inka] / -kh, 
-OK 1. eraser {of rubber); 
2. elastic. - 

pesMHOBbiH [r^i^z'^inaviy] a 
rubber {ball', etc). 

pe3K|HH [r^esk^iy] a -aH, 
-oe, -He, sh f pesoK, -a, -o, -h 
sharp {wind, words, change, 
etc); harsh {contrast, voice, 
person, etc); short {temper, 
manners, etc); —hh sanax 
strong smell. 

pe30JiH)UH|ii [r^'izAputjiys] 
/ -H, -ft 1. resolution 7^/ ci 
meeting, etc); BbinecxH ~k) 
pass / adopt a resolution; 
2. decision,, conclusion, brief 
instructions {written on an 
application, report, etc); na- 
jiojKHTb — -K) write brief in- 
striictions, write one's deci- 
sion / conclusion {on an appli- 
cation, report, etc). 

pe3yjibxix [r^izul't^t, -d] 
m -a, -OB result; Ao6HXbCH 
x6p6mHX -^OB achieve good 
results; make a good showing; 
make good progress; 
<> B ~e as a result {of). 

pefic [r^eys, -z] m -a, -ob 
trip'' run; av flight. 

peK|d [r^i^ka] / -h, ace -y 
(p^Ky), pi peKH, — , -aM(pe- 
KaM) river {also fig). 

peKBM3Hp|0Baxb [r^'ikv^iz^i- 
ravat^] perf & imperf -yra, 
-yeuib, p rOBaJi, imp -yfi 
requisition {property). 

peKjiaMJa [r^'i^klama] / -bi, 
^ I. advertisement, ad; 


— 402 

theat h\\\\ 2. publicity, ad- 

peKOMeHflauH|n [r^ikam^'i^n- 
dat^tya] / -h, -h recommen- 
dation (/) advice or praise; 
2) a letter of recommendation). 

peKOMCHAloBaxb [r'^ikam^in- 
dAvat^] perf & imperf -yK), 
-yeiub, p -oBaji, imp -yft rec- 
ommend (/) speak in favour 
of; 2) advise). 

peKOHCTpyKi;H|n [r^ikAn- 
struktjiya] / -h reconstruc- 

pcKopjl [r^i^kort, -d] m -a, 
-OB record {the best perform- 
ance); nociaBHTb / yciaHOBHTb 
^ set a record. 

pejiHrHoaHJbiH [r^iPig^ioz- 
niy] a sh f pejiHrHoaen, -a, 
-o, -bi religious {1) beliefs, 
etc, 2) person, etc); -~biH o6- 
pHA religious rite/ ceremony. 

pejiHrHla [r^i^l'^ig^iya] / 
-H, -H religion {belief in and 
worship of God or gods). 

pejibc [r^el''?, -z] m -a, 
-OB rail (for trains, etc). 

peM|eHb [r^i^m'^en^] m-nn, 
-Heft strap (of leather, etc); 

peMecjieHHHK [r^i^m^es^Pi- 
n^ik, -g] m -a, -ob 1. (handi-) 
craftsman; 2. fig mediocre 
worker [artist, etc] 

I'mniy] a: ~oe yqnJiHme 
trades school. 

peMecjijo [r^im^i^slo] n -^, 
pi peMecjia peMeceji, peMec- 
jiaM trade, handicraft. 

peMOHT [r^i^mont, -d] m -a 
repair(s); b ~e under repair. 

peMOHTHp|oBaTb [r^'imAn^- 

t^iraval^] imperf -yio, -yeuib, 
p -OBaji, imp -yft, oxipeMOH- 
perf repair, refit, overhaul. 

peHTa6ejibH|biH [r^i^nta- 
b^'il^niy] a sh f peHiaSejieH, 
-a, -o, -bi non-deficient, pay- 
ing {concern, etc). 

peHTieHOBCKlHH [r^i^ntg^e- 
nafsk^iy] a -aa, -oe, -He 
X-ray {attr); —ne Jiyqii 
X-rays; ~hh chhmok radio- 

pen! a [r^epa] / -bi turnip. 

penepxyap [r^ip^irtuar] m 
-a theat repertoire, reper- 

pcnexHp!oBaxb [r^ip^i^t^i- 
ravat''] imperf -yio, -yeuib, 
p -oeaji, imp -yft theat re- 

penexHUH|ji [r^ip^'i^t^itjiya] 
/ -H, -ft theat rehearsal. 

penopxajK [r^ipArtash, -zh] 
m -a, -eft eyewitness account 
{of a match, etc); reporting 
{for the press or radio). 

penopxep [r^ipArt^or] m -a, 
-OB reporter, news-man. 

penpeccHlfl [r^i^pr^'es^iya] 
/ -H, -ft repression {.against) 
noAEepraxbCH --'HM be perse- 
cuted, be subject to repres- 

penpoflyKxop [r^iprAduktar] 
m -a, -OB loud speaker. 

penyxauHJfl [r^iputatsiya] 
/ -H reputation, repute; ;;o- 
po}KHXb CBoeft ^eft value 
one's reputation. 

pecHMuja [r^i^s^n'^itsa]- / 
-bi, '— eyelash. 

pecny6jiHK|a [r^'i^spubPi- 
kaj / -H, ^ republic. 



pecny6jiHKaHCK|HH [r^ispub- 
l^ikansk^iy] a -aH, -oe, -He 
1. republican; 2. republic's, 
all-republic (attr). 

pecTopaH [r^islAran] m -a, 
-OB restaurant. 

ped}6pM|a [r^i^forma] / -bi, 
'-' reform; jieueyKHan —a 
monetary / currency reform. 

peueHSHJn [r^i^tsen^z^iya] 
/ -H, -H review, criticism; 
theat notice {in the precis). 

peuenr [r^i'^tsept, -bd] m-a, 
-OB recipe; med prescription. 

pcHHOH [r^i^ch^noy] a river 
(attr); riverain; riverine; ~ 
TpsMBaH river bus. 

peH|b fr^ech^, -j^] / -h, 
-eft speech; npHBeTCTBeHHan 
'--b salutatory address, speech 
of welcome; o qeivi ~b? what 
are you talking about?; o6 
9T0M H --H He 6hiJio there 
was no question of this; o6 

3T0M He MOJKCT 6bITb H ~H 

this is out of the question. 

peui|aTb [r^i^shat^] imperf 
-aio, -aeiub, pem'|HTb . [r^'i'^- 
shft^] perf -y, -Huib, p -hji, 
imp -H 1. decide, resolve; 
make up one's mind; 2. solve 
(a problem, etc); settle {a 
question, etc). 

peui|aTbC5i [r^i*^shatts9] 
imperf -aiocb, -aeuibCH, pe- 
ui|HTbC5i [r^i^shfttsa] perf 

-yCb, -HIlJbCH, p -HJICH, -HJiaCb, 

imp -iicb, -HTecb make up 
one's mind, determine; ven- 
ture, dare. 

peuiaiomlHH [r^i^shayu- 
sh^-.iy] a \pa] -an, -ee, -He 
decisive {battle, step, etc); 
deciding {vote, etc)^ 

peujeHH|e [r^i^shen^iya] n 
-H, -H 1. decision {of a commit- 
tee, etc); resolution {of a meet- 
ing); judgement {of a court); 
verdict {of a jury); npHHHTb 
~e 1) make up one's mind, 
come to a decision; make a 
decision; 2) pass a resolution; 
BhinecTH --el) deliver judge- 
ment; return a verdict; 2) 
pass a resolution; 2. solution 
{of a problem, etc); settle- 
ment {of a question, etc); 
3. conclusion {a judgement). 

peuieT|Ka [r*'i^sh6tk9] / 
-KH, -OK grating, grate; fend- 
er; fire-guard; 

<> sa — 'KCH col in jail; no- 
caAHTbsa ^Ky col jail, put 
into prison. 

peuiHTejibHOcxlb [r^'i^sht- 
t^iPnas^t^, -z^d^] / -h reso- 
luteness, resolution. 

peiiiHTejibH|biil [r^i^^shi- 
t^iPnty] a sh f peiiiHTejieH, 
-a, -0, -bi 1. decisive {major 
deciding); 2. determined, de-